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Factors Affecting Time to Return to a Normal Level of Hba1c Among Diabetes Mellitus Patients at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Hawassa, Ethiopia

Background: This study aims to fill the information gap on factors affecting time to return to normal HbA1c level and expected survival times in Ethiopia, as studies on these aspects are scarce, particularly in diabetic patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on the patients with Diabetes Mellitus who follow-up the diabetic clinic at HUCSH, Ethiopia, between May to July 2021. The 382 diabetic patients were recruited into the study using simple random sam pling techniques from the recorded frame of the hospital and were interviewed using structured interview schedule. The Cox re gression analysis is applied on time to time to return normal HbA1c level. Data were entered, using EPI – info and analyzed by us ing STATA 16 computer software. Result: Diabetic patient expected survival times to return normal HbA1c had an average of 52.678 weeks with a standard error of 0.144. HbA1c level return to normal on patients of age below 18 year-old is reduced by 91.7% as compared to those who are older than 54 years. Similarly, the recovery time of patients in the age groups 18-36 year and 36-54 year is reduced by 44.1% and 55.6%, respectively compared to patients of age above 54 year-old. Moreover, when compared to patients with no medication side effects and patients with nausea/vomiting, headache, fatigue, and stomach upset have 43.8%, 57.3%, 44.1%, and 64.3% longer time to re turn to normal HbA1c level. Additionally, patient with low adherence level of patients were increased by 47.8 % time to return to normal HbA1c level compared to high adherence.
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Related Factors of Mother-To-Child HIV Transmission: A Prospective Study in an Giang Province

Introduction: Vietnam has not yet conducted any studies reporting the rate of mother-to-child HIV transmission at 6 – 8 weeks. This study aims to determine some factors related to mother-to-child transmission of HIV in An Giang province. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on pregnant women from An Giang residing in An Giang province from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010; and all pregnant women infected with HIV from August 1, 2008, to December 31, 2010, who were managed and monitored for mother-to-child HIV transmission in An Giang province. Results: 98 pregnant women and their children infected with HIV were monitored for analysis. The average age of the mothers, the history of HIV infection in the mothers, the stage of HIV infection in the mothers, the number of childbirths, and the BMI index showed no relation to the transmission of HIV to the children. The average gestational age in the group of children infected with HIV was 37.11 weeks compared to 38.60 weeks in the group of children not infected with HIV, with the difference in gestational age between the two groups being statistically significant. No statistically significant differences were found related to the factors of episiotomy, baby weight, baby gender, and Apgar scores at 1 minute and 5 minutes between the groups of children infected with HIV and those not infected with HIV. There were 21 recorded cases of cesarean section, but none of the children in these cases were infected with HIV, while in the group of children born via vaginal delivery, 9 out of 77 cases were infected.
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Why Hydrogen Peroxide-Producing Proteins are Not Suitable Targets for Drug Development

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in pathological processes and provide hope for the development of treatments aimed at suppressing the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ). However, attempts to inhibit superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), the main antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide anion into H2O2 and water during ROS metabolism, have not yielded significant results. To understand the reason for the failure, we studied the behavior of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cancer cells exposed to H2O2 -generating compounds. EGFR can be activated by binding of EGF ligand to the extracellular region of the receptor and by interaction of H2O2 -generating chemicals with the catalytic cysteine in the intracellular domain of the receptor. Both mechanisms independently trigger downstream signaling pathways in cells. EGFR expression can also be reduced by the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-1B, which itself is activated by H2O2 . A simple in-gel fluorescence technique demonstrates the rapid binding of H2O2 -generating molecules to hundreds of proteins in cancer cells. The natural defense system Nrf2 takes longer to break down target proteins and therefore cannot prevent H2O2 released by chemical agents from affecting unwanted proteins. It can be concluded that cytoplasmic SOD1 and other H2O2 -producing proteins that protect cells from oxidative damage are not suitable targets for the development of practical drugs for the treatment of human diseases.
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Biofilm and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Multi Drug Resistant Bacterial Uropathogens: A Challenge to Antibiotic Therapy in Nepal

Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by clinicians in developing countries. A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Antibiotic resistance is a problem of deep scientific concern both in hospital and community settings. This study was aimed to determine the biofilm producers among multidrug uropathogenic bacteria isolated from urine cultures
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The Efficiency and Safety of a Resveratrol and Alpha Lipoic Acid Combination in the Prevention of Gestational Diabetes Related Complications: A Retrospective Clinical Trial

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased maternal and fetal risk of complications. Other than lifestyle modifications and diet, little prevention can be done towards this maternal complication. Through a preclinical approach and a retrospective clinical trial, we investigated the effects of maternal supplementation with a nutraceutical composition based on resveratrol (RSV) and alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on insulin resistance and GDM status
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Theory of Mind Understanding and Socioeconomic Status

The participants underwent assessments across all Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. All individuals were native speakers, comprising 74 from Iran and 66 from Sweden, aged 6-12, and included those with autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, and typical development. We conclude that children’s behavior serves as a scale for social and thought problem assessments, evaluated based on teachers' and parents’ scores.
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Horizontal Natural Product Transfer: The Origin of the Widespread Alkaloidal Contaminations of Herbal Products

Alarmed by numerous worrying reports by the European Food Safety Authority related to widespread contaminations of plant-derived commodities by poisonous alkaloids (nicotine, pyrrolizidine alkaloids), the sources of these alkaloidal contaminations were investigated. Our studies revealed that alkaloids, which have been leached out from decomposing alkaloidal donor plants, are taken up by the roots of acceptor plants growing in their vicinity. Based on these results the so-called “Horizontal Natural Product Transfer
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Trends and Day-of-the-Week Effects Decomposition in the Mean and Dispersion in the Number of Subjects Testing Positive for COVID-19 in the UK in 2020

