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Articles Related to infections

Imaging in Children with Febrile Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is most common bacterial infection in childhood, and it may be the first symptom of congenital anomaly of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) in 30% of children. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important for the prevention of acute complications as well as renal scarring
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Outcomes Following Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention with the Exchange of Modular Components in Hip Periprosthetic Joint Infections

Shin Onodera, Motomi Ishibe (2023) Outcomes Following Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention with the Exchange of Modular Components in Hip Periprosthetic Joint Infections. J Orthop Physiother 6(1): 101
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Immunoprophylaxis against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

Respiratory Syncytial Virus is an etiological cause of lower respiratory tract infections. Due to the controversial therapeutic approach, it has a significant share in the causes of hospitalizations and even fatal outcomes concerning children up to two years of age. The elderly patients, especially the immune compromised and those with co-morbidities, are at a great risk of developing severe conditions because it is often not considered as pathogen. Those are the reasons which determine the necessity of prophylaxis of the abovementioned target groups of patients - children up to two years of age and adults over 65 years of age.
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Adherence to Antiretroviral Medication and Factors Affecting it Among HIV-- Positive Patients Receiving it at Adama General Hospital

Before the development of highly active antiretroviral medication, AIDS and related illnesses caused a great deal of suffering and death. All of the AIDS-related morbidities and mortality have considerably decreased thanks to modern medication, especially in industrialized nations. However, this accomplishment is still elusive in underdeveloped nations, particularly in those in sub-Saharan Africa. This failure can be attributed to a number of factors. Poverty, ignorance about the treatment, and inadequate therapy adherence are at the top of this list.
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Chemicals Disinfections and Their Effects on The Dimensional Stability of Alginate: Systematic Review

Dental practice involves a risk of exposure to microorganisms causing many infectious diseases. The risk of contamination starts at the beginning of the prosthetic workflow through impressions. Various chemical disinfection protocols for dental impressions are reported in the literature.
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Association of Viruses with Aplastic Anemia: A Case Control Study

Several viruses are often believed to be associated with acquired aplastic anemia. There is paucity of literature proving the association between viruses and aplastic anemia. We aimed to study the association of aplastic anemia with Human Parvovirus B19 (B19V), Epstein Barr virus (EBV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Hepatitis viruses, Measles virus (MV), Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) and Adenovirus (AdV). Between January 2020 to December 2020, confirmed cases of aplastic anemia and age and sex matched controls of iron deficiency anemia were enrolled in the study. They were tested for the above- mentioned viruses for antigen and/or IgM antibody by ELISA and/or nucleic acid by Real Time PCR in serum samples. Relevant history was collected. Cases were followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months after enrollment for recording the outcome. Total 68 cases and 34 controls were included in the study of which 61(89.70%) cases and 12(38.23%) controls were positive for markers of at-least one of the 10 viruses studied. B19V, EBV, CMV and Hepatitis B virus were found to be significantly associated with aplastic anemia. Five patients died within 12 months. Mortality was not associated with viral infections. Viral infections may play a role in pathogenesis of acquired aplastic anemia.
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Novel Antibiotics for Bloodstream Infections in HSCT

Bloodstream infections (BSI) are one of severe infectious complications faced by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. BSI increases significantly the morbidity and mortality of HSCT patients. Gram-positive bacteria occurred more frequency than gram-negative bacteria over past decades, but rates of gram-negative bloodstream infections have recently increased again. Antibacterial prophylaxis could be justified in HSCT, infections caused by resistant pathogens increased mortality. New antibiotics such as omadacycline, meropenem/vaborbactam, eravacycline, ceftobiprole, tedizolid, dalbavancin, cefiderocol hold promise for the treatment of highly resistant pathogens.
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Insights into the Potential of Green Algal Polysaccharides Potential to Combat Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus Biofilms

Biofilms are complex sessile microbial community extremely resistant to antibiotics. They typically form on both biotic and abiotic surfaces and are usually associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity in patients in hospital settings. Nosocomial infections are the major cause of infections seen worldwide. Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) represent the most common type of nosocomial infection that affect different parts of the urinary tract in both males and females.
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Ayurvedic Antiviral Agents: Overview of Medicinal Plants Perspective

In recent years it has been reported that many of the herbal plants contain antiviral agents which combat human disease that are caused by pathogenic viruses. The natural products which are obtained from plants as antiviral agents against viruses have gone through researches to check the efficacy and potentials of the herbal products in prevention of viral disorders.
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Inflammatory “Endotheliopathy’’ with COVID 19 Infections in Children, Unanswered Questions for Management Post Recovery

