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Bioequivalence Studies of Two Formulations of Rivaroxaban 10 Mg Coated Tablets under Fasting Conditions and 20 Mg Coated Tablets Under Fed and Fast Conditions And its Pharmacokinetic Comparison In Healthy Subjects

Justificative: This trial was conducted in order to register a new generic product of Rivaroxaban. Objective: To evaluate the bioequivalence of rivaroxaban formulations manufactured by Eurofarma Laboratórios S/A and the reference drug, Xarelto (Bayer) under fasting and fed conditions. Methods: Three randomized, open label, balanced, 2 treatments, 4 periods, 2 sequences, single dose, full replicate, crossover studies in 48 healthy adult human subjects under fed and fasting conditions for rivaroxaban 10 mg and 20 mg. Rivaroxaban concentrations in plasma were determined using a validated HPLC-MS/MS method.
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Case Report: Pyoderma Gangrenosum in IBD Treated with Tofacitinib

Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare ulcerating skin disease often presenting as an extra intestinal manifestation of IBD and is difficult to manage. Treatment options for pyoderma gangrenosum include steroids, calcineurin inhibitors and anti TNF agents. Here in, we report a case of recurrent Pyoderma gangrenosum with Ulcerative Colitis that was successfully managed with Tofacintib, a JAK inhibitor
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Dento-Supported Impressions in Fixed Prosthesis: Study by Cap Survey of Burkinabe Dental Surgeons

The impression is a key stage in the success of the prosthetic process. Taking an impression remains the most difficult and delicate phase in the prosthetic chain. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude and knowledge of dental surgeons regarding impression taking in dental practices in Burkina Faso.
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Studying the Infrared Spectroscopy and Structural Properties of Compounds Fluoride that Blotched by in

In doped calcium fluoride transparent conducting powder were prepared by solid-state reaction method. Structural properties of the samples were investigated as a function of various In-doping levels (x=0.00-0.01-0.02-0.03). The results of x-ray diffraction have shown that the samples are polycrystalline structure in cubic phase and show presence (111), (220), (311), (400) planes in pure CaF2 sample and the preferred orientation is (220) for pure CaF2 and we have peaks correspond (101), (112), (200), (202) for In for all samples and the preferred orientation is (112) for In for all samples. The average of crystallite size is within the range [2.976-0.845nm] for all samples. The relative intensities, distance between crystalline planes (d), crystallite size (D) and lattice parameters (a) were determined. Measuring the infrared spectrum of pure Calcium fluoride, it is found that there are six vibratory frequencies, namely: (3444.52 - 1517.59 - 1138.40 - 876.40 - 639.93 - 436.29) cm- 1 and six vibratory frequencies for indium doped calcium fluoride at 3wt%. (3441.94 - 1516.77 - 1138.44 - 876.55 - 642.09 -436.44) cm- 1 The study showed that the absorbance values, the absorption coefficient, the refractive index and the optical length were in the indium doped sample by 3wt% greater than that of the pure Calcium fluoride compound and are respectively: α=14.163 cm-1 n=1.767.
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Bioequivalence Study of Two 80 Mg Valsartan Tablets Formulations in Healthy Chinese Subjects Under Fasting and Fed Condition

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the bioavalability between the two 80 mg Valsartan Tablets formulations and to evaluate the bioequivalence of Reference and Test formulations of Valsartan Tablets 80 mg in Healthy adult chinese Male and Female subjects under Fasting and Fed condition.
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Relation between Osteocalcin and Metabolic Profils in Overweight Men: Comparison of Aerobic and Resistance Trainings

Objectives: Recent studies have shown that exercise by affecting bones causes the release of hormones that are effective in regulating blood glucose, lipid profile and preventing vascular calcification. The present study aims to Comparison effect of aerobic and resistance exercises on Osteocalcin and Metabolic Profils in Overweight men. Methods: total of 33 overweight healthy men (BMI 29 = 67.96 ± 0.96 and age 33.2 ± 2.23) were randomly assigned into three groups: control (n = 11), aerobic (n = 11) and resistance exercise (n = 11) groups. The training program was conducted for 8 weeks, 3 sessions per week for the training groups. Body compositions parameters (weight, body fat percent, BMI) were analyzed, osteocalcin and blood biochemical parameters were assessed from fasting blood samples before and after 8-week exercise programme. Results: Body fat, BMI and body weight reduction following exercise (P<0/05), significantly increased serum Osteocalcin (P<0/05, baseline vs Post exercise) and blood biochemical parameters significantly changes (P < 0/05). Increase in osteocalcin had a negative correlation with changes in body composition, as well as HOMA-IR and HDL, LDL not significantly (all P > 0/05). Conclusion: Aerobic and Resistance exercise cause to changes in body weight, body fat, BMI, as well as the increase level of osteocalcin and improvement of glucose metabolism and lipid profiles. However, the difference between the two training groups was not statistically significant.
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Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Procedure for the Determination of Isavuconazole in Human Plasma

