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Articles Related to Therapy

Fertility Desire and Associated Factors among Women on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in the Lideta Sub-City Health Centers

This study examines fertility desires among women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Lideta Sub-City Health Centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 397 women, achieving a response rate of 97.5%. Data was collected through structured interviews and analyzed using logistic regression to identify factors associated with fertility desire. The results showed that 76.6% of respondents desired fertility in the future, with relationship desire being associated with a lower likelihood of having fertility wishes. College-educated individuals over 55 (13.9%) were 10.24 times more likely to aspire to become parents than primary and uneducated individuals. Respondents preferred a time frame of three to four years. The average age of participants was 37.34 ± 7.20 years, with 43.1% aged 30–39 and 41.8% aged 40–49. Nearly half (49.4%) were married, and the majority (98.2%) lived in urban areas. Factors significantly associated with fertility desire included higher education, partner's desire for children, and preferred timing for live birth within 3-4 years. Married women were less likely to desire fertility. The findings suggest the need for targeted reproductive health counseling, partner involvement in family planning, and support tailored to women with higher educational backgrounds to effectively address their fertility aspirations. Interventions should focus on enhancing reproductive health counseling, involving partners in family planning,and providing targeted support to women with higher educational backgrounds.
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Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Tunisian Dentists regarding the Use of Herbal Medicine in Endodontic Practice: A Cross-Sectional Study

Aim: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Tunisian dentists regarding the use of herbal products in endodontic practice. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from May 2022 to September 2022. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 360 dentists, stratified into general practitioners and endodontists. Results: Endodontists exhibited a mean knowledge score of 38.5 ± 3.9, while general practitioners scored 39.5 ± 3.4, indicating comparable levels of knowledge in the application of phytotherapy in endodontics (p = 0.094 > 0.05). However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the practice of herbal medicine between the two groups (p = 0.002 < 0.05). General practitioners demonstrated a higher mean practice score (4.96 ± 1.01) compared to endodontists (4.45 ± 0.82). Attitude scores did not significantly differ between the two groups, with endodontists scoring 8.4 ± 1.7 and general practitioners scoring 8 ± 1.6. The majority of participants were familiar with orange oil (87.5%), aloe vera gel (78.1%), green tea (74.7%), clove oil (70.3%), curcuma (69.2%), and lemon solution (68.1%). Furthermore, 97.2% of respondents expressed a desire to enhance their understanding of herbal medicine in dentistry.Conclusion: Tunisian dentists exhibited limited familiarity with herbal products that could be employed in endodontic practice. Both general practitioners and endodontists demonstrated similar levels of knowledge regarding phytotherapy in endodontics
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Why Hydrogen Peroxide-Producing Proteins are Not Suitable Targets for Drug Development

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in pathological processes and provide hope for the development of treatments aimed at suppressing the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ). However, attempts to inhibit superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), the main antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide anion into H2O2 and water during ROS metabolism, have not yielded significant results. To understand the reason for the failure, we studied the behavior of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cancer cells exposed to H2O2 -generating compounds. EGFR can be activated by binding of EGF ligand to the extracellular region of the receptor and by interaction of H2O2 -generating chemicals with the catalytic cysteine in the intracellular domain of the receptor. Both mechanisms independently trigger downstream signaling pathways in cells. EGFR expression can also be reduced by the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-1B, which itself is activated by H2O2 . A simple in-gel fluorescence technique demonstrates the rapid binding of H2O2 -generating molecules to hundreds of proteins in cancer cells. The natural defense system Nrf2 takes longer to break down target proteins and therefore cannot prevent H2O2 released by chemical agents from affecting unwanted proteins. It can be concluded that cytoplasmic SOD1 and other H2O2 -producing proteins that protect cells from oxidative damage are not suitable targets for the development of practical drugs for the treatment of human diseases.
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Phytotherapy: A Complementary Approach in Endodontic Management

The use of plant-derived products for medicinal purposes, known as phytotherapy, is gaining increasing interest as a complementary approach to traditional protocols in endodontics. This literature review examines the various clinical applications of phytotherapy in endodontics, with a particular focus on its potential utility in all stages of conservative or surgical endodontic management. This analysis draws upon in vivo and in vitro data to examine the specific indications of phytotherapy, with a particular focus on its advantages in terms of antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative activity. As a supplementary approach, phytotherapy offers a natural and promising alternative to enhance the outcomes of endodontic treatments, while providing a sustainable perspective on oral healthcare
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Biofilm and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Multi Drug Resistant Bacterial Uropathogens: A Challenge to Antibiotic Therapy in Nepal

Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by clinicians in developing countries. A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Antibiotic resistance is a problem of deep scientific concern both in hospital and community settings. This study was aimed to determine the biofilm producers among multidrug uropathogenic bacteria isolated from urine cultures
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The role of homologous serum eye drops in the management of scleral melting after proton beam therapy, a case report

To describe a case of a 39-years-old man with marked scleral thinning secondary to proton beam therapy for choroidal melanoma. Observations: The patient underwent multiple unsuccessful reconstructive surgical procedures complicated by failure and enucleation was finally suggested. However, he started improving following homologous serum drops administration
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Complex Decongestive Therapy and Additional Physiotherapy in Male Breast Cancer: A Case-Report

Introduction: Male Breast Cancer is a very rare disease associated with delayed diagnosis and a more invasive or aggressive tumor therapy, i.e., surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Lymphedema, shoulder joint restrictions, posture failures, sensitivity disorders, pain or cancer-related fatigue are common complaints.
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Dosimetric Comparison between Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy versus Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Treatment Plans for Breast Cancer

This study compared the dosimetric characteristics of Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques regarding target volume coverage and dose to heart, spinal cord, and lung for patients with breast cancer. We analyzed the dosimetric differences of plans in the treatment planning system (TPS) between IMRT and VMAT in treating breast cancer. The aim of this study is to compare the dosimetric aspects of IMRT plans with VMAT according to EMAMI, QUANTEC, and RTOG protocols
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The Therapeutic Use of Low Intensity Laser in Temporomandibular Disorders: Literature Review

Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are a group of disorders that damage the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the muscles of mastication. They are commonly associated with parafunctional habits and clinical symptoms, such as: headache, clicking, limitation of lateral movement, protrusion and mouth opening, discomfort in the TMJ region and vertigo. These conditions can be caused by a combination of various factors, including trauma, natural wear and tear, dental malocclusion, emotional stress, or musculoskeletal problems.
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Increasing CD8+ T Cells and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines is associated with Hypersensitivity Reactions in People Living with HIV-1 under Antiretroviral Treatment

Background: Despite their good efficacy, antiretroviral drugs often induce adverse effects, in particular hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) which cause significant discomfort leading to the abandonment of treatment and then to therapeutic failure in some HIV-positive patients. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess the association between immune responses and hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) induced by antiretroviral treatment in people who living with HIV-1 (PLHIV-1), through the distribution of immune cells and cytokine profiles.
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Incessant Supraventricular Tachycardia in a Newborn Treated with Combined Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy

Supraventricular tachycardia is the most common type of tachyarrhythmia seen in childhood. First-line treatments (adenosine, esmolol-propranolol, digoxin, electrical cardioversion) usually suppress tachycardia, but rarely tachycardia is resistant and requiring Class IC and/or Class III agents, such as amiodarone, sotalol, propafenone, and flecainide.
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CCR5 Promoter SNP Genotype in HIV Seropositive Infants on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda: Association with Virological Failure

According to the UNAIDS 2022 report, 52% of the HIV positive children between 0-14 years were able to access treatment and of these 68% attain viral suppression. CCR5 promoter genotype specifically single nucleotide polymorphisms have been linked to modulate patient virological status. However, the few studies that have studied the association in infants have utilized allele-specific PCR a genotypic method limited to detecting already known SNPs. By using Sanger sequencing, we explored the association taking into account novel mutations.
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Anti-Infectives do not Impact Treatment Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: a Single Center Retrospective Analysis

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have provided groundbreaking advancements for a variety of malignancies. It has been of recent interest to identify predictive indicators of response to improve cancer management using immunotherapy. The intestinal microbiome has been recognized as a potential predictor of ICI anti- tumor activity. Antibiotics reduce diversity the overall composition of the gut microbiota, with effects seen as quickly as in a single day. Post-antibiotic dysbiosis recovery varies depending on type and duration of exposure. Preclinical studies in mice with advanced cancer treated with broad spectrum antibiotics have been associated with resistance to ICI treatment.
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Level of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Ekiti State

