Articles Related to penicillin
Penicillin-Streptomycin Induces Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Differentiation into Cardiomyocytes through MAPK signal pathway
Penicillin and streptomycin are the most commonly used to prevent bacterial infection or contamination in cell culture. However, the role of Penicillin-streptomycin on inducing mouse embryonic stem cells(mESCs) to differentiate into cardiomyocytes is unclear. To illustrate the mechanism of penicillin-streptomycin on inducing mESCs differentiation into cardiomyocytes, we firstly investigated mESCs differentiation into cardiomyocytes by the traditional method. The time- space expressions of cardiac-specific genes were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting at 8 different time-points over a period of 36 days. Furthermore, action potentials were measured by patch clamp for mESC-derived cardiomyocytes. Embryonic bodies through hanging drop method, were incubated with penicillin-streptomycin (P/S) at different concentrations (1×PBS, 1×, 2×, 5×), and then, the number of cardiomyocytes and expression levels of myocardial marker proteins were detected by flow cytometry, cellular immunofluorescence, and western blotting, respectively. We found that the SSEA-1 of mESC presented green fluorescence, and H.E. staining showed karyoplasmic ratio >>1. Besides, TNNI3, TNNT2, ACTN2 and MYL-2v were clearly visible by cellular immunofluorescence. Furthermore, the ACTN2 positive cells rate of 2× and 5× groups were remarkably higher than that in Cntl (1×PBS) group and 1× group (10 Units/mL penicillin; 10 μg/mL streptomycin), as well as the expressions of GATA4, MYL-2v, TNNI3, ACTN2
The aim of this project was to evaluate the influence of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8 on gastric epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric epithelial cells.
The Health Improvement Network (THIN) provided data from UK General Practitioners (GPs) for 144 pregnant women who were prescribed zanamivir and 144 age- and date-matched untreated comparators with no recorded diagnosis of influenza. Groups were assessed for baseline characteristics, treatment-emergent diagnoses in the mother, pregnancy outcomes and congenital malformations diagnosed in the offspring within 28 days of birth.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of meningitis. Although rates of bacterial meningitis have decreased after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction, pneumococcal meningitis has not been eliminated. In this case series, we describe the presentation, serotypes, and outcomes of 11 children with pneumococcal meningitis at a tertiary children’s hospital after the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was introduced, from 2011-2013. The median age of children with meningitis was 7 years. The majority of the isolates (82%) were susceptible to penicillin. Most isolates (73%) were serotyped and there was no evidence of disease caused by serotypes contained in PCV7
The discovery of a substance with antibacterial properties was expected to permanently diminish the occurrence of bacterial infections posing a threat to health and life. Since the discovery of penicillin many new groups of antibiotics have been introduced into treatment of disease in people and animals, but their excessive and frequently unjustified use, and most importantly, incorrect dosage, have led to numerous unanticipated problems in contemporary human and veterinary medicine.
Drug Tolerability and Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated with Two Formulations of Mycophenolic Acid
Mycophenolic Acid (MPA) is one of the most widely used immunosuppressive agents in kidney transplantation. This study was designed to compare the safety, tolerability and efficacy of two formulations of mycophenolic acid, Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) and Enteric-Coated Mycophenolate Sodium (EC-MPS), in renal transplant recipients.