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Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Tunisian Dentists regarding the Use of Herbal Medicine in Endodontic Practice: A Cross-Sectional Study

Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Tunisian dentists regarding the use of herbal products in endodontic practice. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from May 2022 to September 2022. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 360 dentists, stratified into general practitioners and endodontists. Results: Endodontists exhibited a mean knowledge score of 38.5 ± 3.9, while general practitioners scored 39.5 ± 3.4, indicating comparable levels of knowledge in the application of phytotherapy in endodontics (p = 0.094 > 0.05). However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the practice of herbal medicine between the two groups (p = 0.002 < 0.05). General practitioners demonstrated a higher mean practice score (4.96 ± 1.01) compared to endodontists (4.45 ± 0.82). Attitude scores did not significantly differ between the two groups, with endodontists scoring 8.4 ± 1.7 and general practitioners scoring 8 ± 1.6. The majority of participants were familiar with orange oil (87.5%), aloe vera gel (78.1%), green tea (74.7%), clove oil (70.3%), curcuma (69.2%), and lemon solution (68.1%). Furthermore, 97.2% of respondents expressed a desire to enhance their understanding of herbal medicine in dentistry.Conclusion: Tunisian dentists exhibited limited familiarity with herbal products that could be employed in endodontic practice. Both general practitioners and endodontists demonstrated similar levels of knowledge regarding phytotherapy in endodontics
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Cytological Effect of Viral Infection Associated with Yellow Streak Symptoms on Agave Tequilana

Yellow streak, ring spot and mottle symptoms were observed on young Agave tequilana (agave azul) plants cultivated in commercial nurseries in the state of Jalisco, Mexico. These symptoms have been associated with those possibly caused by an unknown virus. Mechanical inoculation of a host range and serological tests (ELISA) failed to demonstrate the viral nature of agave yellow streak. However, observations made on ultrathin sections of agave tissues with symptoms under a transmission electron microscope showed the consistent presence of flexible rod-shaped virus particles in the cytoplasm and chloroplasts, damage to chloroplasts, and formation of different types of globose membranous inclusions not observed in tissues from healthy plants. Moreover, analysis of Sanger’s sequences of nucleic acid and amino acids from amplicons obtained by RTPCR assays of symptomatic agave plants showed the infections of an unknown virus species of the Order Tymovirales
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Exploring the Efficiency and Feasibility of Tin/Al2O3 /p-Si MIS Devices: A Critical Review and Analysis

Test results have indicated the types of behaviors that can be expected with band engineering. The high-k dielectric used has introduced a mid-gap state in the silicon band gap. It is the Al2O3 layer that is causing this. By taking a polycrystalline high-k dielectric, the different grain boundaries that occur in the structure introduce different energies in the insulator layer. The electrons in the silicon that are being pinned are being trapped by these high and low energy states between the oxygen and silicon bonds. This is known as a quasi-static trapping. What this does is build up a positive oxide charge over time. This has an effect on the overall conductance of the p-type silicon. In terms of positive ion charge that is felt by the silicon, the charge density is still the same with electrons being spatially redistributed around the bonding sites. This is a key advantage with high-k dielectrics and one of the goals of the current research into MIS devices. The test data is showing a current increase from the field emission. When tested with constant voltage and varying temperature, the emission is a result of a thermally activated process by the tunneling increases. Energy is transferable to electrons in the silicon with carriers increased and at higher temperatures the increase in carriers is exponential. This can cause negative bias instability in the device and is not a desirable outcome for p-type or CMOS with progression into more advanced technology in the quest for higher device integration. This issue can potentially be resolved by band engineering the silicon. This is a large and complex topic and according to results and the current understanding of high-k dielectrics, no further progress should be made until it is fully understood how an insulator with a mid-gap state can affect the silicon. This and the effects of positive charge build up are the research topics which will lead on from the current work into MIS devices with high-k dielectric
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Phytotherapy: A Complementary Approach in Endodontic Management

