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Articles Related to ETT

Examine Vaping Behavior, Perception and Experience of E-cigarette Smokers in Bangladesh: A Cross Sectional Study During Covid 19

In the past few years, E-cigarettes (or vaping) are getting the popularity among the youth in Bangladesh. This is critical as it may lead to an increase in the number of smokers in future. The study aimed to identify the trend of E-cigarette smoking, habitual pattern of E-cigarette smokers, and their perception and experiences of health hazards. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted from April to November 2020 in Dhaka and Chittagong cities. A total of 370 E-cigarette smoker aged 18 and above years, were surveyed face-to-face using a semi-structured questionnaire
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Percutaneous Pigtail Catheters for Management of Neonatal Pneumothorax: A Better Alternative to Chest Tube Thoracostomy

Background: Pneumothorax is potentially a life-threatening condition in neonates with little compensatory pulmonary reserve. Hemodynamically significant pneumothorax requires drainage with large-bore chest tubes, and more recently with small-calibre percutaneous pigtail catheters. This study aims to explicate the effectiveness and safety of both the drainage systems exploring ease of insertion, rates of air-leak resolution, recurrence rates as well as potential procedural complications. Methods: This was a retrospective observational audit reviewing medical records of newborns with symptomatic pneumothorax admitted to tertiary neonatal intensive care unit over 4-year duration, and treated with either chest tube or pigtail catheters as the initial treatment approach. Demographic data, details related to pneumothorax, drain related parameters as well as outcome and efficacy parameters were compared among these two methods of intervention. Results: Out of 51 drainage procedures, 27 infants underwent pigtail insertion compared to 24 infants requiring chest tube thoracostomy. Baseline demographic data, time for radiological clearance and resolution of air leak, duration of drain in-situ, recurrence and complication rate, as well as hospitalisation duration were comparable among the two groups. Group of infants who underwent pigtail insertion required significantly less sedation (51.9% vs 83.3%; p=0.021) and invasive ventilation (63% vs 95.8%; p=0.011) than chest tube insertion. Significantly smaller calibre (8.22±1.6Fr vs 9.08±1.44Fr; p<0.05) catheter was required for pneumothorax drainage with pigtail catheter whose insertion was reported to be more operator friendly
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Confirmation Bias and Restorative Justice in The Setting of a Missed Diagnosis

One factor underlying medical errors in “confirmation bias,” the tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one’s existing beliefs or theories. When a medical error occurs, the physician has a moral duty to examine the factors which lead to its occurrence, to discuss these factors with the patient who suffered the error, and to perform their due diligence to prevent the error from occurring again. Restorative Justice is a form of collaborative decisionmaking including all parties involved in a precipitating event, including the perpetrators, victims, and stakeholders. We report on a case in which confirmation bias played a major role in misdiagnosis followed by the application of Restorative Justice principles to address the consequent mistrust between the physician and patient.
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Assessment of Particulate Matter, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Suspended Solids in Some Settlements around Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State Nigeria

There is a proliferation of particulate matter in the atmosphere within and around the cities because of increased industrial activities. It is thus hypothesized that increase in human activities lead to increase in pollutants concentration inside (n=80 houses sampled) and outside residential areas. Thus, to investigate the air quality at different residential areas within indoor and outdoor environment air samples were collected using Particle Counter (Model: HHPC MET), and Gas Monitor (Aeroqual series 500) to determine particulate matters (i.e., PM10, and PM2,5), volatile organic carbon (VOC) and total solid particle (TSP).
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Impact of Electronic Cigarettes on the Liver

E-cigarettes (ECs) can affect several organs in the body. On the liver, it causes toxic and immunological effects associated with many inflammatory processes and oxidative stress. E-cigarettes may cause hepatic fibrosis, steatosis, cell dysfunction, injury with the elevation of liver enzymes, and cancer. On the other hand, it also causes hepatic DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. Nicotine affects both cellular and humoral immune responses.
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Narrative Review of Challenges and Considerations in Resuming Elective Gynaecology Surgery in Climate of Continuing Community Transmission of Covid-19 in a Low Resource Setting

The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020 and since then COVID-19 infection has been reported in all parts of the world. Several Healthcare systems reduced or canceled none emergency or urgent surgeries to effectively manage the pandemic. Recently, the reported incidence of new cases of COVID-19 has reduced in some regions and some Healthcare systems are resuming elective gynecologic surgery. This narrative review explores the challenges of planning and resuming elective gynecologic surgery in a climate of continuing community transmission.
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Crossed Cerebellar Diaschisis in the Setting of Seizure Edema

Diaschisis refers to depression of neuronal activity in an area that is remote from a focal disturbance in the brain but is connected to it by white matter tracts. When the cerebellum is affected, it is referred to as crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) and involves the corticopontine tracts.
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Setting Threshold Value for Peripheral Blood Morphology Slide Review of Leucocytes and Lymphocytes at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Evaluation of peripheral blood morphology is an important screening tool for many diseases.
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Drinking Patterns and Fluid Intake in the Settings Workplace and University: A Systematic Review

