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Exploring the Efficiency and Feasibility of Tin/Al2O3 /p-Si MIS Devices: A Critical Review and Analysis

Test results have indicated the types of behaviors that can be expected with band engineering. The high-k dielectric used has introduced a mid-gap state in the silicon band gap. It is the Al2O3 layer that is causing this. By taking a polycrystalline high-k dielectric, the different grain boundaries that occur in the structure introduce different energies in the insulator layer. The electrons in the silicon that are being pinned are being trapped by these high and low energy states between the oxygen and silicon bonds. This is known as a quasi-static trapping. What this does is build up a positive oxide charge over time. This has an effect on the overall conductance of the p-type silicon. In terms of positive ion charge that is felt by the silicon, the charge density is still the same with electrons being spatially redistributed around the bonding sites. This is a key advantage with high-k dielectrics and one of the goals of the current research into MIS devices. The test data is showing a current increase from the field emission. When tested with constant voltage and varying temperature, the emission is a result of a thermally activated process by the tunneling increases. Energy is transferable to electrons in the silicon with carriers increased and at higher temperatures the increase in carriers is exponential. This can cause negative bias instability in the device and is not a desirable outcome for p-type or CMOS with progression into more advanced technology in the quest for higher device integration. This issue can potentially be resolved by band engineering the silicon. This is a large and complex topic and according to results and the current understanding of high-k dielectrics, no further progress should be made until it is fully understood how an insulator with a mid-gap state can affect the silicon. This and the effects of positive charge build up are the research topics which will lead on from the current work into MIS devices with high-k dielectric
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Dosing Time-Dependency of the Arthritis-Inhibiting Effect of Tofacitinib in Mice

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has a 24-hour rhythm with a characteristic symptom of morning stiness, which causes pain in the joints from late night to early morning. We previously revealed that higher therapeutic eects were obtained in RA patients and RA animal models when the dosing time of anti-rheumatic drugs was chosen according to the 24-hour rhythms of cytokine and in- ammatory reaction. In this study, we evaluated whether dosing with the Janus-associated kinases inhibitor Tofacitinib while accounting for biological rhythms results in higher therapeutic ecacy
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Screening of Visual Pathway in Patients Suffering from Guillain Barre by Visual Evoked Potential

Aim: Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare condition in which a person's immune system attacks the peripheral nerve. The visual system can also be affected in GBS patients. The aim of present work is to look for visual pathway, disturbances in these patients using visual evoked potential (VEP). Material and Methods: 10 male patients (20 eyes) diagnosed as GBS in age range of 25 to 56 years were selected for the purpose of present study. Visual evoked potential (VEP) using pattern type of stimulation was tested in total patient group using Mangoni machine. The results obtained was compared with 10 normal sex and age matched population following VEP test.
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A Brief Report on the Safety and Efficacy of Gentian Violet for Infant Oropharyngeal Candidiasis (OPC) and Maternal Nipple Candidiasis

Gentian violet dye is no longer commonly used for infant oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) and maternal nipple candidiasis, largely due to safety concerns, the emergence of modern treatment options, and lack of clarity on dosing. Current treatments for candidiasis include nystatin, azoles such as ketoconazole and fluconazole, and amphotericin B. However, OPC may resist treatment, and mothers may prefer gentian violet as an alternative OTC product. This literature review aims to assess the safety and efficacy of gentian violet in treating OPC and nipple candidiasis. Two search strings in Embase yielded 22 primary research articles, case reports, and commentaries. In terms of efficacy, gentian violet is as effective as standard of care treatments, and functions as a fungicidal agent against Candida albicans through biofilm manipulation. Safety concerns include skin and mucosal membrane irritation, airway obstruction, and, most concerning to regulatory agencies, animal carcinogenicity. However, the literature found that there was great variation in the dose and strength of gentian violet applied. Case reports with adverse events usually used high strengths of gentian violet applied more frequently than recommended. A lower strength of gentian violet solution applied as needed is less likely to result in adverse events. Patients may self-select higher strengths of gentian violet or apply more frequently than recommended. If recommended for treatment-resistant OPC and nipple candidiasis, counseling should accompany OTC use of gentian violet
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Why Hydrogen Peroxide-Producing Proteins are Not Suitable Targets for Drug Development

