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Articles Related to United States

Perceptions of Latent Tuberculosis Infection Care by Providers at a Tertiary Care Center in the United States

Introduction: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of infectious disease mortality worldwide. A large reservoir of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a major public health problem worldwide and in the United States. Methods: A 13-question survey was distributed to providers working in the infectious disease, pulmonary/critical care, and general medicine departments at an academic tertiary care center in the United States. The survey included questions about provider confidence in and knowledge about LTBI management and perceived barriers to patient completion of the LTBI care cascade. Results: The response rate of the survey was 33% (62/186). Only 17 (30.9%) providers were able to correctly identify indication for screening in all six of the given patient scenarios. Overall, provider confidence in LTBI management decreased along the care cascade. Infectious disease providers were the most confident in management. The two most observed barriers to care were language barriers and lack of knowledge or understanding about TB. Discussion: Surveyed providers believe the largest barriers to patient LTBI treatment completion are due to a lack of patient comprehension about their infection. Patient understanding could be improved through mandated in-person interpreters, information pamphlets in patients’ preferred languages, and formation of community partnerships, to improve awareness about LTBI.
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United States Air Force Academy: Identifying Areas at Risk for the Persistence of Plague using the Bioagent Transport and Environmental Modeling System (BioTEMS)

Introduction: Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, has caused major pandemics in human history and continues to be both a natural and bioterrorist threat to human populations. Plague exists in nature in either an epidemic or enzootic state. Geographic models of the epidemic state have primarily been developed using flea and reservoir species, however little is known of the enzootic state and potential cryptic reservoir species and few endemic models have been produced.
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Gross and Histopathological Alterations in Experimental Trypanosoma Evansi Infection in Donkeys and the Effect of Isometamidium Chloride Treatment

Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) infection causes wasting and fatal animal trypanosomosis. This study was aimed at determining the gross and histopathological alterations in donkeys experimentally infected with T. evansi and the effect of isometamidium chloride treatment. Apparently healthy donkeys (N=18) of mixed sexes were randomly assigned to 3 groups; A1 (Infected-untreated), A2 (Infected, isometamidium-treated) and B (Uninfected, control) of six animals each. Each animal in infected groups had about 2.0x106 T. evansi injected through the jugular vein. Parasitaemia levels were evaluated using HCT and Mice Inoculation Test (support test). Gross and histopathological examinations were also conducted post-infection and post-treatment.
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Glucose Testing and Lifestyle Counseling of Obese and Overweight Patients: A Survey of Primary Care Physicians in the United States

In the United States (U.S.), the costs for health care and lost productivity due to diagnosed diabetes has increased from $174 billion in 2007 to $245 billion in 2012, making it one of the fastest growing public health burdens. Nearly 26 million adults have diabetes, and another 79 million have prediabetes, a condition that increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Clearly to reduce the costs and improve health, preventing diabetes must be a priority.
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Breastfeeding Intentions and Practice among Vegetarians in the United States - A Pilot Study

Vegetarianism is a rapidly growing practice in the United States that is remarkably understudied. Currently, no study hasassessed the infant feeding behaviors among vegetarians or the sub-types to determine their breastfeeding patterns.
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Orally Disintegrating Tablets: A Short Review

This article summarizes the advantages of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) as well as critical issues during evaluation of ODTs such as bioequivalence and challenges and limitations of ODTs and finally present and the future of ODTs. ODTs have received everincreasing demand and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry.
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Croscarmellose Sodium Efficiency in the Development of a Generic Capsule Formulation of Piroxicam, Comparable Dissolution Profile to the Innovator Product, Feldene

The objective of this study was to evaluate the encapsulation performance of Croscarmellose sodium, a superdisintegrant in a low-dose, poor-solubility drug formulation and the in-vitro dissolution performance of the Piroxicam capsules. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of the effects of the different concentrations of carmellose sodium and the amount of dried starch on in-vitro dissolution of Piroxicam capsules. Piroxicam was chosen for its very low solubility in biological fluids, which result in poor systemic bioavailability after oral administration. Piroxicam can be categorized as Class II drugs according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System.
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A Reintegration Program for Elderly Prisoners Reduces Reoffending

Harsh sentences have resulted in many prisoners being elderly at the time of their release. However, the longer individuals have been incarcerated and the older they are, the more difficult it may be for them to re-enter free society. We developed a reintegration program to promote their successful adjustment to society and to prevent their reoffending, and evaluated its effectiveness. Participants were 25 older prisoners in Japan; all were homeless and more than 65 years old.
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Editorial Board Members Related to United States

DONALD K. INGRAM

Adjunct Professor
Pennington Biomedical Research Center
Louisiana State University
United States

CARMEN CASTANEDA SCEPPA

Associate Professor
Department of Health Sciences
Bouvé College of Health Sciences
Northeastern University
United States

A. Wallace Hayes

Toxicologist
Emory University
United States

Miguel Leal

Assistant Professor
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine
University of Wisconsin
United States

Norhafiza Mat Lazim

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgeon
School of Medical Sciences
Universiti Sains
Malaysia

Stephen Michael Kavic

Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
University of Maryland School of Medicine
United States

MJ HAJIANPOUR

Clinical Associate Professor
Department of Pediatrics
Division of Medical Genetics
University of Iowa
United States

Lan-Juan (Jean) Zhao

Assistant Professor
Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics
Tulane University
United States

MALCOLM KENNETH ROBINSON

Assistant Professor
Department of Surgery
Brigham and Women's Hospital
Harvard Medical School
United States

JING LIN

Associate Professor
Department of Pediatrics
The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
United States
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