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Articles Related to immune

Increasing CD8+ T Cells and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines is associated with Hypersensitivity Reactions in People Living with HIV-1 under Antiretroviral Treatment

Background: Despite their good efficacy, antiretroviral drugs often induce adverse effects, in particular hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) which cause significant discomfort leading to the abandonment of treatment and then to therapeutic failure in some HIV-positive patients. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess the association between immune responses and hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) induced by antiretroviral treatment in people who living with HIV-1 (PLHIV-1), through the distribution of immune cells and cytokine profiles.
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Anti-Infectives do not Impact Treatment Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: a Single Center Retrospective Analysis

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have provided groundbreaking advancements for a variety of malignancies. It has been of recent interest to identify predictive indicators of response to improve cancer management using immunotherapy. The intestinal microbiome has been recognized as a potential predictor of ICI anti- tumor activity. Antibiotics reduce diversity the overall composition of the gut microbiota, with effects seen as quickly as in a single day. Post-antibiotic dysbiosis recovery varies depending on type and duration of exposure. Preclinical studies in mice with advanced cancer treated with broad spectrum antibiotics have been associated with resistance to ICI treatment.
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Case Report: De novo Ocular Myasthenia Gravis after the mRNA Vaccine for SARS-COV2

Autoimmune Myasthenia gravis is a neuromuscular junction disease caused by destruction of the acetylcholine receptor on the postsynaptic membrane, mediated by autoantibodies and clinically characterized by skeletal muscle weakness. This can be triggered by drugs, infections, and in rare cases by vaccines. During the COVID pandemic, de novo cases and exacerbations of myasthenia gravis due to viral infection have been documented. Although few cases related to COVID vaccination. A 69-year-old female patient with blurred vision, a clinic that began 10 days later after receiving first dose of COVID vaccine, and diplopia and right palpebral ptosis after the second dose, 30 days later. In the examination, Edrophonium test was clearly positive, treatment with pyridostigmine and prednisone was started and after 14 days the clinic showed improvement until the resolution of the symptoms There are few reports of exacerbations or triggers for the appearance of myasthenia gravis, a series of 27 cases has been published where there are outbreaks of immune-mediated diseases or the new appearance of autoimmune diseases, in which it is observed that the time of appearance of the outbreak was on average 4 days up to a maximum of 25 days. In conclusion, Myasthenia gravis is a rare complication of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. Its potential severity and the current lack of knowledge of the real incidence after vaccination makes it necessary to maintain an attitude of vigilance in the face of symptoms that suggest it.
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Development of SARS-Cov-2 Circulating Immune Complex Candidate, (CRCx) as A New Promising Vaccine Eliciting Broad Immune Response.

There is a need to develop a universal vaccine that can boost immunity to coronaviruses if some modifications in their structure occur. This is what we are dealing with nowadays: a virus that can mutate its structure, while immunity is standing still in facing the virus. We report on preclinical trials of CRCx 3 and CRCx 2 vaccine candidates in inducing an elevated level of positive neutralizing antibodies as well as a cellular immune response in an animal model to provide protection against SARS-CoV-2. Highly efficient protection against SARS-CoV-2 was obtained with three-dose immunization using 0.25 ml of CRCx vaccine with a 25-mm needle at 7-day intervals between successive injections. In addition, CRCx vaccine candidates exhibit efficient productivity and good genetic stability for vaccine manufacture. These results support the further evaluation of CRCx in a clinical trial.
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Standardization of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines (IL-1 & TNF-α) and Haematological Biomarker as an Early Assessment of Health Status in Adult Healthy Pigs

The study was aimed to standardize pro-inflammatory cytokines and haematological biomarker level in visually adult healthy swine as an early health check-up scanner. In the present study, total six (6) crossbreed pigs (Yorkshire × Swedish Landrace) with similar age group (3 years) and unisex (male) with average body wt (140 kg) were selected for sampling.
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Covid-19: Which Baseline Co-Factors are Associated with a Worse Prognosis?

Critically ill Covid-19 patients are characterized by an uncontrolled cytokine storm that reflects a profoundly dysregulated immune response and represents probably the major factor contributing to mortality. Cytokines can lead to vascular leakage, activation of complement, and activation of the coagulation cascade, which in turn cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), myocardial dysfunction, hypotension, and coagulopathy [1-3].
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Effects of Transfer Factor Supplementation on Immune Reactions in Mice

Colostrum-derived transfer factors are among the highest potential natural immunostimulatory food supplements. In our study, we evaluated the possible effects of supplementation with various compositions that included transfer factors in phagocytosis, TNF-α and IL-2 secretion, antibody formation and NK cells activity. We found significant improvements of all these immune reactions after 7 days of supplementation.
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Hereditary Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection

SCAD with an estimated prevalence of 1.7% to 4% is an important cause of Myocardial infarction especially in middleaged women with no or minimal cardiovascular risk factors. Diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion and better coronary imaging. The hereditary/ genetic component has been postulated to play a role, but there is insufficient data on familial SCAD. We present a case of SCAD with probable genetic and autoimmune association.
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Field Assessment of an Immune-Complex Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccine in Chicks Born to Non-Hyperimmunized Broiler Breeders

