Articles Related to retrospective
Anti-Infectives do not Impact Treatment Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: a Single Center Retrospective Analysis
Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have provided groundbreaking advancements for a variety of malignancies. It has been of recent interest to identify predictive indicators of response to improve cancer management using immunotherapy. The intestinal microbiome has been recognized as a potential predictor of ICI anti- tumor activity. Antibiotics reduce diversity the overall composition of the gut microbiota, with effects seen as quickly as in a single day. Post-antibiotic dysbiosis recovery varies depending on type and duration of exposure. Preclinical studies in mice with advanced cancer treated with broad spectrum antibiotics have been associated with resistance to ICI treatment.
Malignant Scalp Tumors: Retrospective Analysis of 1000 Patients.
Background: Limited data on large cohort of patients with malignant tumors of the scalp are available in the literature. The aim of this study was to review a large cohort of patients with malignant scalp tumors to determine epidemilogy, tumor characteristics of this region and treatment. Materials and Method: A retrospective review of patients with malignant scalp tumors diagnosed histopathologically between 2005 and 2021 was performed. Demographic features and tumor characteristics were analyzed. Results: A total of 1080 patients (M: F 3,5:1) were treated and followed up for a mean period of 42 months (12-120 months). Age at diagnosis ranged from 12 to 98 years. Most malignant scalp tumors (95,1%) occurred in those 50 years or older and in bald patients (87%). Basal cell carcinomas (59,2%), squamous cell carcinomas (32,2%) and melanomas were the most common histologic types. Incidence was highest on the frontal of temporal region (66,1%). Recurrence was frequently in squamous and basal cell carcinomas but uncommon in melanoma. Conclusions: Tumors of the scalp accounted about 8,01 % of all skin cancers. Tend to be basal and squamous cell carcinomas, many of which occur in the temporal and frontal region of bald men. The outlook for patients with scalp tumor is positive, although we suggest excision margins of at least 3-4 mm and continued clinical vigilance is warranted given their higher recurrence rates.
Radiation Dose to Oesophagus in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy: A Retrospective Study
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Management of Breast cancer requires multidisciplinary team approach (viz, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Hormonal therapy & Targeted therapy). Radiotherapy reduces the risk of breast cancer mortality for women after breast conserving surgery and for women after mastectomy for node-positive disease. One of the organs at risk in breast cancer therapy is esophagus. As such, there is potential to expose greater volumes of esophagus to radiation. This may result in increased frequency and severity of acute radiation esophagitis during treatment. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate dosimetric parameters such as mean dose (Dmean) maximum dose (Dmax) which may influence the incidence and severity of esophagitis in breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Material and Methods: Treatment plans of post mastectomy patients who had already received adjuvant RT of dose 50 Gy in 25 # over 5 weeks to the chest wall along with Supraclavicular field (SCF) using 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D CRT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were selected. Mean dose (Dmean) and maximum dose (Dmax) to esophagus was assessed. Results: Dosimetric parameters assessed are Dmean and Dmax. Dmean assessed up to less than or equal to 11Gy and Dmax assessed upto less than or equal to 34Gy. The average of Dmean in this study is 8.34Gy which is within normal limits of prescribed dose. The mean Of Dmax in this study is 24.80Gy which is in limits of prescribed dose. Conclusion: Increased dose to esophagus in observed when IMRT is used especially when supraclavicular or internal mammary nodes are involved. Routine contouring of esophagus and planning accordingly may reduce oesophageal dose and acute oesophageal toxicity.
Clinical Impact of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy to Chronic Calculous Cholecy-stitis: A Retrospective Study
The Aims: The retro-prospective clinical study was to compare these two methods of laparoscopic and classical cholecystectomy. To prove the postoperative benefits of laparoscopic treatment are, less pain, aesthetic aspect without surgical scarring and shorter hospital stay, faster return to social activities as well as more cost effective. Material and Methods: The operated patients, from January 2017 to December 2019 in the abdominal surgery ward in Gjilan. Important data for the study are taken from the operative list, history of the disease, adequate list compiled specifically for this study. The study included 389 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis. Results: According to the results obtained for calculous diseases of the biliary system are predisposed persons with blood group O, Rh-positive, with 44.2%, followed by group A + with 29.5%, group B + with 14.7%. Other blood groups and Rh factors are below 6.5%. Statistical point of view is significant (p <0.05). The study analyzed, C-reactive protein (CRP) values in both research group (RG) and control groups (CG); CRP by gender; and by age group. RG recorded 76.9% of females with increased CRP values> 6, while 23.1% of males. The percentage difference in statistical terms is significant p <0.05. Conclusion: The results obtained have shown that there are no significant differences in the presentation of intra-operative complications in terms of gender and age, to both methods. Optimization measures for postoperative management of patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Continuing education in laparoscopic surgery is important for successful management.
