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Articles Related to pathogen

Biofilm and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Multi Drug Resistant Bacterial Uropathogens: A Challenge to Antibiotic Therapy in Nepal

Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by clinicians in developing countries. A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Antibiotic resistance is a problem of deep scientific concern both in hospital and community settings. This study was aimed to determine the biofilm producers among multidrug uropathogenic bacteria isolated from urine cultures
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Bioactivity of Plant Extracts Against Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici Sacc.) Causing Wilt Disease of Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L) in the Southern Guinea Savannah, Nigeria

Wilt disease of tomato is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and it is an important disease which causes significant yield reduction in the crop throughout the world. A study was undertaken to isolate, identify and test the pathogenicity of F. oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici on tomato; and to evaluate the bioactivity of Azadirachta indica leaf, Piper guineense seed and Zingiber officinale rhizome extracts as well as the synthetic fungicide, mancozeb at different concentrations and combinations for the management of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in vitro. Results revealed that the percentage frequency of the fungus isolated and identified was more on the roots (35.56 %) than the stems (26.67 %), fruits (20.00 %) and leaves (17.77 %). Results of the pathogenicity test showed more virulence in the roots than in other parts of the tomato plant. Extracts of the three plants and mancozeb proved effective in controlling the mycelial growth of the fungus either alone or when combined. Mancozeb consistently gave 100 % growth inhibition irrespective of the concentration used. Among the plant extracts applied alone at 40 g/L, Z. officinale (66.69 %) was the most effective followed by P. guineense (53.52 %) while A. indica was the least (36.99 %). The mycelial growth inhibition increased from 40 g/L to 120 g/L irrespective of the combination of the treatments used. A combination of mancozeb with any plant extract was more effective than a combination of the plant extracts. It is therefore, recommended that the plant extracts be applied either alone or in combination with other plant extracts or the fungicide to control F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, increase tomato yield and reduce postharvest rots associated with the pathogen
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Insights into the Potential of Green Algal Polysaccharides Potential to Combat Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus Biofilms

Biofilms are complex sessile microbial community extremely resistant to antibiotics. They typically form on both biotic and abiotic surfaces and are usually associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity in patients in hospital settings. Nosocomial infections are the major cause of infections seen worldwide. Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) represent the most common type of nosocomial infection that affect different parts of the urinary tract in both males and females.
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Close Packing of Elements of Transparent Metamaterials in UVC Diapason and its Influence on The Decontamination Efficiency

A new method for repacking optical metamaterials formed from fiber or spherical elements of various diameters is proposed for ultraviolet C (UVC) decontamination of infected liquids that flow between these elements. It is proposed the method of repacking of metamaterial formed from closed packing big fibers/spheres with other subsystems of thin fibers/ bubbles replaced in the free space between the first packing fibers/spheres.
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Enteric Pathogens in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome from Porto Velho City, Rondonia State, Western Amazon, Brazil

Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), mainly those who live under poor sanitary and socioeconomic conditions, are often diagnosed with Gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases. The lowest CD4+ T-cell counts are not found in the plasma, but in the GI tract, the biggest HIV source, thus allowing opportunistic infections. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify the epidemiological factors of GI infections and the prevalent pathogens in HIV patients from Porto Velho City, Rondônia State.
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Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Twin Sisters after Ibuprofen Administration. New Insights in Pathogenesis and Literature Review

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are closely-related, severe, acute life-threatening, drug-induced skin and mucosal disorders with a high mortality rate or long-term damages. These medical conditions are considered a delayed, typeIV hypersensitivity reaction and can be triggered by drugs, infections and malignancies.
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Etiologic Factors of the Periodontal Disease Pathogenesis

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Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Pathogens Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Public Health Facilities in Belize

Surgical site infections are amongst the leading cause of morbidity, mortality and cost due to increased hospital stay by patients. A study was conducted to understand antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major pathogens isolated from surgical site infections in Belize.
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Bacteriology and Antibiogram of pathogens isolated from wound infections at Cheshire Hall Medical Laboratory, Turks and Caicos Islands

To identify pathogens that are frequently isolated from wound infections in the Turks and Caicos Islands and formulate antibiogram based on their patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility. Bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility data from 1343 wound swabs cultured at the Cheshire Hall Medical Laboratory between January 2013 and November 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique was used to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 79.1% of the 1343 swabs cultured were positive yielding a total of 1687 bacterial isolates. Frequently isolated bacteria included Staphylococcus aureus which accounted for 27.6% of isolates, approximately a third of which were methicillin resistant, Pseudomonas spp. (12.1%), Proteus spp. (8.2%), Enterococcus spp. (7.8%), E. coli (7.2%), Streptococcus agalactiae (6.1%), Klebsiella spp. (5.5%), Acinetobacter spp. (4.3%), coagulase negative Staphyloccus (4.0%) and Enterobacter spp. (3.7%). The overall highest resistance rates were seen among tetracycline (46.3%), erythromycin (37.6%) and ceftriaxone (34.2%). Imipenem, penicillin, meropenem and vancomycin had sensitivity rates ranging from 92.3% to 99.5%. Individual resistance rates varied among isolates, some differing significantly from overall rates. When tested against antibiotics routinely used to treat Pseudomonas spp., resistance rates ranged from 1.4-55.5%.
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Estimation of Pathogen Proportions of Infectious Diseases: Models, Approaches and Evaluations

