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Articles Related to infection

Imaging in Children with Febrile Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is most common bacterial infection in childhood, and it may be the first symptom of congenital anomaly of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) in 30% of children. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important for the prevention of acute complications as well as renal scarring
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Outcomes Following Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention with the Exchange of Modular Components in Hip Periprosthetic Joint Infections

Shin Onodera, Motomi Ishibe (2023) Outcomes Following Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention with the Exchange of Modular Components in Hip Periprosthetic Joint Infections. J Orthop Physiother 6(1): 101
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Association of ACE I/D rs4646994 and ACE2 rs2285666 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Bangladeshi People

Covid-19 caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which hit the world in December 2019 is one of the worst medical emergencies people have ever encountered. Human angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the entry path of this virus to the host that regulates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Hypothesis: Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection may be affected by ACE rs4646994 and ACE2 rs2285666 polymorphisms.
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Immunoprophylaxis against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

Respiratory Syncytial Virus is an etiological cause of lower respiratory tract infections. Due to the controversial therapeutic approach, it has a significant share in the causes of hospitalizations and even fatal outcomes concerning children up to two years of age. The elderly patients, especially the immune compromised and those with co-morbidities, are at a great risk of developing severe conditions because it is often not considered as pathogen. Those are the reasons which determine the necessity of prophylaxis of the abovementioned target groups of patients - children up to two years of age and adults over 65 years of age.
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Adherence to Antiretroviral Medication and Factors Affecting it Among HIV-- Positive Patients Receiving it at Adama General Hospital

Before the development of highly active antiretroviral medication, AIDS and related illnesses caused a great deal of suffering and death. All of the AIDS-related morbidities and mortality have considerably decreased thanks to modern medication, especially in industrialized nations. However, this accomplishment is still elusive in underdeveloped nations, particularly in those in sub-Saharan Africa. This failure can be attributed to a number of factors. Poverty, ignorance about the treatment, and inadequate therapy adherence are at the top of this list.
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Chemicals Disinfections and Their Effects on The Dimensional Stability of Alginate: Systematic Review

Dental practice involves a risk of exposure to microorganisms causing many infectious diseases. The risk of contamination starts at the beginning of the prosthetic workflow through impressions. Various chemical disinfection protocols for dental impressions are reported in the literature.
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Association of Viruses with Aplastic Anemia: A Case Control Study

Several viruses are often believed to be associated with acquired aplastic anemia. There is paucity of literature proving the association between viruses and aplastic anemia. We aimed to study the association of aplastic anemia with Human Parvovirus B19 (B19V), Epstein Barr virus (EBV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Hepatitis viruses, Measles virus (MV), Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) and Adenovirus (AdV). Between January 2020 to December 2020, confirmed cases of aplastic anemia and age and sex matched controls of iron deficiency anemia were enrolled in the study. They were tested for the above- mentioned viruses for antigen and/or IgM antibody by ELISA and/or nucleic acid by Real Time PCR in serum samples. Relevant history was collected. Cases were followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months after enrollment for recording the outcome. Total 68 cases and 34 controls were included in the study of which 61(89.70%) cases and 12(38.23%) controls were positive for markers of at-least one of the 10 viruses studied. B19V, EBV, CMV and Hepatitis B virus were found to be significantly associated with aplastic anemia. Five patients died within 12 months. Mortality was not associated with viral infections. Viral infections may play a role in pathogenesis of acquired aplastic anemia.
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Distribution of Dengue Virus Serotypes during the COVID 19 Pandemic in Sri Lanka

Background: Dengue virus (DENV) infection is highly endemic in Sri Lanka with frequent epidemics. Knowledge on DENV serotype distribution will provide important information on impending epidemics. Understanding the disease burden of DENV infection during COVID-19 pandemic is highly important. Objective: To analyze the incidence of DENV infection and serotype distribution among clinically suspected patients with DENV infection during COVID-19 pandemic in Sri Lanka. Study Design: This retrospective study analyzed 1796 plasma samples from patients with clinically suspected DENV infection received at Medical Research Institute (MRI), for testing of DENV RNA, from May 2019 to April 2021. Detection of viraemia and serotypes was performed using a commercially-validated serotyping real-time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Demographic and clinical details were recruited from accompanying request forms. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi square testing. Results: Of the samples 69.2% (n=1243) became positive for DENV RNA with 55.34% (n=688) belonging to patients under 16 years and 20.99%(n=261) to patients with severe infection. The vireamic rate ranged from 31.9% to 80.12% during different quarters of the study period. DENV-2 was detected in 40.2% (n=500) followed by DENV-3(37.97%,n=472) and DENV-1(15.44%,n=192) while co-infection with two different serotypes was observed in 5.79%(n=72). DENV3(47.5%,n=124) and DENV-2(39.46%, n=103) exhibited high percentage of positivity among patients with severe infection. Conclusions: Incidence of Dengue virus infection in Sri Lanka showed a noticeable decrease during study period. DENV2 and DENV-3 exhibited dominance with re-emergence of DENV-1 and co-infection with multiple serotypes. DENV-2 and DENV-3 were detected with severe infection predominantly.
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Novel Antibiotics for Bloodstream Infections in HSCT