A Retrospective Analysis of 25 cases of Addisons Disease Caused by Adrenal Tuberculosis in Tibet and Review of Related Literature
Suicidal Trends in Different Indian States: A Retrospective Study
Suicide is an act to intentionally end one’s life. District level suicide data were obtained from respective police stations for the year 2019-2020. Hanging is reported to be the most common strategy primarily on the grounds that materials for the hanging are easily available, followed by consumption of poison (primarily pesticide), drowning, burning, cut injury to wrist, drug overdose, alcohol overdose and fall from building. Present research showed that as indicated by sex, males are at high risk of committing suicide than that of females. The greatest number of suicide cases are reported for the age group of 31-40 years and the least can be seen in the age group below 10 years.
Unexpected Opioid Responses in Infants: A Retrospective Case Series
Opioids are commonly prescribed for acute pain management. Complications such as nausea, vomiting, itch and constipation are not uncommon. Two unusual and unexpected complications that can arise in the acute setting are opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) and acute opioid tolerance (AOT). The diagnostic challenges of these two entities are mainly attributed to their unpredictable onset and lack of strict diagnostic criteria. In the pediatric setting, additional confounding factors such as separation anxiety, hunger, thirst and poor verbal communication further complicate discerning between the two phenomena.
Rehabilitation Outcomes under Precaution-Free Management for Dislocation after Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty with a Conjoined Tendon Preserving Posterior Approach: A Retrospective Case-Control Study
Early rehabilitation after bipolar hemiarthroplasty (BHA) requires risk management for postoperative dislocation. Since April 2018, BHA has been performed at our hospital using a conjoined tendon-preserving posterior (CPP) approach, which preserves the piriformis and short rotator muscles (the gemellus superior, the obturator internus and the gemellus inferior) and dissects only the external obturator.
Cognitive and Cognitive-Communication Impairments of Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Study
This study’s objective is to characterize the cognitive and cognitive-communication impairments of COVID-19 patients identified by the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) rehabilitation team located in Toronto, Canada during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic
Ketogenic Diet Versus a Standard Low-Calorie Diet to Treat Mildly Obese Patients in an Outpatient Clinic: An Observational Retrospective Study
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) compared to a LowCalorie Diet (LCD) in the treatment of mildly obese patients. We aimed to highlight the difference in weight loss, compliance, physical activity levels and drop-out rates between the VLCKD group and the standard LCD one.
Humeral Length Estimation: Retrospective Radiological and Anthropometric Investigation
Researchers have made it possible to estimate the length of bones from their fragments in recent times; therefore, the stature can be estimated from the length of the bones so derived. The length of long bones has been the major means through which stature estimates were made. This study aimed to compare the length estimates of the humerus from anatomical landmarks (variables) on the bone and x-ray radiographs of humerus in adult Nigerians.
Predictive Value of ERCC1 Expression on Treatment Response to Cisplatin-Based Regimens in Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis
We aimed to determine whether the excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) expression predicts response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). This was a retrospective study, in which hospital files of 31 patients (29 males, 2 females; mean age, 62.26±7.71 years) were reviewed. All patients were treated with etoposide+cisplatin. The lung biopsy and mediastinal lymph node samples were applied anti-human monoclonal antibodies against ERCC1: immunohistochemical staining was considered positive if 25-100% of the cells showed nuclear staining, and negative if less than 25% of the cells showed negative or slight staining. Response to treatment was evaluated as regression (complete or partial response), progressive disease, or stable disease. Of the patients, 18 (58.1%) had limited-stage, and 13 (41.9%) had extensive-stage SCLC. Median follow-up duration was 15 months (range: 1-60 months). ERCC1 staining was positive in 9 of 31 patients (29.0%). In 12 patients (38.7%), tumor regression (complete or partial response) was obtained after chemotherapy. Tumor regression rate was higher in ERCC1 positive patients than those with negative ERCC1 expression (66.7% vs. 27.3%, p=0.036). In conclusion, high expression of ERCC1 was associated with higher response rate to cisplatin-based regimens in patients with SCLC.
The Role of Nursing in Scientific Investigation in Africa: A Retrospective Analysis
We think that there is a generalized opinion that nursing professionals have to possess a strong vocation for their profession, which can be compared with the priesthood. In Europe, during the Middle Ages, they were supported by the Catholic Church. It is believed that the first recorded aspects of nursing place the inception of the profession during the height of the Roman Empire, around 300 A.D. It was during this time that the Empire sought to place a hospital within every town under its rule.
A Retrospective Evaluation of Joint Endoprosthesis Infections and Depending Costs
Joint endoprosthesis are standard treatment in orthopedic surgery, but the risk of infection represents a major drawback for elderly patients with comorbidities. Therefore, we investigated joint endoprosthesis infections in Germany (2005-2012) focusing on elderly patients. We extrapolated infection related costs to estimate the burden for the health care system.
Trends in Thyroid Malignancies in Accra Ghana: A Retrospective Histopathological Review in the Department of Pathology (1994-2013), Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital
Malignancies of the thyroid gland are common in certain parts of the world. In Ghana there are no available data on the trends and gender characteristics of thyroid malignancies (TMs). The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the trends and gender characteristics of TMs in the Department of Pathology.