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Articles Related to Evolution

Evolutionary Analysis of the TLR Genes in Ten Fishes

Fish are a commonly available type of vertebrate that rely on both congenital and acquired immunity to protect against pathogens. Congenital immunity acts as their first line of defense, while acquired immunity is crucial in defending against specific pathogenic infections. Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes play a significant role in their innate immunity and are essential to their immune system. To better understand the evolutionary status of TLRs in fish and their adaptive immune defense characteristics, researchers analyzed ten fish species' TLR7 and TLR13 gene sequences using the NCBI and Ensembl databases
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The New Coronavirus (COVID-19) Declared as a Global Pandemic

The lately declared-coronavirus (COVID-19) is being the main threat worldwide due to its high incidence, morbidity and global economic impacts. It is easy to spread from person to person, through infected surfaces, and the absence of vaccine make the situation more difficult to handle. This review aims to alert the pandemic evolution taken by the actual outbreak of the COVID-19, and therefore calls the highest institutions of the global health namely the World Health Organization (WHO) to reinforce the measures taken in the fight against this new virus by working tightly with each affected region and the emergency in elaborating a new vaccine.
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The Development of Traditional Morality and the Correlative Evolution of Thanatological Apprehension

In his Phenomenology of Spirit, Georg Hegel suggests that to be moral is to act in accordance with the moral tradition of one’s own country. 1 Hence, for Hegel, individuals act morally to the extent that they bear witness to the traditional moral climate in which they are situated. Thus understood, acting morally is a social phenomenon, comprised of attitudinal ebbs and flows that are nuanced by the changing moral traditions with which they inextricably interrelate. This much has proven particularly true with regard to the evolution of western attitudes toward death and [1,2] dying. 2 Indeed, significant traditional changes from the Middle Ages to the present day have transformed the hidden perceptions of death and dying (“thanatological apprehension”) of history into the increasingly rapid and perceptible expressions of [3] today.3
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Three Stages of Evolution in the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Stroke Unit Care, Intravenous Thrombolysis and Endovascular Therapy

Ischemic stroke is the most frequent cause of disability in adults in the world and its treatment remains a challenge. The care management of stroke patients in organized stroke units has improved and various revascularization approaches have emerged during the past decades. Stroke patients cared in organized stroke units are more likely to survive, to return home and to be functional independency. It is recommended that all patients with stroke, regardless of age, should be cared in a stroke unit. Intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator delivered within 4.5 hours after symptom onset is the only approved and effective medical therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
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Predictors of Delayed Diagnosis and Evolution in Sub-Saharan Immigrants with HIV Infection in a Hospital in Madrid (2004–2013)

The aim of this study was to analyze the delayed diagnosis and evolution of HIV infection in predominantly sub-Saharan immigrants compared to other patients in a hospital in Madrid between 2004 and 2013. We retrospectively analyzed new HIV diagnoses. Late presentation or advanced disease were considered the presence of CD4 lymphocyte counts less than 350 or 200 cells/µl at diagnosis, respectively, or an AIDS-defining disease regardless of the CD4 count. Patients were compared according to their origin and sex.
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Evolution of Bombings against Transportation Infrastructure

Terrorists and insurgents have proven their ability to develop effective improvised explosive devices, with each configuration providing insight into the type of target and type of attack. Across rail systems, bus networks, and aviation infrastructure, transportation targets throughout Africa are plentiful and have come under attack. The targeting of transportation infrastructure can only be seen as a direct attack against civilians. Even though the conveyance may be funded or operated by the government, the civilians who fill the conveyance or conveyance’s ‘fixed’ sites are affected the most.
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Nanotechnology Commercialization: Prospects in India

Nanotechnology manipulates and creates matter to formulate nanometer scale materials and objects. It is an interdisciplinary field that involves a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines, and has societal implications.
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Functional Protein Domains Evolve Very Specifically Over Mutations

Mutation in a single nucleotide of a gene has the potential to change the structure and/or function of its protein. Albeit simply saying, it is not observed to be a general phenomenon. The effect of mutation is primarily determined by the stereochemical nature of the amino acid which has replaced the previous amino acid, resulting in the residue location being affected. Here we show that despite a change in the frequency of occurrence of a particular amino acid in a particular protein in different types of organisms, the overall function of the protein can still remain unaffected, even when the resultant protein conformation is relatively altered.
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Salmonella Serovars and Their Host Specificity

Salmonella is a causative agent for a wide variety of pathological diseases in humans, cattle, poultry and other farm animals and hence Salmonella infections are a major cause of concern to humans, veterinary animals and to food industry.
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Editorial Board Members Related to Evolution

Nagesh Shukla

Infrastructure simulation and modelling team at SMART
University of Wollongong

Shuvra Kanti Dey

Assistant Professor
Department of Microbiology
Jahangirnagar University

Nandadulal Bairagi

Associate Professor
Centre for Mathematical Biology and Ecology
Jadavpur University

Binquan Huang

Research Innovation Fellow of BBSRC

Ruijian Zhang

Associate Professor
Department of Computer Science
Purdue University Calumet
United States

Danail Bonchev

Center for the Study of Biological Complexity
Virginia Commonwealth University
United States

Zhenglong Gu

Associate Professor
Division of Nutritional Sciences
Cornell University
United States

Massimo Ciccozzi

Department of biostatistics and viruses evolution
National Institute of Health

Nikolai N. Modyanov

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
The University of Toledo College of Medicine
United States


Department of Surgery
Research Institute Against Digestive Cancer
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