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Articles Related to cancer

Identification of Apposite Antagonists of Pro-Survival Bcl-2 from Morus alba in the Fight against Human Malignancies: An In Silico Approach

The target of most cancer chemotherapeutic agents is to drive cancer cells toward death, necessitating the need to find a fine balance between anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic proteins in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Any shift favoring the pro apoptotic proteins is needed to drive cellular death in cancer chemotherapy. Therefore, this study uses molecular docking, ADMET predictions, and molecular dynamics simulations for the identification of potent inhibitors of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 from Morus alba. Our molecular docking study discovered that quercetin-3-(6- malonylglucoside) (-10.912kcal/mol) and epigallocatechin gallate (-9.750kcal/mol) recorded excellent binding affinity against human Bcl-2, better than popular stan dard drugs, venetoclax (-9.468(kcal/mol) and navitoclax (-9.058kcal/mol). Interactions profile summary clearly showed that hydrophobic interactions at TRP141, VAL145, and TYR105 were consistently maintained by the ligands, and all the com pounds, except venetoclax, consistently maintained the hydrogen bonding at TYR105. MD simulation analysis showed that the protein and ligand RMSD for the quercetin-3-(6-malonylglucoside)-Bcl-2 complex fell within permissible range, suggest ing the ligand is capable of functioning as apposite antagonists of Bcl-2. Epigallocatechin gallate also bind excellently with the target, and both ligands showed favorable ADMET parameters. Summarily, this study identifies two compounds of mul berry as potential drug candidate in the management of known human malignancies, and therefore suggest the compounds should further be assessed through in vitro and in vivo approaches to validate the reports documented here
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Evaluating the Effectiveness of Smartphone Apps for Melanoma Detection: A Comprehensive Review

Background: This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of smartphone applications for skin cancer detection. It explores their features, functionalities, performance metrics, and limitations. These apps offer melanoma detection, self-examination techniques, and risk factor assessment, with some providing advanced services like image analysis and dermatologist reviews. Methods: The performance evaluation assessed the accuracy of these apps in identifying skin lesions, with a focus on the chance of misidentifying benign lesions. Performance variations across iOS and Android devices were examined. Concerns regarding overdiagnosis or false alarms for certain lesion types and clinical scenarios were investigated. Algorithm comparison highlighted diverse approaches, with SkinVision demonstrating balanced performance
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Why Hydrogen Peroxide-Producing Proteins are Not Suitable Targets for Drug Development

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in pathological processes and provide hope for the development of treatments aimed at suppressing the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ). However, attempts to inhibit superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), the main antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide anion into H2O2 and water during ROS metabolism, have not yielded significant results. To understand the reason for the failure, we studied the behavior of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cancer cells exposed to H2O2 -generating compounds. EGFR can be activated by binding of EGF ligand to the extracellular region of the receptor and by interaction of H2O2 -generating chemicals with the catalytic cysteine in the intracellular domain of the receptor. Both mechanisms independently trigger downstream signaling pathways in cells. EGFR expression can also be reduced by the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-1B, which itself is activated by H2O2 . A simple in-gel fluorescence technique demonstrates the rapid binding of H2O2 -generating molecules to hundreds of proteins in cancer cells. The natural defense system Nrf2 takes longer to break down target proteins and therefore cannot prevent H2O2 released by chemical agents from affecting unwanted proteins. It can be concluded that cytoplasmic SOD1 and other H2O2 -producing proteins that protect cells from oxidative damage are not suitable targets for the development of practical drugs for the treatment of human diseases.
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Innovative Method for Treating Diabetes: Cancer Medicines Show Great Possibility in Treating Type-1 Diabetes

Australian scientists have recently uncovered a groundbreaking discovery suggesting that diabetes, specifically type 1 diabetes, may be effectively treated using existing cancer drugs. The research indicates that two types of drugs commonly employed in cancer treatments have demonstrated the potential to prevent type 1 diabetes, with the remarkable capability of inducing insulin hormone production within the pancreas in as little as 48 hours. The experimental validation of this approach involved a successful trial conducted on three individuals, providing encouraging results that could revolutionize diabetes treatment. With more than 420 million people worldwide grappling with diabetes, this discovery holds significant promise for addressing a global health challenge. Further research and clinical trials are warranted to explore the full potential and safety of these cancer drugs as a potential cure for diabetes. If successful, this innovative approach may offer new hope to millions living with diabetes and pave the way for transformative advancements in diabetes care
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Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma, an Updated Review

Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVBCL) is a rare but aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is characterized by the malignant proliferation of lymphocytic tumor cells in the lumens of capillaries, small arterioles, and post-capillary venules. There exists two clinical variants: the Asian variant and the Western variant. The former is associated with neurologic and dermatologic signs and symptoms, whereas the latter often presents with splenomegaly, jaundice, and hemophagocytes. Lymphadenopathy is uncommon, and patients typically have nonspecific symptom
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Complex Decongestive Therapy and Additional Physiotherapy in Male Breast Cancer: A Case-Report