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in pathological processes and provide hope for the development of treatments aimed at suppressing the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ). However, attempts to inhibit superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), the main antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide anion into H2O2 and water during ROS metabolism, have not yielded significant results. To understand the reason for the failure, we studied the behavior of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cancer cells exposed to H2O2 -generating compounds. EGFR can be activated by binding of EGF ligand to the extracellular region of the receptor and by interaction of H2O2 -generating chemicals with the catalytic cysteine in the intracellular domain of the receptor. Both mechanisms independently trigger downstream signaling pathways in cells. EGFR expression can also be reduced by the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-1B, which itself is activated by H2O2 . A simple in-gel fluorescence technique demonstrates the rapid binding of H2O2 -generating molecules to hundreds of proteins in cancer cells. The natural defense system Nrf2 takes longer to break down target proteins and therefore cannot prevent H2O2 released by chemical agents from affecting unwanted proteins. It can be concluded that cytoplasmic SOD1 and other H2O2 -producing proteins that protect cells from oxidative damage are not suitable targets for the development of practical drugs for the treatment of human diseases.
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Isotretinoin May Decrease the Risk of Periodontitis and the Risk of CMV-Or of HPV-Infection

Background: Isotretinoin helps to control acne which is partly due to Cutibacterium acnes infection. Objective: Assess whether Isotretinoin may also help to control other types of infections which may directly or indirectly be associated with biofilms containing Cutibacterium acnes such as periodontitis, herpetic infections or HPV-infections. Methods: All relevant medical and biological data were collected during routine consultations for Small Intestinal Bowel Overgrowth from 2021 March 1st to 2024 March 1st
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Phytotherapy: A Complementary Approach in Endodontic Management

The use of plant-derived products for medicinal purposes, known as phytotherapy, is gaining increasing interest as a complementary approach to traditional protocols in endodontics. This literature review examines the various clinical applications of phytotherapy in endodontics, with a particular focus on its potential utility in all stages of conservative or surgical endodontic management. This analysis draws upon in vivo and in vitro data to examine the specific indications of phytotherapy, with a particular focus on its advantages in terms of antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative activity. As a supplementary approach, phytotherapy offers a natural and promising alternative to enhance the outcomes of endodontic treatments, while providing a sustainable perspective on oral healthcare
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Treatment of Intrabony Defects with Enamel Matrix Derivative Proteins Using Minimally Invasive Surgical Approaches to Papilla Preservation: A Systematic Review with Metanalysis

Background: To investigate the clinical performance of minimally invasive surgical approaches for interdental tissue preservation in association with enamel matrix derivatives in the treatment of intraosseous defects. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature review was carried out (PROSPERO: CRD42020135131) through research, extraction and analysis of data in duplicate, according to the PICOS strategy. The Ovid MEDLINE databases were consulted; Ovid EMBASE; Open Gray and in the journals Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontal Research and Journal of Dental Research, the search covered an unlimited period until May 2019, following the guide PRISMA. For assessment was used Cochrane Collaboration's risk. Results: Eight randomized controlled trials reporting 557 subjects and 698 defects were identified. Among in techniques for preserving interdental tissues, there were no differences between them. However, in the meta-analysis obtained by the studies, the results were superior in clinical gain of insertion in favor of the test group [n = 119; MD= 0.92; 95%; IC (0.35; 1.50); p = 0.002 I² 78%], with these results statistically significant Conclusions: the open flap debridement technique using interdental tissue preservation approaches in association with EMD promote slightly superior clinical results in insertion gain. Clinical Relevance: Assist the professional in their clinical practice in traeatment of periodontal defects with minimally surgical approachs and Furthermore, demonstrate the possibility and the benefits of using the biomaterials like the enamel derivative proteins in the regeneration these periodontal defects
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Replacement of Missing Teeth: Comparing Factors That Motivate Male Denture Wearers with their Female Counterpart among Selected Group of Nigerian