Attribution of etiology for disease syndromes is critical to guide appropriate public health interventions. Partial latent class analysis model (pLCM) methods have recently been developed to address this area of research; however, model parameters, assumptions, and performance are not well understood for the general etiology problem.
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The Roles of IL-33 and TGF-Β1 in the Pathogenesis of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/ Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: Potential Biomarkers for Disease Severity

MicroscopyStevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) is a disease continuum of potentially life threatening, severe allergic drug reactions which result in cellular apoptosis in the skin, mucous membranes, and ocular surface. The exact pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to this apoptosis is unclear but genetic predisposition and abnormal immune regulations play a role.
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Prevalence of Mastitis and Associated risk factors in Jimma Town Dairy Farms, Western Ethiopia

Across sectional study of epidemiological risk factors and associated bacterial pathogens was conducted on 216 lactating dairy cows in jimma town from Oct. 2016 to April 2017 to determine the overall prevalence rate, associated bacterial pathogens and to assess effect of risk factors on prevalence of mastitis. Upon physical examination of udder and teats the prevalence of clinical mastitis was 2.3% at cow level and 0.96% at quarter level. Using the California mastitis test (CMT) for detection of sub clinical mastitis, the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis at cow level and quarter level was 60.65 and 38.4% respectively. The overall prevalence of mastitis was 62.96. Out of 323 (38.4%) CMT positive quarters with evidence of sub clinical mastitis, the quarter infection rate for the right rare quarter was highest (41.3%) followed by left rear (38.8%), right and left front (each 36.7%). Up on microbiological examination of milk samples for both clinical and subclinical quarters, out of a total of 331 cultured, 271(81.9%) yielded bacteria whereas 60(18.1%) yielded no bacteria. A total of 263 bacterial pathogens were isolated whereas 8 were mixed infections with more than two different colonies. The main bacterial pathogens isolated were coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (26.6 %), Staphylococcus aureus (24.7%), Escherichia coli (13.31%), Streptococcus species (9.13%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.8%). Other bacteria isolated with low isolation rate were micrococcus species (3.04%), Corynebacterium species (3.4%), Actinomyces pyogenes (3.8%), Bacillus species (3.42%) and other gram negative rods (3.8%). Host factors such as breed, age parity and lactation stage had significant effect on the prevalence of mastitis (p‹0.05). Managemental and environmental factors such as bedding, ventilation, frequency of barn cleaning, udder washing and use of communal towel had significant effect on the occurrence of mastitis (p‹0.05). Whereas milking practice, drainage had insignificant effect on the prevalence of mastitis (p›0.05).
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Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) Used as a Whole Model Organism to Identify New Anti-Infectives Therapeutic Agent for MRSA Pathogens - A Review Paper

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the greatest fears with the number of serious infections on human health regarding antibiotic resistance. It causes a wide range of infections and bacteremia, ranging from inconsequential superficial skin infections, wound suppuration, even pneumonia or deep-seated tissue infections, which may lead to sepsis and fatalities.
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Dawn of the Biofilm Disease: Highlights about Biofilm in Bone and Joint & Prosthetic Joint Infections Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment

I present some key considerations of the biofilm disease as part of two complex pathologies such as bone and joint infections and prosthetic joint infections, taking into account the bacterial pathogenic factors to understand the particular nature of these infections, and to achieve an accurate diagnosis and management beyond the antimicrobial therapy. I mention some personal experience of many years in the medical microbiology laboratory and next to the patient’s bed.
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United States Air Force Academy: Identifying Areas at Risk for the Persistence of Plague using the Bioagent Transport and Environmental Modeling System (BioTEMS)

Introduction: Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, has caused major pandemics in human history and continues to be both a natural and bioterrorist threat to human populations. Plague exists in nature in either an epidemic or enzootic state. Geographic models of the epidemic state have primarily been developed using flea and reservoir species, however little is known of the enzootic state and potential cryptic reservoir species and few endemic models have been produced.
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Editorial Board Members Related to pathogen

Frank Portugal

Associate Professor
Department of Biology
The Catholic University of America
United States

Huatao Guo

Assistant Professor
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology
University of Missouri School of Medicine
United States

David Paul Richman

Professor
Department of Neurology and Center for Neuroscience
University of California
United States

Yosra A. Helmy

Research Associate
Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine
Food Animal Health Research Program
The Ohio State University
USA

Zezhang Tom Wen

Associate Professor
School of Medicine
LSU Health Sciences Center School of Dentistry
United States

Meijun Zhu

Assistant Professor
School of Food Science
Washington State University
United States

Kenneth Cheng

Assistant Professor
Department of Medicine
Hong Kong University
Hong Kong

Andrzej Wernicki

Professor
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
University of Life Sciences
Poland

Hong Zhu

Associate Professor
Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine
United States

Jayasimha Rao

Associate Professor
Jefferson College of Health Sciences
Department of Medicine
USA
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