Prevention of infectious bursal disease (IBD) remains of paramount importance, given the dramatic losses it can induce in commercial chicken flocks. In the Netherlands, maternal immunity is regarded as low, because the parent stock flocks do not receive an inactivated vaccination prior to the onset of production. Therefore, the aim of this field study was to assess the consequences of hatchery vaccination against IBD using an immune-complex vaccine in broiler chicks that were provided with a limited amount of passive immunity. Three grow out cycles in two houses each (six flocks) were monitored after vaccination. The recorded parameters included (i) body and bursa weight, (ii) IBD antibody response, and (iii) histopathology and PCR from the bursa of Fabricius.
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Analysis of Trends in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS Related Conditions in Masvingo Province 2004-2009

Globally 42 million adults and children are estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS of which 22 million of these cases are in Sub Sahara Africa. In Zimbabwe 1.6 million adults aged 15 years and above are living with HIV/ AIDS and in Masvingo Province HIV/AIDS is ranked 2nd on the top ten causes of OPD attendance.
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Novel Alternative Treatment to Plasmapheresis in Evans Syndrome

Evans syndrome is a rare haematological disease characterised by concurrent occurrence of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. The autoimmune haemolysis can lead to hyperbilirubinaemia, profound anaemia and haemodynamic instability. It can be difficult to treat and when refractory to medical treatment it could necessitate emergency splenectomy. Plasmapheresis is used in refractory haemolytic anaemia to aid removal of disease causing autoimmune complexes whilst immunomodulators act to reduce autoantibody response and effectiveness. However, this is an expensive and resource intensive process that is limited to tertiary referral centres. In this case study we present a successful novel alternative for life threatening AIHA in Evans Syndrome using haemofiltration with on-going fresh frozen plasma transfusion when resources are limited or it is not an accessible method.
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A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial Evaluating the Effects of an Investigational Study Product on Exercise Induced Muscle Soreness, Markers of Inflammation, Muscle Damage and Exercise Performance in Healthy Males

Gherkin, a pure botanical extract from cucumber is a phytonutrient rich vegetable which may have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and pain relieving properties. The purpose of this randomized double-blind placebo study was to determine the effects of Gherkin (Cuvitus™, Actido®)on exercise performance, markers of inflammation and acute muscle soreness in healthy males.
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Former Effective Immunotherapy without Adverse Events of Inoperable Epithelial Ovarian Cancers and a Prospect for the Immune Prophylaxis

Current cancer treatments by immune checkpoint blockades are limited due to severe adverse events caused by alteration of the immune system required for homeostasis of normal tissues. Common cancer chemotherapy alters the quality of patients’ lives. Platinum-based treatment can lead to severe neurotoxicity with chronic debilitation. Additionally, survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) has remained poor despite extensive cytoreductive surgery, high dose chemotherapy, checkpoint blockades and immunotherapies effective in some other types of cancer. The pathobiology of EOC cancer stem cells (CSCs) is not well understood. Observations demonstrate that EOCs exhibit in vivo two distinct CSC types - perivascular diploid CSCs dividing asymmetrically with the help of the host suicidal CD8+ T cells, and haploid CSCs at the cancer abdominal surface originating from meiosis I cytokinesis of bulk surface cancer cells. The perivascular CSCs contribute to the cancer cell bulk and, via left ovary venous blood, can cause EOC liver metastases. Haploid CSCs released from the bulk cancer surface cause the common pelvic and abdominal EOC spread. Former elimination of the host antibodies blocking T cell effectors by intermittent doses of cyclophosphamide exhibiting significant immunomodulatory anticancer effects, facilitation of the immune system reactivity against alloantigens of cancer cells by blood transfusions, and augmentation of anticancer immunity by bacterial toxins, resulted during the subsequent treatment-free period into rejection of inoperable EOCs without any adverse events during the treatnment. To help prevent cancer relapses, patients treated for advanced primary epithelial cancers should be considered as candidates for continuously stimulating immune anticancer activity by treatments such as daily metformin and weekly lentinan consumptions.
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A Study of Immune Response in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fed Levamisole Incorporated Diet

This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of levamisole on the immune enhancement of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) against potential bacterial pathogens, Fish with weight of 98±5 g were randomly distributed into seven groups each at a rate of 20 fish per 300-L aquarium and fed on a diet containing 0.0, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 or 1500 mg levamisole/kg diet for eight weeks.
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Immune Checkpoint and Ovarian Cancer

Many scientists and biotechnology companies had given up on the idea of cancer immunotherapy in 1990s. Almost a decade after first detection of T cell suppression effect of CTLA4 the identity of its antibody was established. While they are found effective in many cancers including melanoma, lung cancer etc. immune checkpoint inhibitors have lent an important measure to manage recurrent and refractory ovarian cancer. This subject needs constant updating specially for students of ovarian cancer who are looking at this avenue of cure with much hope.
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Editorial Board Members Related to immune

Gyorgy Nagy

Associate Professor
Faculty of Medicine
Semmelweis University
Hungary

Robert Kinobe

Senior Lecturer
Physiology and Pharmacology
School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences
Australia

Janet Liversidge

Professor
School of Medicine and Dentistry
University of Aberdeen Institute of Medical Sciences
United Kingdom

Xiao-Jian Yao

Associate Professor
Department of Medical Microbiology
University of Manitoba
Canada

David Paul Richman

Professor
Department of Neurology and Center for Neuroscience
University of California
United States

Suresh G. Joshi

Associate Professor
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Drexel University
United States

Konstantin N Konstantinov

Professor
Department of Internal Medicine
University of New Mexico
United States

Lan-Szu Chou

Associate professor
Department of Bio-Agriculture Sciences
National Chiayi University
Taiwan

YUNBO LI

Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine
United States

Jeffrey E. Lee

Assistant Professor
Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology
University of Toronto
Canada
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