Articles Related to criminology
Addressing the Risk of Product Fraud: A Case Study of the Nigerian Combating Counterfeiting and Sub-Standard Medicines Initiatives
Combating counterfeit medicines requires a new and unique crime scene investigation and forensic science approach. The “crime scene” is both at the production of the counterfeit product anywhere in the world and simultaneously at the packaged product in a consumer’s hand.
As a criminal defense attorney and criminology professor, I am amazed and excited that so many Americans have an interest in forensic science. When striking juries, I used to ask how many jurors watched television shows like CSI, Law and Order, and Forensic Files.
A Model for Construction of Height and Sex from Shoulder Width, Arm Length and Foot Length by Regression Method
Anthropometry is a systematic study of measurements on man and it involves scientific techniques for taking various measurements and somatic observations on the living man. As crime rate is increasing day by day, issue for human identification is of prime note. A forensic anthropologist would attempt to answer the following key questions relating to origin, age, sex, height and race after examining the remains.
Cephalofacial measurements and indices are used to estimate sex and race. The aim of this is to document the craniofacial characteristics and sex differences from cephalic index and facial index of the studied groups.
Identification of Pyrrolidinophenone-type Designer Drugs by Gas Chromatography/ Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
Use of gas chromatography (GC) combined with time-of –flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with soft ionization generated with three different plasma gases (i.e., Xe, Kr, Ar) was evaluated for the identification of several pyrrolidinophenone-type designer drugs that are commercially available.
Present trend of the crimes in India reveals that a wide variety of firearms including factory /country made are illegally used in crimes like murder, armed robbery, riot, poaching etc. Out of the total firearms received in Tripura State Forensic Science Laboratory, Agartala for the last ten years, about 30% of the firearms are observed to be belonging to country made pistol/pipe guns.
Human origin determination is an important aspect of blood grouping analysis in forensic science laboratories. In the present study, protein extractants like gel buffer, ammonia and saline employed for origin determination were evaluated and compared qualitatively and quantitatively for their role in the extraction of proteins from dried blood stained materials of human origin at regular time intervals.
This paper discusses the psychosexual correlations and psychological consequences related to torture and behavioral acts that are fundamentally torturous. The influence of participation by learning and the relationship of acts to thought and thought to acts are further discussed to raise awareness to the effects of torture on the torturer. Theories from multiple disciplines are presented in an integrated context to examine the correlation between fundamental psychological principles associated with acts that are torturous in nature and, therefore, innately evil.
Programming Scripts for Simple and Complex Paternity Testing based on Open-Source Programming Language from the R Project
Programming scripts were written for the statistical analysis of genetic data from simple cases and complex cases of undetermined paternity. The methods presented here involve algorithms constructed with R, an open-source and increasingly popular programming language used for calculations and statistics; these methods also involve conditional probability analysis, Bayes’ Theorem, and pedigree analysis.
Stature Estimation from the Anthropometric Measurements of Footprint in Iban Ethnics of East Malaysia by Regression Analysis
A person’s stature is an identifying characteristic that is often used in forensic investigation. Footprint is the one of the valuable physical evidence encountered in the crime scenes and examination of barefoot impressions is important especially in developing countries like India, Malaysia where majority of the rural population like to walk barefooted because of socio-economic and climatic reasons.
The Flesh Fly Sarcophaga (Liopygia) crassipalpis Macquart 1839 as an Invader of a Corpse in Calabria (Southern Italy)
We present an indoor forensic case that occurred in spring 2013 in Cosenza (southern Italy). The entomological evidence collected at the scene consisted of Calliphoridae (Calliphora vicina, Lucilia sericata), Sarcophagidae (Sarcophaga crassipalpis), Fanniidae (Fannia scalaris) and Muscidae (Hydrotaea ignava).
NMR Assignment of N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide Seized as Herbal Incense for the First Time in Italy
The synthetic cannabinoid, N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide, known also as AKB48 and/or APINACA, has been detected for the first time in herbal incense seized in Italy. Its structural characterization has been performed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. In order to favor an easier and faster identification of AKB48 in future investigations, NMR assignments in deuterated methanol and chloroform is also reported.
Studies have reported the effects of imprisonment on the wives and girlfriends of prisoners, but have not investigated how these women perceive love and commitment. This study analyzes four different styles of love: eros (romantic love), storge (amicably love), mania (possessive love), and agape (altruistic love) in a sample of 96 women who are in relationships with prisoners.
48-years old man was found dead at home, lying in his bed. There was a bucket with liquid vomited remnants with no addition of fresh or digested blood found near the bed and an empty bottle of alkaline mineral water often used to attenuate the gastric pain.
Here in a systematic, accurate and reliable method, Head-Space Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) was developed to determine blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb%), in order to investigate deaths related to CO exposure especially involving blood and hepatic tissues.
Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath
The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS
The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.