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Articles Related to toxic

Comprehensive Study of Various Chemical Samples in Forensic Toxicology: Focus on Urine Sample

Toxicology deals with the measurement and analysis of toxins. It is itself a vast branch of science, though it has several branches and one of these is forensic toxicology. Forensic toxicology is a branch of toxicology that lines up with other disciplines, namely clinical chemistry, postmortem forensic toxicology, human performance toxicology and forensic drug testing, providing medical jurisprudence of adverse effects such as drug abuse, poisoning and death. The key role of forensic toxicology is to identify and analyse the toxin compounds found during adverse events. This review paper aims to draw an idea about the toxin, in the collected biological chemical samples such as urine samples and their effects on their day-to-day life
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Monodora Myristica Protects Against Oxidative Stress in the Drosophila Melanogaster Model of Lead-Induced Neurotoxicity

Background to Study: Lead (Pb) is ubiquitous in the environment and toxic. It has many negative effects on many organs and induces biochemical, physiological, and behavioural alterations on the brain. Monodora myristica is a calabash nutmeg belonging to the family of Annonaceae.It is a rich source of flavonoids which have been shown to exhibit both antioxi-dant and anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated the protective role of Monodora myristica on lead-induced toxicity in D. melanogaster in this study
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Antibodies Anti-Proteins of Larrea Divaricata Cav. Present Opsonic Capacity on Candida Albicans Atcc 36801 and Neutralize its Cytotoxic and Immunoevasive Properties

Candida albicans is an opportunistic agent that can produce systemic infections in immunosuppressed patients. By varying its cell wall antigens this fungus can evade the immunological response by varying its cell wall antigens. On the other hand, Larrea divaricata Cav. (Jarilla) is a widely spread plant in America and it is used in folk medicine to treat several pathologies. It has been shown that antibodies against Jarilla proteins of crude extract (JPCE) cross-react with proteins of other microorganisms such as Gram-negative bacteria.
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Activated Charcoal and Derivate Materials in Drugs and Biopharmaceutical Purification: Impurity Aspects

In literature are reported various use of activated charcoal AC and derivates in biopharmaceutical purifications.Aim of this work is to verify impurity proficle when using this technology.Various commercial products are reported here but it is not the scope of this work put in relation with any toxicological reaction: only to describe the technique used in this field.Because various drugs and bioproduct need purification steps it is if of interest to see some material science peculiarity
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The Pattern and Outcome of Acute Poisoning at Toxicology Center in St. Peter Specialized Hospital

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The Present Scenario of Lathyrisum Regarding Public Health in 2021

Backgrounds: Neurolathyrism is a disease, which is linked with the consumption of Lathyrus sativus ( L. sativusi) pulse that contain the neurotoxin-beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha-beta-diamino propionic acid (beta-ODAP). Patients with Lathyrisum suffer with gradual enhancement in spasticity and bony changes, which are responsible for appearing the crippling condition throughout life. Objective: The present study has been done as to establish the present situation of L. sativusi consumption and Lathyrisum. Materials and Methods:We performed the survey in the village of Mohammadabad Block of Gazipur district in Eastern Uttar Pradesh (a state with maximum population in India) which have population of million, and L. sativusi is the main pulse of the year, which sustains the economy of these populations. Results:Out of 21,234 subjects L. sativusi eating population for more than 10 years, none had Lathyrisum. On contrary, to popular belief, this population enjoys various dishes made by L. sativusi pulse which in popular are local delicacy. Conclusions:There is no evidence of L. sativusi causing Lathyrisum in 2021. On contrary, L. sativusi pulses have become an inheriting part of the food habits in these populations.
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Psychoactive Drugs Induced DNA Damage: A Review

Psychoactive substances, also known as psychotropic substances are substances that alter the mental state of a person by affecting the way the nervous system and brain work [1]. Psychoactive substances can cause intoxication and this is generally the major reason why most individuals engage in their use. Individuals who take psychoactive substances experience changes in brain function which alter their mood, consciousness, and/or perceptions. Psychoactive substances are present in different medications, alcohol, plants, and animals [2], many, but not all of which are addictive [1]. The most common psychoactive drugs used by people to alter their mental state are caffeine and alcohol [3]. Although they are available legally, yet, they are harmful both psychologically and physically when used in excess. Usually, the decision of how and when to use these psychoactive drugs is left to the individuals [3], however, in certain situations, the drugs are used for exploitation of others by the alteration of their mental state. For example, Rohypnol has been used as a date-rape [4]. Some of the psychoactive drugs are very unpleasant making the users quit their use. This is the case in certain classic psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin), powerful dissociatives (e.g., Salvia divinorum), and deliriants (e.g., Jimson weed) [5]. Addiction and dependence resulting from the misuse of psychoactive drugs have led to moral debate and legal measures, while governmental controls on prescription, supply, and manufacture have been efforts made to minimize the additive use of these drugs. Also, ethical concerns exist about the marketing of these drugs by manufacturers and their clinical over-use. However, in some countries, there are ongoing popular campaigns geared towards legalizing and decriminalizing the use of some recreational drugs such as cannabis. Many individual, genetic and environmental factors have been reported to work individually or synergistically to decrease or increase the probability that an individual will use a psychoactive drug and to what extent [6]. This review aimed at updating information on the different uses of various psychoactive drugs by humans, the different effects on the biological system, and their reported DNA damaging potential in simulated and real-life scenarios.
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Development of SARS-Cov-2 Circulating Immune Complex Candidate, (CRCx) as A New Promising Vaccine Eliciting Broad Immune Response.