Introduction: A condition where one or more teeth are missing in the mouth is referred to as partial edentulism. These missing teeth could be replaced by removable partial denture (RPD) or fixed partial denture. Factors that determine choice of replacing missing teeth includes but not limited to; esthetic, mastication and prevention of further tooth loss. The aim of this study was to compare factor that motivate male denture wearers to replace their missing teeth with the female counterpart Method: This cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire-based study was conducted in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital and Nigeria Navy Reference Hospital, Calabar. The respondents comprise of patients who presented at the dental clinic of both Hospital. Inclusion criteria were patients who requested for the replacement of their missing teeth and gave inform consent, while exclusion criteria were those who requested for tooth extraction etc. Questionnaires was delivered to each participant by hand and collected after it was filled. The questionnaire was divided into two sections. The first is for information of the respondents while the second was on reason for seeking tooth replacement
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Innovative Method for Treating Diabetes: Cancer Medicines Show Great Possibility in Treating Type-1 Diabetes

Australian scientists have recently uncovered a groundbreaking discovery suggesting that diabetes, specifically type 1 diabetes, may be effectively treated using existing cancer drugs. The research indicates that two types of drugs commonly employed in cancer treatments have demonstrated the potential to prevent type 1 diabetes, with the remarkable capability of inducing insulin hormone production within the pancreas in as little as 48 hours. The experimental validation of this approach involved a successful trial conducted on three individuals, providing encouraging results that could revolutionize diabetes treatment. With more than 420 million people worldwide grappling with diabetes, this discovery holds significant promise for addressing a global health challenge. Further research and clinical trials are warranted to explore the full potential and safety of these cancer drugs as a potential cure for diabetes. If successful, this innovative approach may offer new hope to millions living with diabetes and pave the way for transformative advancements in diabetes care
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Biofilm and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Multi Drug Resistant Bacterial Uropathogens: A Challenge to Antibiotic Therapy in Nepal

Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by clinicians in developing countries. A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Antibiotic resistance is a problem of deep scientific concern both in hospital and community settings. This study was aimed to determine the biofilm producers among multidrug uropathogenic bacteria isolated from urine cultures
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Bioactivity of Plant Extracts Against Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici Sacc.) Causing Wilt Disease of Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L) in the Southern Guinea Savannah, Nigeria

Wilt disease of tomato is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and it is an important disease which causes significant yield reduction in the crop throughout the world. A study was undertaken to isolate, identify and test the pathogenicity of F. oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici on tomato; and to evaluate the bioactivity of Azadirachta indica leaf, Piper guineense seed and Zingiber officinale rhizome extracts as well as the synthetic fungicide, mancozeb at different concentrations and combinations for the management of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in vitro. Results revealed that the percentage frequency of the fungus isolated and identified was more on the roots (35.56 %) than the stems (26.67 %), fruits (20.00 %) and leaves (17.77 %). Results of the pathogenicity test showed more virulence in the roots than in other parts of the tomato plant. Extracts of the three plants and mancozeb proved effective in controlling the mycelial growth of the fungus either alone or when combined. Mancozeb consistently gave 100 % growth inhibition irrespective of the concentration used. Among the plant extracts applied alone at 40 g/L, Z. officinale (66.69 %) was the most effective followed by P. guineense (53.52 %) while A. indica was the least (36.99 %). The mycelial growth inhibition increased from 40 g/L to 120 g/L irrespective of the combination of the treatments used. A combination of mancozeb with any plant extract was more effective than a combination of the plant extracts. It is therefore, recommended that the plant extracts be applied either alone or in combination with other plant extracts or the fungicide to control F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, increase tomato yield and reduce postharvest rots associated with the pathogen
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The Mastitis Carcinomatosa vs. Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma with Osteoclastic Giant Cell Reaction: A Case Report

