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Articles Related to safety

A Brief Report on the Safety and Efficacy of Gentian Violet for Infant Oropharyngeal Candidiasis (OPC) and Maternal Nipple Candidiasis

Gentian violet dye is no longer commonly used for infant oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) and maternal nipple candidiasis, largely due to safety concerns, the emergence of modern treatment options, and lack of clarity on dosing. Current treatments for candidiasis include nystatin, azoles such as ketoconazole and fluconazole, and amphotericin B. However, OPC may resist treatment, and mothers may prefer gentian violet as an alternative OTC product. This literature review aims to assess the safety and efficacy of gentian violet in treating OPC and nipple candidiasis. Two search strings in Embase yielded 22 primary research articles, case reports, and commentaries. In terms of efficacy, gentian violet is as effective as standard of care treatments, and functions as a fungicidal agent against Candida albicans through biofilm manipulation. Safety concerns include skin and mucosal membrane irritation, airway obstruction, and, most concerning to regulatory agencies, animal carcinogenicity. However, the literature found that there was great variation in the dose and strength of gentian violet applied. Case reports with adverse events usually used high strengths of gentian violet applied more frequently than recommended. A lower strength of gentian violet solution applied as needed is less likely to result in adverse events. Patients may self-select higher strengths of gentian violet or apply more frequently than recommended. If recommended for treatment-resistant OPC and nipple candidiasis, counseling should accompany OTC use of gentian violet
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The Efficiency and Safety of a Resveratrol and Alpha Lipoic Acid Combination in the Prevention of Gestational Diabetes Related Complications: A Retrospective Clinical Trial

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased maternal and fetal risk of complications. Other than lifestyle modifications and diet, little prevention can be done towards this maternal complication. Through a preclinical approach and a retrospective clinical trial, we investigated the effects of maternal supplementation with a nutraceutical composition based on resveratrol (RSV) and alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on insulin resistance and GDM status
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Sugarcane Agro-Industrial Health and Safety with Particular Focus on Sudan: A Systematic Literature Review

Sugarcane is a vital cash crop grown in about 200 tropical and sub-tropical countries around the world. Due to its high rates of occupational diseases, accidents, and fatalities the agro industry is regarded as one of the most hazardous industries despite being one of the essential sectors globally regarding food supply and workforce. Most of the world's cane sugar crop is produced In Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC), such as Sudan, where agriculture and farming are still the main sources of income and managing occupational health and safety is challenging
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Impacts of Poverty and Artisanal Mining on Municipal Water Utilities; the Case of Kpapi River in Minna, Nigeria

That unemployment, poverty, artisanal mining, and community vulnerability are interwoven is re-emphasizing the reality of life. This study assesses the effect of artisanal mining activities on River Kpapi and the adjoining settlements in Minna putting into consideration Sustainable Development Goal 8 (SDG8). Observatory field survey was carried out on the entire river channel, and laboratory analysis of water samples taking to determine its hydro-chemical and Water Quality Index (WQI) characteristics using the silver nitrate method of the American Public Health Association (APHA) and the Water Quality Index (WQI)
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Potential COVID-19 Therapeutics: A Perspective on Pharmacological Properties and Safety

There are no guidelines for pharmacological treatment of COVID-19 disease, but several drugs are being tested every day in search of an optimal therapeutic strategy. The drugs that have been tested, so far, include some antiviral drugs such as danoprevir, favipiravir, darunavir, nelfinavir, remdesivir, umifenovir and the combination lopinavir/ritonavir. Others are drugs targeting inflammatory mediators such as meplazumab, siltuximab, tocilizumab, azithromycin and corticosteroids. Also included in this array of tested drugs are those with pleiotropic actions against SARS-CoV-2 infection like chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin and nitazoxanide, postulated as inhibitors of several phases of virus life cycle. Upon diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is pertinent to embark on a treatment approach based on potential antiviral options, adequately managed under proper medical situation. We suggest that, in addition to the antiviral option efforts, drugs targeting inflammatory mediators should be considered.
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Artificial EMG by WLAN-Exposure

WLAN (wireless local area network) is used as an important worldwide communication-technique. By this, always there is an electromagnetic field exposure. In contrast to the ICNIRP-safety guidelines, whereby no bioeffect is possible by these low-energetic electromagnetic fields, we found artificial signals in the nervous system in dependence on WLAN- exposure.
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The Perception of Patient Safety Culture among Physicians at an Academic Tunisian Hospital

Patient safety has become a priority issue in health policy and healthcare management around the world. Assessing physician’s attitudes about issues relevant to patient safety is the first stage of developing a safety culture. This study aimed to measure patient safety culture among physicians in Abderrahman Mami hospital, Ariana, Tunisia.
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Safety Concerns of Glaucoma Chemotherapy among G6PD Deficient Glaucoma Patients: A Pilot Study

The aim of this study was to assess the potential acute adverse effects associated with the use of anti-glaucoma medications among glaucoma patients with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency.
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Knowledge Level of University Students on Food Additives and their Perceptions Regarding Food Safety