Bloodstream infections (BSI) are one of severe infectious complications faced by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. BSI increases significantly the morbidity and mortality of HSCT patients. Gram-positive bacteria occurred more frequency than gram-negative bacteria over past decades, but rates of gram-negative bloodstream infections have recently increased again. Antibacterial prophylaxis could be justified in HSCT, infections caused by resistant pathogens increased mortality. New antibiotics such as omadacycline, meropenem/vaborbactam, eravacycline, ceftobiprole, tedizolid, dalbavancin, cefiderocol hold promise for the treatment of highly resistant pathogens.
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Immunological Analysis of Active Tuberculosis Infection in Children and Adolescents

The latent tuberculosis infection worldwide is determined by about 1.7 billion people. Identification of latent tuberculosis infection and prevention of the development of the disease is one of the highest priority tasks in the global radical reduc- tion of the burden of tuberculosis. The research is devoted to the study of the effectiveness of cellular and humoral anti- gen-specific immunological methods for determining the initial signs of tuberculosis infection activity when examining children and adolescents with a latent form of this infection. Cellular immunological reactions in contrast to the determi- nation of specific antibodies of blood serum using the recombinant specific protein ESAT-6-CFP-10, were not sufficiently effective in differentiating active and latent infections. Determination of antibodies to the ESAT-6-CFP-10 protein with analysis of the specific activity criterion and determina- tion of an increased concentration of neopterin up to 9 nM/L in blood plasma samples made it possible to reveal signs of tuberculosis infection activity. These results have been confirmed by the results of chest computed tomography of children and adolescents with the determination tuberculosis of intrathoracic lymph nodes or small intrapulmonary (2-5 mm) intrapulmonary foci, including those with signs of calcification.
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Evaluation of Infectious and Malignant Complications in Elderly Renal Transplant Recipients Receiving Alemtuzumab Compared to Basiliximab

The choice of induction immunosuppression can affect several outcomes after kidney transplant (KTx). We aimed to evaluate infectious and malignant complications between alemtuzumab and basiliximab in elderly KTx recipients. Patients ≥ 65 years old who received alemtuzumab or basiliximab induction for their primary KTx from 2006 – 2018 were included.
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Exacerbation of Atopic Dermatitis in a Patient with SARS-CoV-2 Covid-19 Infection

Atopic dermatitis is a common chronic disease in children. One of its possible exacerbating factors is covid-19 infection. We present the case of a patient with exacerbation of his atopic dermatitis due to COVID-19 infection.
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Bronchoalveolar Lavage Cytokine Profile in a Renal Transplant Recipient with C. Deuterogattii Infection

Cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii differs from that due to C. neoformans by an increased incidence of cryptococcomas in lung and brain, higher neurological morbidity and slower response to antifungal therapy. A case report of a renal transplant recipient with disseminated and fatal cryptoccocosis is presented. For this patient and for 12 controls, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of IL-10, TNF-α, IL-12p40, CXCL-8 and CXCL-10 were measured. Broth microdilution assay, in accordance with CLSI-M27-A3 document was performed to determine antifungal susceptibility. BAL yielded yeasts when cultured that were identified as C. deuterogattii through biochemical reactions and URA5-RFLP genotype. The strain presented susceptibility to amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole. The patient presented significant higher levels of IL-10 (73.22 pg/mL), IFN-γ (257.08 pg/mL), CXCL-8 (161.93 pg/ml) and CXCL-10 (1000.76 pg/mL) than controls. Different from C neoformans, scarce data are available about the immune response in patients with C. deuterogattii infection, especially cytokine profile on BAL.
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Auricular Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation may Increase the Risk of MildCOVID-19 Infection or of Herpetic Flare: Is there a Role of Microbiota?

SARS-CoV-2 can reach the central nervous system through the vagal nerve. Microbiota may favour or prevent viral spread. Assess whether auricular transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (ATVNS) may favour the occurrence of mild-COVID-19 or the recurrence of herpes simplex type 1. 749 patients were included. 195 patients were recommended and comply with ATVNS. 67 patients of the ATVNS group experienced mild-COVID-19 (34.3%) versus only 28 in the not-recommended ATVNS group (525 patients; 5.3%). A similar percentage was observed in the non-compliant ATVNS group (one case for 29 patients; 3.4%) [p<0.001].
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Study on Prescribing Pattern of Antibiotic used for Urinary Tract Infection in Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital: A Preliminary Antibiotic Stewardship Programme

Urinary tract infection is defined as the presence of microorganism in the urine that cannot be accounted by contamination. First line treatments for UTI are antibiotics. Antibiotic stewardship is the coordinated intervention designed to improve and measure the appropriate use of antibiotic agents, by promoting the selection of optimal antibiotic drug regimen including dosing, duration of therapy and route of administration.
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Editorial Board Members Related to infection

Jayasimha Rao

Associate Professor
Jefferson College of Health Sciences
Department of Medicine

Dagmara McGuinness

Research Associate
College of Medical
Veterinary & Life Sciences
Institute of Cancer Sciences
Western Infirmary Glasgow

Alfredo Figueiredo

Orthopaedic Surgery Department
Coimbra University Hospital

Makobetsa Khati

Department at CSIR Biosciences
South Africa

Ashraf Eljedi

Associate Professor of International Public Health
Faculty of NUrsing
The Islamic University of Gaza

Efimia Papadopoulou-Alataki

Assistant professor
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Papageorgiou Hospital

Hisao Kurazono

Department of Animal and Food Hygiene
Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine

Younes Chorfi

Associate Professor
Department of Veterinary Biomedicine
University of Montreal

HamidReza Naderi

Associate Professor
Department of Infectious Diseases
Imam Reza University Hospital

Seham Bassyouni M. Tayel

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry
Faculty of Dentistry
Alexandria University
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