Introduction: Male Breast Cancer is a very rare disease associated with delayed diagnosis and a more invasive or aggressive tumor therapy, i.e., surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Lymphedema, shoulder joint restrictions, posture failures, sensitivity disorders, pain or cancer-related fatigue are common complaints.
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Assessment of Changes in Clinical Management of Cervical Cancer Patients in Light of New Staging Criteria

Objective: To assess the changes in the Current clinical management of cancer cervix patients as the new staging considers radiological and pathological criteria for cervical cancer staging. Methods: This retrospective study Retrospective collection of the Data from the medical records. Results: Five hundred and nine Patients were registered for cervical cancer from Jan 2019 to December 2021. The average age of patients treated was 53yrs. The patients' age distribution ( Table 2 ) was Less than one percent of patients below 30yrs, 31.4 percent, and 40.6 percent were in the 50 to 60 yrs range
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Dosimetric Comparison between Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy versus Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Treatment Plans for Breast Cancer

This study compared the dosimetric characteristics of Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques regarding target volume coverage and dose to heart, spinal cord, and lung for patients with breast cancer. We analyzed the dosimetric differences of plans in the treatment planning system (TPS) between IMRT and VMAT in treating breast cancer. The aim of this study is to compare the dosimetric aspects of IMRT plans with VMAT according to EMAMI, QUANTEC, and RTOG protocols
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Awareness towards Dental and Oral Health among Parents of Children Undergoing Anti-Cancer Treatment

The study aimed to assess the attitudes toward dental and oral health of parents of children receiving anti-cancer treatment. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was based on a convenience sample of parents of 50 pediatric patients who were receiving anti-cancer treatment (study group) and 62 parents of healthy children (control group). Questionnaires were distributed to assess awareness towards oral and dental care.
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Radiomics, PET-PSMA and Machine Learning for Intraprostatic Cancer Diagnosis

Prostate cancer (Pca) is the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in man, just after non-melanoma skin cancer. Today, prostate biopsy for tissue sampling is still the gold standard for its diagnosis. However, new generation imaging exam has been used in several clinical scenarios. Yet, positron emission tomography (PET) that targets a specific transmembrane protein on prostatic cells
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Does Body Mass Index Influence the Onset and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer?

Overweight and obesity are considered an increasing colorectal cancer risk factor. The association between excess body weight and colorectal cancer appears to be related to a state of systemic low-grade inflammation, due to an overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines.
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Assessment of Antioxidant and Antineoplastic Activities Blumea Lacera (Burn. F) Leaves

Blumea lacera (Burn. f.) DC. (Family: Asteraceae) is an important member of Bangladeshi natural plant resource and it is an herbaceous weed locally known as Kukursunga. Different parts of this plant are used traditionally to cure various diseases. But detail study on the antioxidant and antineoplastic potentials of Blumea lacera leaves, has not yet been done. Aim of this study is to examine the antioxidant and antineoplastic properties and quantify the different type of phytochemical content of the methanolic extract of leaves of Blumea lacera (MELB). MELB contained a rich polyphenol, flavonol, flavonoid and proanthocyanidins. MELB showed moderate cytotoxic effect against Artemia salina (brine shrimp nauplii) where its LD50 values was 66.12 μg/ml. In vitro antioxidant assay, MELB exhibited a remarkable capacity to scavenge the tested reactive species. MELB scavenged DPPH with an IC50 of 33.64 μg/mL and 42.69 μg/mL, respectively. In vivo antineoplastic assay, MELB significantly (P<0.05) decreased viable cell count and increased the survival time of EAC cell bearing mice. Hematological profiles were also restored significantly (P<0.05) to normal levels in MELB treated mice as compared to untreated EAC control mice. In addition, fluorescence microscopic view of EAC cells derived from MELB-treated group showed apoptotic characteristics in treated cells compared to untreated EAC control. our findings suggest that methanolic extract of Blumea lacera leaves(MELB) might be a potential agent with antioxidant properties for prevention of cancer and has the merit for further investigation in isolating its active constituents.
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Malignant Scalp Tumors: Retrospective Analysis of 1000 Patients.