We aimed to assess the level of knowledge regarding food additives among medical and engineering students.This cross-sectional descriptive study included students from Inonu University Medicine and Engineering Faculty. The sample size was calculated considering the prevalence rate of food additive knowledge as 22.3%, with a 95% confidence interval, 80% power and 918 individuals. A questionnaire was used to collect the socio-demographic characteristics of the students and their knowledge regarding food additives. Scores for knowledge regarding food additives were created; eight questions were posed to the students, and each known correct answer was given a score of 1. Pearson’s chi-square test, Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal–Wallis test were used for data analysis.Mean age of the students was 21.74 ± 2.56 years, and 51.7% of them were males. Knowledge level regarding the definition of food additives was not different between genders (p > 0.05). Medical students had significantly higher knowledge levels (92.2%) about the definition of food additives compared to those of engineering students (80.4%) (p < 0.05). More males (52.8%) than females (49.3%) and more medical students (51.6%) than engineering students (50.7%) stated a significantly higher rate of daily consumption of processed foods containing additives (p < 0.05). The median scores of knowledge regarding food additives were not significantly different between gender and faculty (p > 0.05).The present study demonstrated that the rate of the participants who knew the definition of food additives as well as those who perceived food additives to be unsafe were high. Although the knowledge levels on FAs of the students were high in general, it was observed that the frequency of food consumed daily was high This suggests that further research and effective interventions are required to ensure that knowledge turns into behaviour.
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The Study of Microbiological Safety of Germinated Seeds of Broad Beans in the Process of their Production and Storage

The microbiological purity of the finished products based on bio-activated seed and grain requires special attention, as the level of moisture in bio-activated raw materials is 42-44%, which is a pleasant environment for the development of microorganisms. Therefore, the search for effective ways to increase the microbiological safety of sprouted raw materials and finished products on their basis is always actual.
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Tio2/Polymer Nanocomposites for Antibacterial Packaging Applications

Packaging material should meet many requirements for safe preservation of food and extend shelf life. Utilization of nanoparticles to prepare active packaging films has been widely investigated. This review deals with food packaging films modified with nano titania to enhance mechanical, barrier and antibacterial properties of the packages.
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Efficacy and Safety of Moxifloxacin-Enhanced versus Standard Sequential Eradication Therapy for Treating Helicobacter pylori Infection among Tobacco Smokers

The therapeutic failure rate of eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is increasing due to bacterial resistance; tobacco smoking can increase such a rate even more. We explored the role of adding moxifloxacin to the standard sequential eradication therapy for Hp in decreasing the therapeutic failure rate among the tobacco smokers.
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The Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Fluconazole Prevent Invasive Fungal Infection in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Update Meta-analysis

We identified 8 eligible trials that enrolled 1392 infants. There was significant effect of prophylactic fluconazole on fungal colonization (RR, 0.31, 95%C1:-0.24 to 0.41; P<0.00001). Effect of prophylactic fluconazole on IFI in VLBW infants: RR: 0.42(95%CI 0.23 to 0.76; P=0.004.). However, prophylactic fluconazole did not reduce mortality in VLBW infants (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.01; P = 0.06). Studies did not report significant adverse reactions.
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Comparative Study for Efficacy and Safety of Biosimilar Infliximab in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis on a stable Dose of Methotrexate

The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of biosimilar infliximab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis on a stable dose of methotrexate. Subjects were assigned randomly to either study infliximab or reference infliximab product in an approved dose of 3 mg/kg as an intravenous infusion at week 0, followed by similar doses at Weeks 2, 6 and 14. Primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of subjects achieving ACR20 criteria at week 16 and secondary efficacy assessment included proportion of subjects achieving ACR20, ACR50 and ACR70 at week 16. In the open-label phase, all responders were followed till week 54. The non-responders entered a follow-up phase for immunogenicity and safety for an additional 3 months.
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Assessment of the Efficacy, Safety and Cost-Effectiveness of Micafungin Compared to Caspofungin and Low Dose Liposomal Amphotericin B for the Treatment of Candidaemia and Clinically Diagnosed Invasive Candidiasis: A Retrospective Audit

Despite several studies having highlighted that candidaemia and invasive fungal disease (IFD) are associated with high mortality and increased costs, there are currently few published studies which provide an insight into real-life practice of invasive candidal diseases. In a medium-sized district general hospital in the UK we sought to compare the efficacy, safety and treatment cost of micafungin versus caspofungin and low dose of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) 1mg/kg/day for the treatment of confirmed candidaemia or clinically diagnosed invasive fungal disease (CDIFD). In the present retrospective audit, a total of 126 patients with candidaemia or CDIFD were reviewed from hospital records and 94 were included in our audit.
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Editorial Board Members Related to safety

Majeda Al-Farajat

Director
Quality and Patient Safety
Prince Sultan Cardiac Center
Saudi Arabia

YUNBO LI

Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine
United States

Seniz Karabiyikli

Associate Professor
Department of Food Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Science
Gaziosmanpasa University
Turkey

Michael Gibson

Associate Professor
Department of Medicine
Case Western Reserve University
United States

Ziad N. AL-Dwairi

Professor
Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics and Implant Dentistry
Jordan University of Science and Technology
Jordan

PATRICIA L. DALBY

Associate Professor
Department of Anesthesiology
University of Pittsburgh
United States

Yosra A. Mohamed

Research Associate
Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine
The Ohio State University
USA

Lela Bakanidze

Professor
Georgian Biosafety Association
Europe

Rebecca Blake

Director of Nutrition & Food Services
Elizabeth Seton Pediatric Center
United States

Suresh Valiyaveettil

Associate Professor
Department of Chemistry
National University of Singapore
Singapore
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