The use of plant-derived products for medicinal purposes, known as phytotherapy, is gaining increasing interest as a complementary approach to traditional protocols in endodontics. This literature review examines the various clinical applications of phytotherapy in endodontics, with a particular focus on its potential utility in all stages of conservative or surgical endodontic management. This analysis draws upon in vivo and in vitro data to examine the specific indications of phytotherapy, with a particular focus on its advantages in terms of antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative activity. As a supplementary approach, phytotherapy offers a natural and promising alternative to enhance the outcomes of endodontic treatments, while providing a sustainable perspective on oral healthcare
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Treatment of Intrabony Defects with Enamel Matrix Derivative Proteins Using Minimally Invasive Surgical Approaches to Papilla Preservation: A Systematic Review with Metanalysis

Background: To investigate the clinical performance of minimally invasive surgical approaches for interdental tissue preservation in association with enamel matrix derivatives in the treatment of intraosseous defects. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature review was carried out (PROSPERO: CRD42020135131) through research, extraction and analysis of data in duplicate, according to the PICOS strategy. The Ovid MEDLINE databases were consulted; Ovid EMBASE; Open Gray and in the journals Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontal Research and Journal of Dental Research, the search covered an unlimited period until May 2019, following the guide PRISMA. For assessment was used Cochrane Collaboration's risk. Results: Eight randomized controlled trials reporting 557 subjects and 698 defects were identified. Among in techniques for preserving interdental tissues, there were no differences between them. However, in the meta-analysis obtained by the studies, the results were superior in clinical gain of insertion in favor of the test group [n = 119; MD= 0.92; 95%; IC (0.35; 1.50); p = 0.002 I² 78%], with these results statistically significant Conclusions: the open flap debridement technique using interdental tissue preservation approaches in association with EMD promote slightly superior clinical results in insertion gain. Clinical Relevance: Assist the professional in their clinical practice in traeatment of periodontal defects with minimally surgical approachs and Furthermore, demonstrate the possibility and the benefits of using the biomaterials like the enamel derivative proteins in the regeneration these periodontal defects
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Innovative Method for Treating Diabetes: Cancer Medicines Show Great Possibility in Treating Type-1 Diabetes

Australian scientists have recently uncovered a groundbreaking discovery suggesting that diabetes, specifically type 1 diabetes, may be effectively treated using existing cancer drugs. The research indicates that two types of drugs commonly employed in cancer treatments have demonstrated the potential to prevent type 1 diabetes, with the remarkable capability of inducing insulin hormone production within the pancreas in as little as 48 hours. The experimental validation of this approach involved a successful trial conducted on three individuals, providing encouraging results that could revolutionize diabetes treatment. With more than 420 million people worldwide grappling with diabetes, this discovery holds significant promise for addressing a global health challenge. Further research and clinical trials are warranted to explore the full potential and safety of these cancer drugs as a potential cure for diabetes. If successful, this innovative approach may offer new hope to millions living with diabetes and pave the way for transformative advancements in diabetes care
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Biofilm and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Multi Drug Resistant Bacterial Uropathogens: A Challenge to Antibiotic Therapy in Nepal

Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by clinicians in developing countries. A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Antibiotic resistance is a problem of deep scientific concern both in hospital and community settings. This study was aimed to determine the biofilm producers among multidrug uropathogenic bacteria isolated from urine cultures
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The Mastitis Carcinomatosa vs. Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma with Osteoclastic Giant Cell Reaction: A Case Report

The mastitis carcinomatosa or inflammatory breast carcinoma is an aggressive form of mammary tumors. Diagnosis is made on clinical, cytology and histology correlation. Imaging is performed to look for the extent of disease. Breast carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells (OGCs) are uncommon. Here, we report a 35 year old woman with a painless lump in her left breast that has been proved clinically and radiologically. Microscopic examination reveal differential diagnosis of Inflammatory breast carcinoma and Infiltrating carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells.
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Artificial Intelligence in the Criminal Justice

The application of AI has become known as a disruptive technology in a variety of industries, and its possible application in the field of law enforcement has gained traction. The purpose of the aforementioned study is to investigate the reach of artificial intelligence in the field of criminal justice, focusing on its possible benefits, problems, and ethical implications. This study sheds light on the existing and potential consequences of AI within the court system by examining a variety of use cases such as predictive law enforcement, profiling of offenders, proof evaluation, and legal investigation
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Characterizations of Cu2FeSnSe4 Thin Films Synthesized from Nanoparticles Powder

