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A Brief Report on the Safety and Efficacy of Gentian Violet for Infant Oropharyngeal Candidiasis (OPC) and Maternal Nipple Candidiasis

Gentian violet dye is no longer commonly used for infant oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) and maternal nipple candidiasis, largely due to safety concerns, the emergence of modern treatment options, and lack of clarity on dosing. Current treatments for candidiasis include nystatin, azoles such as ketoconazole and fluconazole, and amphotericin B. However, OPC may resist treatment, and mothers may prefer gentian violet as an alternative OTC product. This literature review aims to assess the safety and efficacy of gentian violet in treating OPC and nipple candidiasis. Two search strings in Embase yielded 22 primary research articles, case reports, and commentaries. In terms of efficacy, gentian violet is as effective as standard of care treatments, and functions as a fungicidal agent against Candida albicans through biofilm manipulation. Safety concerns include skin and mucosal membrane irritation, airway obstruction, and, most concerning to regulatory agencies, animal carcinogenicity. However, the literature found that there was great variation in the dose and strength of gentian violet applied. Case reports with adverse events usually used high strengths of gentian violet applied more frequently than recommended. A lower strength of gentian violet solution applied as needed is less likely to result in adverse events. Patients may self-select higher strengths of gentian violet or apply more frequently than recommended. If recommended for treatment-resistant OPC and nipple candidiasis, counseling should accompany OTC use of gentian violet
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The Mastitis Carcinomatosa vs. Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma with Osteoclastic Giant Cell Reaction: A Case Report

The mastitis carcinomatosa or inflammatory breast carcinoma is an aggressive form of mammary tumors. Diagnosis is made on clinical, cytology and histology correlation. Imaging is performed to look for the extent of disease. Breast carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells (OGCs) are uncommon. Here, we report a 35 year old woman with a painless lump in her left breast that has been proved clinically and radiologically. Microscopic examination reveal differential diagnosis of Inflammatory breast carcinoma and Infiltrating carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells.
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Marsupialization Technique in Sublingual Ranula Treatment: Clinical Case Report

Ranula is a pocket of mucus that forms under the tongue due to blockage of the salivary glands, usually causing swelling and discomfort. Treatment can range from conservative measures, such as hot compresses, to surgical interventions to drain or remove the affected gland. This article reports the case of a ranula in an 11-year-old patient, which was clinically diagnosed and confirmed after the marsupialization technique. The histopathological examination revealed typical characteristics, such as thin epithelial lining and the presence of mucin, proving the diagnostic hypothesis. The treatment was effective, contributing to the clinical and histopathological understanding of this condition. This case report contributes to the existing literature by providing clinical and histopathological insights that can guide healthcare professionals in effectively managing this condition
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The role of homologous serum eye drops in the management of scleral melting after proton beam therapy, a case report

To describe a case of a 39-years-old man with marked scleral thinning secondary to proton beam therapy for choroidal melanoma. Observations: The patient underwent multiple unsuccessful reconstructive surgical procedures complicated by failure and enucleation was finally suggested. However, he started improving following homologous serum drops administration
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Complex Decongestive Therapy and Additional Physiotherapy in Male Breast Cancer: A Case-Report

Introduction: Male Breast Cancer is a very rare disease associated with delayed diagnosis and a more invasive or aggressive tumor therapy, i.e., surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Lymphedema, shoulder joint restrictions, posture failures, sensitivity disorders, pain or cancer-related fatigue are common complaints.
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Accidental Ammonia Gas Leakage in a Cold Storage : A Case Report

: Ammonia is corrosive and exposure will result in a chemical-type burn. It is highly hygroscopic and readily transforms the moist areas of the body such as eyes, nose, throat, and moist skin areas. It is a highly toxic irritant gas, and its toxicity usually occurs from occupational exposure, most are unintentional toxicity. It causes tissue damage via exothermic reaction with body tissues causing liquefactive necrosis. Release of ammonia has potentially for harmful effects on workers and the public. Although there have been incidents of exposure to harmful concentrations of ammonia in the world there have been few fatal accidents.Presentation depends on the level and duration of exposure. Management is supportive and its antidote is not available yet
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Radiographic Outcomes of FDBA Block Graft for Maxillary Ridge Augmentation: A Case Report

The primary donor sites for collecting bone in the oral cavity to replace missing ridges are the mandibular symphysis or ramus. Although successful, these bone transplants can nevertheless raise a number of issues, including donor site morbidity, nerve paresthesia, the devitalization of native teeth, and postoperative sequelae . Allogeneic block grafts were developed to address these concerns and a lack of autogenous intraoral bone available for grafting
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Case Report: Pyoderma Gangrenosum in IBD Treated with Tofacitinib

Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare ulcerating skin disease often presenting as an extra intestinal manifestation of IBD and is difficult to manage. Treatment options for pyoderma gangrenosum include steroids, calcineurin inhibitors and anti TNF agents. Here in, we report a case of recurrent Pyoderma gangrenosum with Ulcerative Colitis that was successfully managed with Tofacintib, a JAK inhibitor
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Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis after Ceftriaxone Exposure: A Case Report and Literature Review

Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis (LCV) characterizes various small vessel vasculitis types primarily affecting the skin, with occasional internal organ involvement. This inflammation involves immune-complex deposition within dermal capillaries and venues. Although idiopathic in origin, potential triggers, including antibiotic-related factors, must be considered. LCV presents across a spectrum of severity, sometimes extending to ulcers. Diagnosis involves clinical assessment, history, lab tests, and crucially, skin biopsy.
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A Case Report of Rapidly Progressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in 31 Year Old Patient with Sympathovagal Imbalance

ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative condition characterized by degeneration of upper and lower motor neuron in cerebral cortex, cranial nerve nuclei and anterior horn cells of spinal cord. Three drugs are FDA approved, Riluzole, Edaravone and AMX0035 (recently approved), which can only prolong survival time by 2-3 months.
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Superficial CD34-Positive Fibroblastic Tumor: First Case Report from Latin-America and Review of the Literature

Superficial CD34-positive fibroblastic tumor is an infrequent soft-tissue tumor characterized by a lesion located in the subcutaneous fascia without affecting the soft or deep muscle planes. Its incidence is unknown; therefore, it represents a diagnostic challenge for both the surgical oncologist and pathologist. Given its high risk of local recurrence, extensive surgical resection is the recommended treatment modality. This is the first report of this rare entity in Latin-America.
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Right Atrial Myxoma with Critical Triple Vessel Disease: A Case Report

Cardiac myxoma are the most common primary heart tumor. It accounts for 40-50% of primary cardiac tumor. Approximately 75% occurs in left atrium and 15-20% in right atrium. Myxoma are usually polypoid, pedunculated lesion with smooth surface covered with thrombus. Most common site of attachment is at the border of fossa ovalis in left atrium but it can occur in any part of atrial wall. Symptoms are produced because of mechanical obstruction with cardiac blood flow, tumor embolization and constitutional symptoms due to increased expressions of IL-6. Echocardiography is the best diagnostic modality to localise the tumor. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment of myxoma present in any location.
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A Case Report of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction With Non-Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease: an Economical and Beneficial Investigative Algorithm

Myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is a puzzling clinical entity, coupled with potential multiple pathophysiological mechanisms, often makes disease classification, investigation and management difficult. Despite presence of myocardial damage and increased risk for the future, many patients are discharged undiagnosed, thus the specific cause is not effectively treated.
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Multiple intracerebral hemorrhagic lesions complicating minimal cranioencephalic trauma in a child with severe hemophilia A, trisomy 21 and sickle cell trait carrier: a case report

Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a life-threatening complication in hemophilia. It often occurs during childhood after minimal head trauma. It poses a problem of diagnostic and therapeutic management, especially in Africa where CFCs are not always available.
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Bilateral Palatal Necrotizing Sialometaplasia in Patient with Prurigo Nodularis: A Case Report

Necrotizing Sialometaplasia (NSM) is a rare, benign, self-limiting, inflammatory disease of mostly minor salivary gland origin. NSM can resemble a malignant lesion in its early disease course, both clinically and pathologically. Bilateral involvement of the hard and soft palate by the lesion is a rare occurrence. NSM was first described as a reactive inflammatory process. Since then, over 200 cases have been reported and has been added to the WHO classification of salivary gland tumours under the tumour-like lesions. Here, we report a case of a 30-year-old male with bilateral NSM of both the hard and soft palate, on a background history of prurigo nodularis. The patient was initially referred to an Oral and Maxillofacial Department by his general practitioner for a palatal ulcer, concerning for oral malignancy. The ulcer was painless with a well-demarcated border and necrotic base. Subsequent biopsy and histological examination confirmed necrotizing sialometaplasia with healing occurring within 5 weeks.
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Editorial Board Members Related to report


Assistant Professor
School of Nutrition and Health Promotion
Arizona State University
United States

Ashraf Youssef Nasr

Associate professor
Department of Anatomy & Embryology
Zagazig University


Department of Ophthalmology
University Hospital “Campus Bio-Medico”

Tingzhong Yang

Professor and Director of Social Medicine
Zhejiang University

Viorica Lopez-Avila

Research Scientist
Agilent Technologies
United States

Norio Yasui-Furukori

Associate Professor
Department of Neuropsychiatry
Hirosaki University School of Medicine

Jurgen Konig

Department of Nutritional Sciences
University of Vienna

Hui-Ru Shih

Department of Technology
Jackson State University
United States


Professor of Global Health
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME)
University of Washington
United States

Nagesh Shukla

Infrastructure simulation and modelling team at SMART
University of Wollongong
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