COVID-19 pandemic is a global threat, where the rate of infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) increases exponentially, and the spread of the virus from person to person is very fast. Fitting models for COVID-19 counts receive a great attention, and modelling the dispersion of COVID-19 counts helps measuring the spread of the disease in a population and evaluating the intervention
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Which Blood Group is More Anemic: Five Years of Retrospective Experience

The relationship between blood groups and diseases has been a subject of interest for many researchers. This study aims to investigate the susceptibility of each blood group to anemia based on the relationship between the erythrocyte indices and the biochemical parameters used to diagnose anemia.
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Smoking and Male Infertility ׃ A comprehensive Review

Infertility is a serious concern affecting millions of couples globally. Natural conception is seen to be achieved in 80-85% couples leading 15 % couples suffer worldwide. Male factor is an important underlying cause associated with infertility. The debate that the ingredients’ of cigarette smoke negatively influence the masculinity attracts the scientific wit to look into the problem.
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Perspectives of Artificial Intelligence in Veterinary Medicine of Small Species

Alan Turing and John McCarthy (1950-1955) coined the concept of artificial intelligence (AI) 70 years ago. Today AI is a reality for some areas of medicine, both human and veterinary, and other technological areas. Materializing into a transformative force within the new human, animal and ecological reality of preservation and sustainable development.
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A Retrospective Study in DUE and ATC/DDD Evaluation of Antibiotics in Specific Departments of a Tertiary Care Hospital

Large numbers of nations are associated with utilization of anti-toxins regardless of remedy (OTC medications). This DDD/ ATC value contributes to improved antibiotic use quality. The principal objective is to direct improvement of sane medication use of strategies and to give a standard technique for information for future evaluation.
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Activated Charcoal and Derivate Materials in Drugs and Biopharmaceutical Purification: Impurity Aspects

In literature are reported various use of activated charcoal AC and derivates in biopharmaceutical purifications.Aim of this work is to verify impurity proficle when using this technology.Various commercial products are reported here but it is not the scope of this work put in relation with any toxicological reaction: only to describe the technique used in this field.Because various drugs and bioproduct need purification steps it is if of interest to see some material science peculiarity
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Studying the Infrared Spectroscopy and Structural Properties of Compounds Fluoride that Blotched by in

In doped calcium fluoride transparent conducting powder were prepared by solid-state reaction method. Structural properties of the samples were investigated as a function of various In-doping levels (x=0.00-0.01-0.02-0.03). The results of x-ray diffraction have shown that the samples are polycrystalline structure in cubic phase and show presence (111), (220), (311), (400) planes in pure CaF2 sample and the preferred orientation is (220) for pure CaF2 and we have peaks correspond (101), (112), (200), (202) for In for all samples and the preferred orientation is (112) for In for all samples. The average of crystallite size is within the range [2.976-0.845nm] for all samples. The relative intensities, distance between crystalline planes (d), crystallite size (D) and lattice parameters (a) were determined. Measuring the infrared spectrum of pure Calcium fluoride, it is found that there are six vibratory frequencies, namely: (3444.52 - 1517.59 - 1138.40 - 876.40 - 639.93 - 436.29) cm- 1 and six vibratory frequencies for indium doped calcium fluoride at 3wt%. (3441.94 - 1516.77 - 1138.44 - 876.55 - 642.09 -436.44) cm- 1 The study showed that the absorbance values, the absorption coefficient, the refractive index and the optical length were in the indium doped sample by 3wt% greater than that of the pure Calcium fluoride compound and are respectively: α=14.163 cm-1 n=1.767.
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Genetic Relatedness and Characterization of O25b-B2-ST131, in Stool Isolates of Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Escherichia Coli Strains in Healthy Children under 10 Years of Age

Background and Purpose: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the multidrug-resistant pathogens, producing extendedspectrum beta-lactamase enzymes. Molecular typing of this pathogen can be useful for determining the source of dissemination and transfer of resistance and virulence genes of these isolates. Considering the significance of infection in children, in this study, we examined the stool flora of children (<10 years) to show the characteristics and clonal relationship of the isolates.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Editorial Board Members Related to SPE

Yinghao Wu

Assistant Professor
Department of Systems & Computational Biology
Yeshiva University
United States

Rasha Sayed Hanafi

Associate Professor
Pharmaceutical and Biomedical analysis
German University
Egypt

Pankaj Srivastava

VATS Surgeon
Om Surgical Center & Maternity Home
Varanasi
India

Eva Mischak-Weissinger

Professor
Department of Hematology, Hemostasis, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation
Hannover Medical School
Germany

Paulo Nunes Costa Filho

School of Physical Education and Sports, Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 540 - Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21940-901, Brazil.

Vikram Khanna

Orthopedic Surgeon
Ranjana Hospital
Allahabad

Dagmara McGuinness

Research Associate
College of Medical
Veterinary & Life Sciences
Institute of Cancer Sciences
Western Infirmary Glasgow
Scotland

MASAYOSHI YAMAGUCHI

Professor
Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology
Emory School of Medicine
Emory University
United States

Jayasimha Rao

Associate Professor
Jefferson College of Health Sciences
Department of Medicine
USA

MICHAEL CHAPMAN

Professor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
School of Women's and Children's Health
University of New South Wales
Australia
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