Background: Limited data on large cohort of patients with malignant tumors of the scalp are available in the literature. The aim of this study was to review a large cohort of patients with malignant scalp tumors to determine epidemilogy, tumor characteristics of this region and treatment. Materials and Method: A retrospective review of patients with malignant scalp tumors diagnosed histopathologically between 2005 and 2021 was performed. Demographic features and tumor characteristics were analyzed. Results: A total of 1080 patients (M: F 3,5:1) were treated and followed up for a mean period of 42 months (12-120 months). Age at diagnosis ranged from 12 to 98 years. Most malignant scalp tumors (95,1%) occurred in those 50 years or older and in bald patients (87%). Basal cell carcinomas (59,2%), squamous cell carcinomas (32,2%) and melanomas were the most common histologic types. Incidence was highest on the frontal of temporal region (66,1%). Recurrence was frequently in squamous and basal cell carcinomas but uncommon in melanoma. Conclusions: Tumors of the scalp accounted about 8,01 % of all skin cancers. Tend to be basal and squamous cell carcinomas, many of which occur in the temporal and frontal region of bald men. The outlook for patients with scalp tumor is positive, although we suggest excision margins of at least 3-4 mm and continued clinical vigilance is warranted given their higher recurrence rates.
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Radiation Dose to Oesophagus in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy: A Retrospective Study

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Management of Breast cancer requires multidisciplinary team approach (viz, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Hormonal therapy & Targeted therapy). Radiotherapy reduces the risk of breast cancer mortality for women after breast conserving surgery and for women after mastectomy for node-positive disease. One of the organs at risk in breast cancer therapy is esophagus. As such, there is potential to expose greater volumes of esophagus to radiation. This may result in increased frequency and severity of acute radiation esophagitis during treatment. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate dosimetric parameters such as mean dose (Dmean) maximum dose (Dmax) which may influence the incidence and severity of esophagitis in breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Material and Methods: Treatment plans of post mastectomy patients who had already received adjuvant RT of dose 50 Gy in 25 # over 5 weeks to the chest wall along with Supraclavicular field (SCF) using 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D CRT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were selected. Mean dose (Dmean) and maximum dose (Dmax) to esophagus was assessed. Results: Dosimetric parameters assessed are Dmean and Dmax. Dmean assessed up to less than or equal to 11Gy and Dmax assessed upto less than or equal to 34Gy. The average of Dmean in this study is 8.34Gy which is within normal limits of prescribed dose. The mean Of Dmax in this study is 24.80Gy which is in limits of prescribed dose. Conclusion: Increased dose to esophagus in observed when IMRT is used especially when supraclavicular or internal mammary nodes are involved. Routine contouring of esophagus and planning accordingly may reduce oesophageal dose and acute oesophageal toxicity.
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Therapy-related Myeloid Neoplasms after Pediatric Solid Cancer in a Single Reference Cancer Center in Brazil

Pediatric cancer overall survival has increased due to improvements in treatment. However, long-term adverse effects are a challenge for this population. Secondary myeloid neoplasm (MN) is one of the complications of solid tumor treatment. Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN), therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML), and therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) are the most common events. The aim of this study was to report a large pediatric sample and the relevance of t-MN after pediatric solid tumor therapy. We conducted a retrospective study between 2000-2016 in a cohort of pediatric patients treated for solid tumors who developed a secondary MN by medical records review and analysis. Seven from 2178 pediatric patients who were previously treated for solid tumors, were diagnosed with t-MN in a reference cancer center in Brazil. The median age at primary tumor diagnosis was 12.8 years old. Osteosarcoma, atypical primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing sarcoma, and retinoblastoma were the most frequent solid tumors associated with t-MN. Three patients had a story of familiar cancer, and one patient with osteosarcoma had Li-Fraumeni syndrome confirmed. The median latency period to secondary MN was ten months and the prevalence rate was 0.32%. Two patients developed t-MDS and five, t-AML. All these patients received cytotoxic agents’ high doses that may have been associated with t-MN development. t-MN initial control, as well as unfavorable cytogenetic abnormalities, may have contributed to the poor outcome. We described the rarity of t-MN related to previous solid tumor therapy in a large pediatric sample in a Brazilian Cancer Center and their poor prognosis.
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Editorial Board Members Related to cancer

Ahed J Alkhatib

Department of Forensic science and Toxicology
Jordan University of Science and Technology

Chong Lee

Associate Professor
School of Nutrition & Health Promotion
Arizona State University
United States


Director of Anesthesia & Intensive Care and Pain Relief & Supportive Care Unit
La Maddalena Cancer Center, Palermo

Sachin S. Saboo

Assistant Professor
Department of Radiology
UT Southwestern Medical Center
United States


Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology
Emory School of Medicine
Emory University
United States

Marc Poirot

Research Director at INSERM
Cancer Research Center of Toulouse
University of Toulouse

Yan-Hua Chen

Associate Professor
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology
Brody School of Medicine
East Carolina University
United States


Associate Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Quillen College of Medicine
East Tennessee State University
United States

Andrey Budanov

Assistant Professor
Department of Human and Molecular Genetics
Massey Cancer Center
United States


Associate Clinical Professor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Stanford University Hospital and Clinics Stanford
United States
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