Introduction: Isavuconazole is an antifungal drug used for treating patients with invasive fungal infections. Efficacy and safety of isavuconazole is monitored by measuring plasma isavuconazole concentration using LCMS which is a non-affordable method. We used the HPLC system with a UV detector to measure plasma Isavuconazole concentration. Objective: Improved Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography procedure with UV detection is described which is cost effective, simple, precise and easily processed for the measurement of Isavuconazole, a drug used to treat the patients with invasive fungal infections, in blood plasma. Method: The method involves protein precipitation, addition of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and chromatographic separation on a Hypurity C18 Column using an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer (pH 8.0, 10 mM) (55:45, v/v). The UV detection was performed at 285 nm. The method provides rapid resolution of Isavuconazole in a 50 uL injection. Result: Lower limit of Quantification (LLOQ) is 0.25 μg/ml in a 50 uL injection volume for Isavuconazole with a recovery consistently > 100 %. The assay is validated over linear range of 0.25 to 10 μg/ml. The intra-assay precision is < 3.53 % and inter-assay is <6.38% relative standard deviation of Isavuconazole. The method demonstrated clean separation, clinically acceptable detection limit and a linear range upto 25 ug/mL. Conclusion: The assay demonstrated applicability in quantifying the drug level and monitoring the therapeutic dose for maintaining effective biological level to have better response in fungal infected patients. The method is cheaper as compared to LC-MS/MS and Tandem Mass spectrometry and the results are reportable on the same day of blood collection.
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Evaluation of the Parodontal Health of Schoolchildren from Widou in Ferlo (Senegal)

Introduction: Mechanical disorganization of the bacterial biofilm is the cornerstone of the prevention of gingivitis and periodontitis periodontal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the periodontal health of schoolchildren in Widou, Ferlo. Methodology: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study of schoolchildren living in Widou in the centre of Ferlo. The survey was exhaustive and concerned the only school in the locality. The epidemiological data collected concerned oral hygiene practice, periodontal health and socio-demographic characteristics such as sex, age and educational level. The degree of hygiene was assessed by the Silness and Loe plaque index (Plaque Index); inflammation and bleeding on probing were assessed by the Loe and Silness gingival index (Gingival Index). Results: In a total of 126 schoolchildren, boys and girls were equally represented and the average age was 10 years +/- 2.16.Sixty-nine percent (69%) of the children examined did not use a toothbrush. Of these, more than 47% reported brushing 3 times a day. The plaque index mean value was 1.23 and 99.2% of the population had a moderate plaque control. The average gingival index was 0.96 and 80.2% of the sample had moderate gingival inflammation. Conclusion: The study showed a relatively low rate of toothbrush use in contrast to the tooth stick and a relatively high rate of periodontal index. Communication-based approaches to behaviour change in children are needed to improve periodontal health.
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Forensic Examination of Heroin and Its Cutting Agents

In order to successfully counter the ever-growing drug problem, there is an increasing need, to identify conspiracy links and trafficking routes and to gather background intelligence concerning both the number of sources of drugs and whether those sources are within a country or are “internationally” based and also the points of distribution and distribution networks. A scientific tool to complement routine law enforcement investigative work in this field is the characterization and impurity profiling and cutting agents of seized drugs. Drug characterization studies have shown that it is possible to link samples, to classify material from different seizures into groups of related samples and to identify the origin of samples. Such information can be used for evidential (judicial, court) purposes or it can be used as a source of intelligence to identify samples that may have a common origin or history.
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Clinical Impact of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy to Chronic Calculous Cholecy-stitis: A Retrospective Study

The Aims: The retro-prospective clinical study was to compare these two methods of laparoscopic and classical cholecystectomy. To prove the postoperative benefits of laparoscopic treatment are, less pain, aesthetic aspect without surgical scarring and shorter hospital stay, faster return to social activities as well as more cost effective. Material and Methods: The operated patients, from January 2017 to December 2019 in the abdominal surgery ward in Gjilan. Important data for the study are taken from the operative list, history of the disease, adequate list compiled specifically for this study. The study included 389 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis. Results: According to the results obtained for calculous diseases of the biliary system are predisposed persons with blood group O, Rh-positive, with 44.2%, followed by group A + with 29.5%, group B + with 14.7%. Other blood groups and Rh factors are below 6.5%. Statistical point of view is significant (p <0.05). The study analyzed, C-reactive protein (CRP) values in both research group (RG) and control groups (CG); CRP by gender; and by age group. RG recorded 76.9% of females with increased CRP values> 6, while 23.1% of males. The percentage difference in statistical terms is significant p <0.05. Conclusion: The results obtained have shown that there are no significant differences in the presentation of intra-operative complications in terms of gender and age, to both methods. Optimization measures for postoperative management of patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Continuing education in laparoscopic surgery is important for successful management.
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A Rare Case of Albrights Hereditary Osteodystrophy presenting as Recurrent Hypocalcemic Tetany