The mastitis carcinomatosa or inflammatory breast carcinoma is an aggressive form of mammary tumors. Diagnosis is made on clinical, cytology and histology correlation. Imaging is performed to look for the extent of disease. Breast carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells (OGCs) are uncommon. Here, we report a 35 year old woman with a painless lump in her left breast that has been proved clinically and radiologically. Microscopic examination reveal differential diagnosis of Inflammatory breast carcinoma and Infiltrating carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells.
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Artificial Intelligence in the Criminal Justice

The application of AI has become known as a disruptive technology in a variety of industries, and its possible application in the field of law enforcement has gained traction. The purpose of the aforementioned study is to investigate the reach of artificial intelligence in the field of criminal justice, focusing on its possible benefits, problems, and ethical implications. This study sheds light on the existing and potential consequences of AI within the court system by examining a variety of use cases such as predictive law enforcement, profiling of offenders, proof evaluation, and legal investigation
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Unveiling Natures Arsenal: Harnessing Entada africana's Methanol Bark Extract to Combat Malarial infection Through Heme Polymerase Inhibition

Plasmodium parasites, which cause malaria, continue to pose a serious threat to global health, necessitating the continuous search for novel antimalarial agents. Entada africana is a plant known for its ethnomedicinal uses in treating various ailments associated with inflammation including malaria. Due to its reported antiplasmodial potentials, we studied the effect of the methanol bark extract of the plant. HPLC chromatogram of the methanol bark extract showed the presence of eight phyto-compounds namely coumaric acid, gallic acid, catechin, ferulic acid, quercetin, apigenin, rutin, and kaemferol. Thus, the study aimed at evaluating the antiplasmodial potential of methanol bark extract of Entada africana (MBEEA) through heme polymerase inhibition via in silico approaches. The in silico studies showed favourable binding affinities and stable interactions with heme polymerase, with rutin (-9.9 kcal/mol), apigenin (-8.0 kcal/mol) and catechin (-7.8 kcal/mol) having higher binding affinities compared to the standard drug, chloroquine (-6.7 kcal/mol). Hydrogen bond analysis reveals that ferulic acid (Asp 77, Ile 73 and Ala 29) and kaemferol (Arg 40, Arg 27 and Leu 74) form three hydrogen bonds. On the other hand, compounds like coumaric acid (Ala 291 and Arg 27), gallic acid (Ala 29 and Ser 76), catechin (Arg 40 and Arg 40), and quercetin (Ser 76 and Ser 76) form two hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues, rutin forms two hydrogen bonds with Ser 76 and Leu 74, while apigenin forms one hydrogen bond with Arg 27 when compared to the standard drug, chloroquine (-6.7 kcal/mol) which forms no hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues. Based on their pharmacokinetic characteristics, safety profiles, and appropriate drug-like ability, seven compounds were shown to have antiplasmodial properties by computational ADMET tests
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to TH

Vincenzo Cuomo

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
Sapienza University of Rome

Praveen Kumar Sharma

Associate Professor
Department of Chemistry
Lovely Professional University


Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
J.N. Medical College
Aligarh Muslim University

Paulo Nunes Costa Filho

School of Physical Education and Sports, Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 540 - Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21940-901, Brazil.

Ahmad M. Al-Khasawneh

Associate Professor
School of Computer Information Systems
Hashemite University


Assistant Professor
National Forensic Laboratory


Associate Professor
School of Nutrition and Health Promotion
Arizona State University
United States

Robert H. Rosenwasser

Department of Neurological Surgery
Thomas Jefferson University
United States

Amer A Taqa

Head in Dental Basic Science
Mosul University

Hassen Chaabani

Department of Human Genetics & Biological Anthropology
University of Monastir
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