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Articles Related to diabetes

The Efficiency and Safety of a Resveratrol and Alpha Lipoic Acid Combination in the Prevention of Gestational Diabetes Related Complications: A Retrospective Clinical Trial

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased maternal and fetal risk of complications. Other than lifestyle modifications and diet, little prevention can be done towards this maternal complication. Through a preclinical approach and a retrospective clinical trial, we investigated the effects of maternal supplementation with a nutraceutical composition based on resveratrol (RSV) and alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on insulin resistance and GDM status
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Radiomics, PET-PSMA and Machine Learning for Intraprostatic Cancer Diagnosis

Prostate cancer (Pca) is the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in man, just after non-melanoma skin cancer. Today, prostate biopsy for tissue sampling is still the gold standard for its diagnosis. However, new generation imaging exam has been used in several clinical scenarios. Yet, positron emission tomography (PET) that targets a specific transmembrane protein on prostatic cells
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Effectiveness of a Brief Diabetes Risk Assessment Instrument for Detecting Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Among High-Risk Ethnic Communities in West Africa

With the growing burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and associated health, social, and economiccosts in sub-Saharan Africa, tools are needed to assess T2D risks rapidly, allowing for targeted early intervention. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a brief diabetes risk assessment instrument for detecting undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes among high-risk ethnic communities in Benin, West Africa.
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A rare case of levofloxacin-induced fatal hypoglycemia in a non-diabetic patient with the review of literature

Levofloxacin, a broad-spectrum, third-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic, is rarely reported to cause life-threatening adverse effects, such as severe hypoglycemia resulting in coma. We report a rare case of hypoglycemia in an elderly non- diabetic patient induced by levofloxacin. A 61-year-old male patient was admitted with severe hypoglycemia. His past medical history revealed treatment with levofloxacin for pneumonia.
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Elexacaftor/Tezacaftor/Ivacaftor Improves Glycemic Control in Pediatric Patients with Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disorder caused by genetic mutations encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. Elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor (ELX/TEZ/IVA) is a CFTR modulator shown to improve lung function in certain patients with CF. We undertook this study to determine its effects on glycemic outcomes in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD). We reviewed the medical records and identified two subjects, referred to as subject A and subject B, with CFRD on insulin therapy at Duke University Hospital between 2019-2020 who were on treatment with ELX/TEZ/IVA for at least one year. The mean hgbA1C pre- and post- treatment was 5.65% (5.6-5.7) and 5.05% (5.0-5.1) respectively with a mean reduction of 0.6% (p value 0.01). Improvement in hgbA1C occurred in the absence of increased insulin requirements, subject B remained on a similar insulin regimen whereas subject A was able to come off insulin completely. In addition, improvements in BMI z-score were seen in both groups with a mean BMI z-score of -0.30 pre-treatment (-0.71-0.11) and z-score of +0.28 post-treatment (0.11-0.45).
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Socio-Demographic, Clinical Characteristics and Blood Lipid profiles of Type 1 Diabetic Patients Followed in Regional Hospitals in The Northern Zone of Cameroon

Background and Objective: In Cameroon, given the galloping growth in the prevalence of diabetes, in particular type 1 diabetes in the northern regions, we undertook this study, with the objective to improve the management of type 1 diabetes by determining the socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and lipid profiles of the patients followed in the care centers of regional hospitals of Maroua, Garoua and Ngaoundere. Methods: We undertook a descriptive cross-sectional study from 07 August 2018 to 07 May 2019 in the care centers of the regional hospitals. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected by interview to consent patient through structured questionnaires in the survey sheet. Anthropometric data were also determined during the survey, and the blood was collected in referred laboratory for determination of some lipid profiles parameters. Results: On a sample of 467 Patient suffering from diabetes, 68 were of type 1, representing a prevalence of 26%. Type 1 diabetes Patients were mostly female (61.8%) and the mean age was 20.72 ± 3.4 years with a high percentage between 20-30 years (51.5%). More than half of our patients were pupils and students, many of them practiced Muslims as religion (58.8%). In most of cases (51.3%), the disease was diagnosed after one year as a result of illness. The majority of our patients were non-smokers (98.5%) and less athletic (32.4%). The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.03 ± 2.7 kg /m2 with an average waist circumference of 80.26 ± 9.23 cm in men and 82.15 ± 10.45 in women. Their treatment was based essentially on insulin therapy, mainly using regular and intermediate insulins. More than half of the subjects had high blood glucose (78.1%), high triglyceride (34.1%) and HDL-cholesterol (29.3%) levels. Most of the patients suffered from overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, arthritis, kidney failure and other diseases (malaria, jaundice, stomach ache). No significant relation was found between clinical and the sociodemographic and blood lipid profiles. Conclusion: It emerges from this study that type 1 diabetes represent high proportions of diabetes cases in septentrional area of Cameroon, and affect mostly young of less than 30 years old, dominated by women, practicing Muslim as religion. Their clinical profile characterized by high frequency of overweight/obesity, kidney failure and arthritis vary, but not significantly, with neither their sociodemographic nor their blood lipid profiles. Absence of sport, female and less control of their hypoglycemia are factors risks of the progression of the disease.
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The Simultaneous Activation of Nrf2 and Antioxidant Compounds may reduce the Risk, Progression, and Improve the Management of Diabetes by Reducing Oxidative and Inflammatory Damages