The effect of an adequate fluid consumption is well-known and its relevance for the maintenance and promotion of health cannot be denied. Previous work indicates that daily demands and work exposures, i.e. related to stress, may have an impact on drinking patterns. To date, only few studies have investigated workers’ and students’ fluid consumption and drinking patterns, as well as their impact on different outcomes. However, a review that combines previous findings and current knowledge about workers’ and students’ likely fluid consumption has not been published yet. Therefore, we conducted a systematic literature review on drinking patterns in the settings workplace and university.
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Adolescent Smoking: The Relationship between Cigarette Consumption and BMI

Studies relating cigarette smoking and body weight yield conflicting results. Weight-lowering effects in women and men have been associated with smoking; however, no effects on weight have been proven. This study examined the association between cigarette smoking and relative weight in adolescent males and females as they age into young adults.
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Adhesion of Aqueous Solution of TX-100 and TX-165 Mixture with Propanol to Quartz

The contact angle of aqueous solutions of TX-100 and TX-165 mixture with propanol on quartz was measured. Wetting of the quartz based on the surfactant mixtures and propanol adsorption at the solution-air, quartz-air and quartz-solution interfaces was analyzed from the obtained results.
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“Only Cigarette Butt is Left, DNA Fingerprinting Traps the Theft”

The examination of saliva traces left on cigarette butts as evidences are complicated due to the availability of biological material in trace amounts and its rapid degradation due to extreme effects of environmental factors. This study is aimed to assess the DNA purity and quantify the amount of DNA preserved in saliva found on cigarette butts subjected to various temperatures and humidity. Isolation of cell material from biological traces on forensic evidence is often a serious challenge to solving forensic cases.
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Formation of Gold Nanoprisms on Atomically Flat Mica Surface

A numerous methods are being used for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (NPs) in liquid media, in micelles and at different interfaces. The size and geometry of NPs depend on parameters of synthesis. Here we propose the growth of Au NPs on atomically flat mica surfaces. In such conditions the monocrystalline and isotropic NPs are being simultaneously formed on the surface.
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Genomic Survey of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the largest and most ancient family of transmembrane proteins with representatives in all phyla from prokaryotes to humans. Systematic searches were performed using PSI-Blast program on NCBI to identify sorghum ABC transporters. The identified proteins were subjected to phylogenetic and domain topology analyses and were classified and named according to the Human Genome Organisation (HUGO) system of classification and unified plant nomenclatural system. As part of the survey, the subcellular location, the presence of signal peptide and physicochemical parameters were determined.
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Effect of Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System on Sexual and Urinary Functions

The effects of the levonorgestrel-intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) on urinary and sexual functions of women with idiopathic menorrhagia were evaluated using two internationally validated questionnaire forms. This prospective study included (30-49) year-old women with idiopathic menorrhagia (n=91), who visited the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic of the hospital. The index of female sexual function (IFSF) questionnaire and the international consultation on incontinence modular questionnaire short form (ICIQ-UI) were used to evaluate sexual and urinary system functions, respectively, pre-, and 6 and 12 months post-LNG-IUS insertion. The IFSF scores were (mean ± SD) 27.1 ± 6.9, 30.0 ± 7.2, and 32.7 ± 7.5 at pre-, and 6 and 12 months post-LNG-IUS insertion, respectively (p<0.001). Compared with pre-LNG-IUS use among 91 patients, the IFSF score (symptoms improved) was increased in 47 and 60 patients and decreased (worsening symptoms) in 10 and 8 patients at 6 and 12 months post-LNG-IUS use, respectively. The ICIQ-UI scores were 4.9 ± 4.4, 3.7 ± 4.0, 2.8 ± 3.0 in pre-, 6, and 12 months post-LNG-IUS insertion, respectively (p<0.001). Compared with pre-LNG-IUS use, the ICIQ-UI score decreased (symptoms improved) in 33 women either in 6 or 12 months post-LNG-IUS use and increased (symptoms worsened) in 11 and 4 patients at 6 and 12 months post-LNG-IUS insertion, respectively.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Editorial Board Members Related to ETT

SALEH A. NASER

Professor of Medicine and Graduate Coordinator
Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences
University of Central Florida
United States

Suresh Valiyaveettil

Associate Professor
Department of Chemistry
National University of Singapore
Singapore

Jimmy SO

Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine
National University Health System
Singapore

Asma Amleh

Assistant Professor
Department of Biology
American University in Cairo
Egypt

Diego Andrés Chiappetta

Associate Professor
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology
University of Buenos Aires
Argentina

Olcay Kaplan

Faculty of Engineering
Department of Food Engineering
Munzur University

Kelly A Brayton

Associate Professor
Department of Veterinary Microbiology & Pathology
Washington State University
United States

Charles J. Malemud

Professor
Department of Medicine and Anatomy
Case Western Reserve University
United States

Alfio Ferlito

Professor
Department of Surgical Sciences
University of Udine
Italy.

Viorica Lopez-Avila

Research Scientist
Agilent Technologies
United States
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