There is a need to develop a universal vaccine that can boost immunity to coronaviruses if some modifications in their structure occur. This is what we are dealing with nowadays: a virus that can mutate its structure, while immunity is standing still in facing the virus. We report on preclinical trials of CRCx 3 and CRCx 2 vaccine candidates in inducing an elevated level of positive neutralizing antibodies as well as a cellular immune response in an animal model to provide protection against SARS-CoV-2. Highly efficient protection against SARS-CoV-2 was obtained with three-dose immunization using 0.25 ml of CRCx vaccine with a 25-mm needle at 7-day intervals between successive injections. In addition, CRCx vaccine candidates exhibit efficient productivity and good genetic stability for vaccine manufacture. These results support the further evaluation of CRCx in a clinical trial.
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Gliomatosis Cerebri: A Case Report

Background: Gliomatosis cerebri is a rare primary brain tumor that can have extensive infiltration into the brain parenchyma. It can affect any age group and often has poor clinical outcomes. Given its unique pathology, presentation and treatment can be challenging to recognize and efficaciously treat
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PSII Photosystem Protection by Soil Amendment with Biochar and Adequate Nitrogen Fertilizer Availability Attenuate Cadmium Induced-Photoinhibition and Phytotoxicity in Solanum Lycopersicon

The aim of this research was to assess the biochar ability to protect the photosynthesis process face to Cd contamination, especially, when nitrogen fertilizer was added at adequate amount. Culture of tomato seedlings was conducted on pots containing soil added with different portion of biochar (0, 3.5 and 7%) and nitrogen (3 or 6g NH4NO3). Irrigation was done by water (control condition) or Cd solution (150µM). Data showed that regardless presence of Cd, synchronously addition of high nitrogen fertilizer (6g) and biochar (7%) in the culture medium resulted in fresh matter production, photosynthetic pigment (Chlorophyll a) and mineral elements content enhancement. Similar observation was shown concerning the mineral nutrition (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents).
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New Forensic Protocol in the Era of SARS-CoV-2

During the Sars-CoV-2 pandemic in Italy, even though many people died due to virus-induced complications, there was a warm advice from the government against performing body autopsies, instigating their incineration. It was a reckless decision, leaving clinicians and scientists empty handed when it comes to studying infection-induced tissue changes and subsequent organ failures, making it more difficulties in finding a better clinical solution for combating the virus.
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Chemical Characterization, Antimicrobial-Antifungal Activity on Probiotic Micro organisms and Genotoxicity–Cytotoxicity Effects of Lamiaceae Family Essential Oils from Different Plants

Pipermint, thyme, rosemary, sage and basil species which have major characteristic specialities of Lamiaceae family, have antimicrobial activities on pathogene microorganisms. Probiotic microorganisms have valuable effects on human body and inhibition of probiotics causes many diseases. In this present study, it was aimed to determine indicate probiotic resistance against natural antimicrobial agents (as essential oils) compare to pathogenes in previous studies.
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Crossed Cerebellar Diaschisis in the Setting of Seizure Edema

Diaschisis refers to depression of neuronal activity in an area that is remote from a focal disturbance in the brain but is connected to it by white matter tracts. When the cerebellum is affected, it is referred to as crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) and involves the corticopontine tracts.
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Relationship between Blood Ethanol Concentration, Ethyl Glucuronide and Ethyl Sulfate and Clinical Signs of Alcohol Intoxication

Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are markers for screening previous alcohol consumption and indicating recent drinking in cases of suspicion of driving under the influence of alcohol.
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Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Twin Sisters after Ibuprofen Administration. New Insights in Pathogenesis and Literature Review

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are closely-related, severe, acute life-threatening, drug-induced skin and mucosal disorders with a high mortality rate or long-term damages. These medical conditions are considered a delayed, typeIV hypersensitivity reaction and can be triggered by drugs, infections and malignancies.
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Editorial Board Members Related to toxic

YUNBO LI

Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine
United States

Elmar J Prenner

Assistant Professor
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Calgary
Canada

Ashraf Naeem

Associate professor
Department of Anatomy & Embryology
Zagazig University
Egypt

DUARTE NUNO VIEIRA

Professor
Portuguese National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences
University of Coimbra
Portugal

Wen-Quan Zou

Associate Professor
Departments of Pathology and Neurology
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
United States

Stan W. Casteel

Professor
Department of Veterinary Pathobiology
University of Missouri
United States

NIKOLAS P. LEMOS

Professor
Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
University of California
United States

Ahmed Ragab Gaber Ahmed

Faculty of Science
Beni-Suef University
Egypt

Robert Kinobe

Senior Lecturer
Physiology and Pharmacology
School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences
Australia

MAHENDRA PRATAP SINGH

Toxicogenomics and Predictive Toxicology Division
India
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