An internist with an eagle’s eye can diagnose many hidden diseases through careful examination. One such hereditary metabolic disorder is Albright’s Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO). Characteristic presentations in an individual affected by AHO were short stature, obesity, mild mental retardation and brachydactyly especially of 4th and 5th digits, which are the phenotypic features of genetic mutation. Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is characterized by inability of the body to respond appropriately to parathormone, mainly characterized by hypocalcaemia, increased serum parathormone concentration, insensitivity to the biological activity of parathormone and hyperphosphatemia. AHO when seen in association with resistance to parathormone (PTH), it is called PHP. Here is a case report of 22-year-old female patient with AHO with distinctive physical characteristics who presented to us with recurrent hypocalcaemic tetan
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Candida, a Rare Cause of Duodenal Perforation

Candida infections of the gastrointestinal tract are rare and perforation caused by Candida infections is extremely rare. Herein, we present a case of duodenal perforation where laboratory culture revealed the growth of a fungus, Candida and the absence of H. pylori from a 51-year-old female who presented with an upper abdominal pain while performing her religious obligation in the month of Ramadan. The results suggest emergency exploratory laparotomy and the perforation discovered was repaired through omental patching. An antifungal agent, Fluconazole, was administered.
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Benefits and Health Risks Associated with Energy Booster Drinks: A Review Study

There are several energy drinks available in the market such as Red Bull, Sting, Rebound, Power Up! Triple X Energy Drink, and so on. After the Red Bull drink was introduced in the market in1990s, Energy drinks started to gain popularity and afterwards it became a common name especially among teenagers and young adults [1]. Most energy drinks are caffeinated nonindulgent beverages that are professed to give an additional increase in energy for day-by-day work, increase alertness, and improve athletic performance and mood. There are even certain shreds of evidence present to substantiate these claims, but the effects of these drinks on mental and physical health cannot be neglected. There are reports of adverse events such as insomnia, anxiety, cardiovascular events, seizures, tachycardia, type-2 diabetes, and even death are associated with the consumption of these drinks [2]. This review will focus on energy drinks, their ingredients, health risks associated with these drinks, and will also suggest some recommendations such as changes in marketing, providing education to children regarding adverse effects of these drinks, and further research should be carried out in this domain.
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A Tunisian Patient with CLCN2-Related Leukoencephalopathy

CLCN2 related leukoencephalopathy (CC2L OMIM#: 615651) is a recently identified rare disorder, caused by autosomal recessive mutations in CLCN2 gene, leading to the dysfunction of its encoded CLC-2 chloride channel protein with characteristic brain MRI features of leukoencephalopathy
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Stability Indicating Method Development and Validation for the Determination of Armodafinil in Pharmaceutical Tablet Dosage Form by RP-HPLC

The present research deals with the development of a stability indicating reverse phase HPLC with PDA detector method for the determination of Armodafinil Agilent XDB-C18, 150×4.6mm, 5µm or Equivalent column. The present research deals with the development of a stability indicating reverse phase HPLC with PDA detector method for the determination of Armodafinil Agilent XDB-C18,
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Editorial Board Members Related to LC

Laurel M Wentz

Assistant Professor
Department of Nutrition Science
East Carolina University
United States

Syed W. Shah

Associate Professor
School of Health Sciences
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Malaysia

FRANCISCO FERNANDEZ CAMPOS

Professor Adjuant
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology
University of Barcelona
Spain

Shibani Datta

Professor
Department of Public Health
All India Institute Of Hygiene And Public Health
West Bengal

KONSTANTINOS PAPAMICHAEL

Gastroenterologist
Medical School
University of Athens
Greece

Alcides Troncoso

Professor
Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
University of Buenos Aires
Argentina

JENN-FENG SHEEN

Assistant Professor
Department of Biotechnology
National Formosa University
Taiwan

ZONG JIE CUI

Professor
Institute of Cell Biology
Beijing Normal University
China

Raghu Vannam

Scientist
Olon Ricerca Bioscience LLC
United States

Burton M. Altura

Professor
Department of Medicine
Suny downstate medical center
United States
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