Cu2FeSnSe4 (CFTSe) thin film were synthesized on glass substrate by thermal evaporation method at Ts=400° C, starting from elemental powders mixed by a mechanical alloying process. The structural, morphological, compositional, optical and electrical properties of CFTSe semiconductor have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and Van Der Pauw technique, respectiv
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Leveraging Electronic Medical Records for Legal Compliance and Improved Reimbursement Efficiency

Background and Objective: Septic shock remains an impatient cause of morbidity and mortality. Early restitution of the circulation improve tissue oxygen delivery and increase survival. This study is a prospective randomized single center study its main objective is to investigate the therapeutic value of hypertonic saline in patients with septic shock. Methods: Fifty-two critically ill patients admitted with septic shock divided into two groups, the first group received isotonic saline (control group) starch, while the second received hypertonic saline 5%.
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In-vitro Regeneration in Maize (Zea Mays L.) from Mature Embryo

Maize is an economically important crop worldwide. As the world population increases, there is a great need to develop high yielding and stress resistant maize varieties. To provide a future platform for maize improvement, we tested mature embryos as alternative explants for the regeneration of three economically important maize inbred lines: CML331, CML442 and CML444.
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Pulmonary Congestion Dynamics According to Inter-Dialytic Intervals in Hemodialysis

Lung ultrasound (LUS) is reliable in detecting and quantifying of pulmonary congestion in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Pulmonary congestion holds a negative prognostic value in HD patients even when it is asymptomatic. The pathophysiology of pulmonary congestion in HD is complex and includes volume and non-volume dependant factors. We examined the impact of different inter-dialytic intervals on pulmonary congestion by studying its dynamics using lung ultrasou
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Horizontal Natural Product Transfer: The Origin of the Widespread Alkaloidal Contaminations of Herbal Products

Alarmed by numerous worrying reports by the European Food Safety Authority related to widespread contaminations of plant-derived commodities by poisonous alkaloids (nicotine, pyrrolizidine alkaloids), the sources of these alkaloidal contaminations were investigated. Our studies revealed that alkaloids, which have been leached out from decomposing alkaloidal donor plants, are taken up by the roots of acceptor plants growing in their vicinity. Based on these results the so-called “Horizontal Natural Product Transfer
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Monodora Myristica Protects Against Oxidative Stress in the Drosophila Melanogaster Model of Lead-Induced Neurotoxicity

Background to Study: Lead (Pb) is ubiquitous in the environment and toxic. It has many negative effects on many organs and induces biochemical, physiological, and behavioural alterations on the brain. Monodora myristica is a calabash nutmeg belonging to the family of Annonaceae.It is a rich source of flavonoids which have been shown to exhibit both antioxi-dant and anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated the protective role of Monodora myristica on lead-induced toxicity in D. melanogaster in this study
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to TIC

PAULA M. CHILTON

Assistant Professor
Department of Microbiology & Immunology
University of Louisville
United States

Ashraf Naeem

Associate professor
Department of Anatomy & Embryology
Zagazig University
Egypt

James David Adams

Associate Professor
Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences
University of Southern California
United States

MOHAMED ABDELMAGEED AWAD

Associate Professor & Consultant
Fixed Prosthodontic Department
Tanta University
Egypt

Yu Huang

Professor
School of Biomedical Sciences
Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong

Pramod Bhujangrao Khedekar

Professor
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University
India

Vural Fidan

Vural Fidan, M.D. Department of Otorhinolaryngology
Hacettepe University
Yunus Emre Government Hospital
Turkey

QINGRONG HUANG

Professor
Department of Food Science
Rutgers University
United States

Kenneth Cheng

Assistant Professor
Department of Medicine
Hong Kong University
Hong Kong

Ahmed S. Zidan

Associate Professor
Department of Pharmaceutics and industrial pharmacy
Zagazig University
Egypt
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