Recent studies from U.K, US and Canada have reported a unique presentation of the novel corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) in the pediatric age group. High fevers, rash, multiorgan involvement was a recurrent mode of presentation; with an overall case fatality rate in the US-Canadian PICU consortium group was reported to be approximately 4.2% [1-7]
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Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Pathogens Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Public Health Facilities in Belize

Surgical site infections are amongst the leading cause of morbidity, mortality and cost due to increased hospital stay by patients. A study was conducted to understand antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major pathogens isolated from surgical site infections in Belize.
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Bacteriology and Antibiogram of pathogens isolated from wound infections at Cheshire Hall Medical Laboratory, Turks and Caicos Islands

To identify pathogens that are frequently isolated from wound infections in the Turks and Caicos Islands and formulate antibiogram based on their patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility. Bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility data from 1343 wound swabs cultured at the Cheshire Hall Medical Laboratory between January 2013 and November 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique was used to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 79.1% of the 1343 swabs cultured were positive yielding a total of 1687 bacterial isolates. Frequently isolated bacteria included Staphylococcus aureus which accounted for 27.6% of isolates, approximately a third of which were methicillin resistant, Pseudomonas spp. (12.1%), Proteus spp. (8.2%), Enterococcus spp. (7.8%), E. coli (7.2%), Streptococcus agalactiae (6.1%), Klebsiella spp. (5.5%), Acinetobacter spp. (4.3%), coagulase negative Staphyloccus (4.0%) and Enterobacter spp. (3.7%). The overall highest resistance rates were seen among tetracycline (46.3%), erythromycin (37.6%) and ceftriaxone (34.2%). Imipenem, penicillin, meropenem and vancomycin had sensitivity rates ranging from 92.3% to 99.5%. Individual resistance rates varied among isolates, some differing significantly from overall rates. When tested against antibiotics routinely used to treat Pseudomonas spp., resistance rates ranged from 1.4-55.5%.
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A Retrospective Evaluation of Joint Endoprosthesis Infections and Depending Costs

Joint endoprosthesis are standard treatment in orthopedic surgery, but the risk of infection represents a major drawback for elderly patients with comorbidities. Therefore, we investigated joint endoprosthesis infections in Germany (2005-2012) focusing on elderly patients. We extrapolated infection related costs to estimate the burden for the health care system.
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Dawn of the Biofilm Disease: Highlights about Biofilm in Bone and Joint & Prosthetic Joint Infections Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment

I present some key considerations of the biofilm disease as part of two complex pathologies such as bone and joint infections and prosthetic joint infections, taking into account the bacterial pathogenic factors to understand the particular nature of these infections, and to achieve an accurate diagnosis and management beyond the antimicrobial therapy. I mention some personal experience of many years in the medical microbiology laboratory and next to the patient’s bed.
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Treatment of Cerebral Mucormycosis with Prolonged Liposomal Amphotericin B (>1000 days)

Mucormycosis is a rare but invasive and potentially lethal infection caused by ubiquitous fungi of the order Mucorales. The primary mode of infection is inhalation of fungal spores. Rhinocerebral and pulmonary infections are most common, however, other organ systems including the central nervous system can be affected, presumably by occult fungemia. We describe the prolonged treatment course (>1000 days) of a patient with cerebral mucormycosis using liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB). Two different attempts were made to replace LAMB with posaconazole, but each occasion resulted in therapeutic failure. This case represents the longest course of LAMB reported in the literature.
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Editorial Board Members Related to infections

Helena Nunes Cabaco

Research associate
Institute of Molecular Medicine
Faculty of Medicine
University of Lisbon
Portugal

GHASSAN M. MATAR

Professor
Department of Experimental Pathology, Immunology & Microbiology
Faculty of Medicine
American University of Beirut
Lebanon

Efimia Papadopoulou-Alataki

Assistant professor
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Papageorgiou Hospital
Greece

Lihua Song

Associate Professor
Chief, Laboratory of Rickettsiology
Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology
China

Zafar K. Khan

Professor
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Drexel University
United States

Alfredo Figueiredo

MD
Orthopaedic Surgery Department
Coimbra University Hospital
Portugal

RAJNISH S. DAVE

Associate Scientist
Department of Neuroscience
Temple University
United States

Bryan Krantz

Associate professor
Department of Microbial Pathogenesis
University of Maryland
United States

ILIAS PORFYRIDIS

Respiratory Physician
Nicosia General Hospital
Cyprus

Joseph Prandota

Emeritus Full Professor
Department of Pediatrics & Clinical Pharmacology
Faculty of Health Sciences
Wroclaw Medical University
Wroclaw
Poland
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