Despite extensive research, the incidence of diabetes continues to increase, and the management of diabetes needs improvement, because in 2016, more than 100,000 patients had lower extremity amputated, suffered ischemic heart disease and stroke. Analysis of investigations indicates that increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation enhance the risk, progression, diabetic–related complications, and reduce effectiveness of drug therapy. Therefore, simultaneously attenuation of these cellular abnormalities may help in reducing the risk of development, progression, and prolonging the effectiveness of drug therapy.
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Comparative Effect of a High Fat with or without High Levels of Sucrose Diets on Peripheral Neuropathy in C57BL/6J Mice

Feeding mice a diet containing high fat and high sucrose has been promoted as a good model for type 2 diabetes. This study sought to determine the effect of feeding mice a high fat and high sucrose diet on neuropathy compared to mice fed only a high fat diet and mice fed a high diet and treated with streptozotocin.
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Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Anthropometric Measures, Blood Pressure and Glucose Level among Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Metformin Treatment

Fasting from dawn to dusk during Ramadan is obligatory for all healthy adult Muslims.
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Metabolic Effects of an Inositol-Resveratrol Nutraceutical Combination in Non-Diabetic Overweight/Obese Subjects with Altered Glucose Tolerance

Insulin resistance (IR) is almost constistently associated with overweight or obesity in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Nutraceutical compounds improving insulin resistance (IR) may be useful in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in metabolic diseases.
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The Effects of Vitamin D on Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is also referred to as a steroid hormone with an active form that can bind to receptors. The main way to obtain vitamin D is its synthetization on the skin with the effect of ultraviolet light. It is activated in the body by two hydroxylation reactions in the liver and kidneys. Vitamin D is said to have other effects besides those on the bone metabolism. Vitamin D deficiency is a global social health problem. It is associated with cardiovascular diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, various types of cancer, immune deficiencies and increased mortality. It is frequently observed in obese individuals. A possible molecular mechanism of the relationship between obesity and vitamin D deficiency may be associated with the metabolism in mature adipocytes, oxidative stress, inflammation and the gene expression regulation capacity of vitamin D which is related to the adipogenesis process. Vitamin D may lead to an increase in insulin secretion and a decrease in insulin resistance by regulating the immune system. Inflammatory cytokine production is thought to be one of the mechanisms of action of vitamin D on insulin resistance. Inflammatory cytokines appear to be associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Low levels of vitamin D may cause disruption of insulin secretion. Vitamin D may be involved in β-cell secretion activity and changes in tissue response to insulin. There is a relationship between inadequate 25(OH)D levels and β-cell dysfunction. Vitamin D may have beneficial effects on β-cell function by suppressing the renin-angiotensin system. Based on all this information, it may be concluded that vitamin D is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes, and vitamin D deficiency may form the basis for these conditions.
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Fuel Metabolism Following 3 Days on a Carbohydrate-Free Diet vs. 3 Days of Fasting in Men with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

A 72-h fast results in a rapid decrease in circulating glucose to a lower level without a change in non-water body mass. Several metabolic adjustments are necessary. A nutrient-sufficient, carbohydrate (CHO)-free diet also has been reported to result in a decrease in glucose, and similar metabolic perturbations. However, direct comparisons are not available in subjects without, or with, type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
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Selenium Supplementation in Obese Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Type 2 Diabetes

Selenium (Se) is a trace element present in many foods. Selenium-protein co-factor plays a critical anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory role in thyroid function, but quite recently its ability to prevent adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis has also been evaluated. The aim of our study was to assess whether thyroid function, as well as, body mass index (BMI) and body composition might improve in Se-treated obese patients as compared to those getting placebo (P).
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The Management and Care of the Type 1 Diabetic Athlete

Diabetes poses many unique challenges to all individuals affected by the disease, particularly the diabetic athlete due to the effect that exercise has on blood glucose levels within the body. Patients and professionals must demonstrate significant understanding of the complex interaction of many physiological and environmental components that contribute to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, or lack thereof. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is the form of Diabetes most often seen in elite athletes.
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Blonanserin N-Oxide Lowers Glucose Levels in Animal Models

The N-oxide of anti-psychotic drug Blonanserin (BLNO) was synthesized and tested as a novel molecule to understand its ability in reducing blood glucose levels.
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Editorial Board Members Related to diabetes

SALEH A. NASER

Professor of Medicine and Graduate Coordinator
Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences
University of Central Florida
United States

Jimmy SO

Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine
National University Health System
Singapore

Wan Lee

Professor
Department of Biochemistry
Dongguk University School of Medicine
Korea

Nikolić Dragan M

Faculty of Medicine
University of Belgrade
Serbia

Bonghee Lee

Professor
Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute
Gachon University
Korea

Alireza Jahan-mihan

Assistant Professor
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics
University of North Florida
United States

KONSTANTINOS KANTARTZIS

Department of Internal Medicine
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology
Nephrology, Vascular Disease and Clinical Chemistry
University of Tübingen
Germany

Parameswaran Ramakrishnan

Assistant Professor
Experimental Pathology
Case Western Reserve University
United States

ASISH K. SAHA

Associate Professor
Department of Medicine
Boston University
United States

Muhammad Nasir Afzal

Professor & Director
Department of physiology
College of Medicine, Alfaisal University
Saudi Arabia
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