Introduction: The use of anti-retroviral drugs slows down disease progression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and this has improved the quality of life and life expectancy of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, optimum use of antiretroviral drugs (adherence) by PLWHA is the key to achieving viral load suppression and preventing drug resistance in them. Objective: This study determined the level of adherence to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) among PLWHA in Ekiti State. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 PLWHA in Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti and 300 PLWHA in Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti aged 18 years and above using ARV for at least six months prior to the study. Quantitative data were collected from the participants using a structured questionnaire while sixteen in-depth interviews were conducted among purposively selected PLWHA in both study centres to further elicit qualitative information on determinants of adherence. Quantitative data were analyzed with SPSS 22 using descriptive statistics while content analysis was used for qualitative data. Regression analysis was done to identify determinants of adherence at p value < 0.05. Results: About 60% of the PLWHA had high level of ART adherence while 18.9% had low adherence. Most of the respondents were female (66.0%), married (76.1%) and Christians (89.4%) and had post-secondary education (43.4%). Respondents’ age (X2=32.483), educational status (X2=2.473), marital status (X2=40.083), occupation (X2=57.951) and distance from the clinic (X2=13.181) significantly influenced the level of adherence. Patient factors such as forget timing of the medication, pill burden and feeling better, psychosocial factors like stigmatization, non-disclosure of status and depression; and healthcare factors such as long clinic waiting time and absence of support are some of the barriers to optimum ART adherence. Conclusion: Counseling on drug adherence and psycho-social support to PLWHA will further improve their level of adherence to medication.
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Radiation Dose to Oesophagus in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy: A Retrospective Study

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Management of Breast cancer requires multidisciplinary team approach (viz, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Hormonal therapy & Targeted therapy). Radiotherapy reduces the risk of breast cancer mortality for women after breast conserving surgery and for women after mastectomy for node-positive disease. One of the organs at risk in breast cancer therapy is esophagus. As such, there is potential to expose greater volumes of esophagus to radiation. This may result in increased frequency and severity of acute radiation esophagitis during treatment. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate dosimetric parameters such as mean dose (Dmean) maximum dose (Dmax) which may influence the incidence and severity of esophagitis in breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Material and Methods: Treatment plans of post mastectomy patients who had already received adjuvant RT of dose 50 Gy in 25 # over 5 weeks to the chest wall along with Supraclavicular field (SCF) using 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D CRT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were selected. Mean dose (Dmean) and maximum dose (Dmax) to esophagus was assessed. Results: Dosimetric parameters assessed are Dmean and Dmax. Dmean assessed up to less than or equal to 11Gy and Dmax assessed upto less than or equal to 34Gy. The average of Dmean in this study is 8.34Gy which is within normal limits of prescribed dose. The mean Of Dmax in this study is 24.80Gy which is in limits of prescribed dose. Conclusion: Increased dose to esophagus in observed when IMRT is used especially when supraclavicular or internal mammary nodes are involved. Routine contouring of esophagus and planning accordingly may reduce oesophageal dose and acute oesophageal toxicity.
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Editorial Board Members Related to Therapy

Massimo Dominici

Assistant Professor
Head Laboratory of Cell Biology and Advanced Cancer Therapies
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Children & Adults
University Hospital of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Italy

Tamer Atif Mohamed Dawod

Associate Professor
Faculty of Medicine
Mansoura University
Egypt

Shengwen Calvin Li

Faculty Scientist
Center for Neuroscience and Stem Cell Research
University of California-Irvine School of Medicine
United States

Jacque Nyenhuis

Assistant Professor
Nutrition and Exercise Sciences
St. Catherine University
United States

QINGRONG HUANG

Professor
Department of Food Science
Rutgers University
United States

Paulo Nunes Costa Filho

School of Physical Education and Sports, Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 540 - Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21940-901, Brazil.

Abdolreza Esmaeilzadeh

Assistant Professor
Department of Immunology
Cancer Gene Therapy Research Center
Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
Iran

Zeina Ghorab

Assistant Professor
Department of Pathology
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
Canada

Anthony Wai-Leung Kwok

Department of Physiotherapy
Tung Wah College
Hong Kong

Miyuru Chandradasa

Department of Psychiatry
University of Kelaniya
Sri Lanka
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