Articles Related to antiretroviral
Increasing CD8+ T Cells and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines is associated with Hypersensitivity Reactions in People Living with HIV-1 under Antiretroviral Treatment
Background: Despite their good efficacy, antiretroviral drugs often induce adverse effects, in particular hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) which cause significant discomfort leading to the abandonment of treatment and then to therapeutic failure in some HIV-positive patients. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess the association between immune responses and hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) induced by antiretroviral treatment in people who living with HIV-1 (PLHIV-1), through the distribution of immune cells and cytokine profiles.
CCR5 Promoter SNP Genotype in HIV Seropositive Infants on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda: Association with Virological Failure
According to the UNAIDS 2022 report, 52% of the HIV positive children between 0-14 years were able to access treatment and of these 68% attain viral suppression. CCR5 promoter genotype specifically single nucleotide polymorphisms have been linked to modulate patient virological status. However, the few studies that have studied the association in infants have utilized allele-specific PCR a genotypic method limited to detecting already known SNPs. By using Sanger sequencing, we explored the association taking into account novel mutations.
Adherence to Antiretroviral Medication and Factors Affecting it Among HIV-- Positive Patients Receiving it at Adama General Hospital
Before the development of highly active antiretroviral medication, AIDS and related illnesses caused a great deal of suffering and death. All of the AIDS-related morbidities and mortality have considerably decreased thanks to modern medication, especially in industrialized nations. However, this accomplishment is still elusive in underdeveloped nations, particularly in those in sub-Saharan Africa. This failure can be attributed to a number of factors. Poverty, ignorance about the treatment, and inadequate therapy adherence are at the top of this list.
Introduction: The use of anti-retroviral drugs slows down disease progression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and this has improved the quality of life and life expectancy of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, optimum use of antiretroviral drugs (adherence) by PLWHA is the key to achieving viral load suppression and preventing drug resistance in them. Objective: This study determined the level of adherence to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) among PLWHA in Ekiti State. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 PLWHA in Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti and 300 PLWHA in Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti aged 18 years and above using ARV for at least six months prior to the study. Quantitative data were collected from the participants using a structured questionnaire while sixteen in-depth interviews were conducted among purposively selected PLWHA in both study centres to further elicit qualitative information on determinants of adherence. Quantitative data were analyzed with SPSS 22 using descriptive statistics while content analysis was used for qualitative data. Regression analysis was done to identify determinants of adherence at p value < 0.05. Results: About 60% of the PLWHA had high level of ART adherence while 18.9% had low adherence. Most of the respondents were female (66.0%), married (76.1%) and Christians (89.4%) and had post-secondary education (43.4%). Respondents’ age (X2=32.483), educational status (X2=2.473), marital status (X2=40.083), occupation (X2=57.951) and distance from the clinic (X2=13.181) significantly influenced the level of adherence. Patient factors such as forget timing of the medication, pill burden and feeling better, psychosocial factors like stigmatization, non-disclosure of status and depression; and healthcare factors such as long clinic waiting time and absence of support are some of the barriers to optimum ART adherence. Conclusion: Counseling on drug adherence and psycho-social support to PLWHA will further improve their level of adherence to medication.
Liquorice-Induced Pseudohyperaldosteronism with Severe Hypokalaemia in a Young Patient Living with HIV: A Rare Case Presentation and Literature Review
HIV-1 infection treatment has greatly improved with the availability of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Unlike Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, Tenofovir Alafenamide has a more favourable renal profile, even if proximal tubulopathy and electrolyte disturbances have been reported. As earlier as 4000 years ago, liquorice root was used for some medical treatments. Excessive liquorice intake is described to cause a state of mineralocorticoid excess. However, liquorice-induced hypokalaemia usually occurs with mild clinical manifestations and a severe presentation is rare.
Diarrhoea is a common and diverse aetiology problem in HIV infected patients that can cause deterioration in the quality of life, malnutrition and failure of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Ibalizumab (IBA), a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to domain 2 of CD4 T lymphocytes receptor, has been recently approved for treating adults infected with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection for whom it is otherwise not possible to construct a suppressive antiviral regimen.
Anaemia Phenotypes in Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment Defaulting Adults at the Comprehensive Care Clinic at the Siaya County Teaching and Referral Hospital
Anaemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. While adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces the incidence of anaemia, non-adherence (defaulting) to ART is associated with a number of haematologic derangements including anaemia. However, the mechanisms and predictors of anaemia have not been examined among ART defaulters in western Kenya. This study, therefore, aimed at evaluating the anaemia prevalence and classification of the anaemia based on haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and erythrocyte morphology as well as suppression of erythropoiesis in ART-defaulting adults at a comprehensive care clinic in western Kenya.
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an angioproliferative polymorfic disorder that might be associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this clinical form, oral manifestation is particularly common and, sometimes, the first manifestation of the retroviral infection. In those cases, KS diagnosis is fundamental as the treatment is based in HIV infection control through an advisable multidisciplinary approach.
HIV-1 Molecular Characterization and Transmitted Drug Resistance Prevalence among Treatment-Naïve Individuals
The distribution of different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genotypes and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations vary greatly across different Brazilian regions. This study aimed to describe the HIV-1 molecular diversity and TDR prevalence among treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected individuals in an urban area of Northeastern Brazil. DNA samples from 97 infected individuals were obtained and pol sequences were generated by Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. Bioinformatics tools were used to identify the presence of associated mutations with drug resistance, to reconstruct the phylogeny and to detect recombination.
The socio-cultural context of illness has become a major research area, and it has made significant contributions to our understanding of the socio-cultural dimensions of illness. In this article, we briefly trace the roots of a socio-cultural approach to illness, and we present some of the key findings of socio-cultural organized under main themes. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy drugs in the treatment of HIV infection is complicated because of many psychosocial factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the psychosocial factors involved in non-compliance with ART among people infected with HIV in Alert Hospital in Ethiopia.
An Introduction to the Approaches of Novel Drug Delivery Systems for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
The currently available anti HIV agents have several drawbacks such as short half life, low bioavailability, poor CNS penetration and retention, hepatic first pass metabolism, undesirable side effects and frequent dosing regimen.
The development of effective drug delivery approaches for the treatment of AIDS and HIV infection is a global challenge. The advent of multidrug, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), have increased the life span of HIV-infected patients.
It is widely known that many problems in the mathematical biology can be modeled by the differential equations, and the corresponding systems are usually called as biological dynamic systems.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). They get it after being infected with the HIV virus. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a retrovirus that primarily infects components of the immune system.
Development of Severe Hypophosphatemia from Acquired Fanconi Syndrome during Treatment with Abiraterone
The first patient was a 77 year old man who had been on abiraterone for 12 months before his phosphorous was checked. At that point, it was 0.6 mg/dl, which is severely decreased. A full work up for hypophosphatemia showed normal parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. A urine study showed inappropriate excretion of phosphorous along with aminoaciduria and normoglycemic glucosuria.