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Articles Related to type 2 diabetes

Comparative Effect of a High Fat with or without High Levels of Sucrose Diets on Peripheral Neuropathy in C57BL/6J Mice

Feeding mice a diet containing high fat and high sucrose has been promoted as a good model for type 2 diabetes. This study sought to determine the effect of feeding mice a high fat and high sucrose diet on neuropathy compared to mice fed only a high fat diet and mice fed a high diet and treated with streptozotocin.
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The Effects of Vitamin D on Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is also referred to as a steroid hormone with an active form that can bind to receptors. The main way to obtain vitamin D is its synthetization on the skin with the effect of ultraviolet light. It is activated in the body by two hydroxylation reactions in the liver and kidneys. Vitamin D is said to have other effects besides those on the bone metabolism. Vitamin D deficiency is a global social health problem. It is associated with cardiovascular diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, various types of cancer, immune deficiencies and increased mortality. It is frequently observed in obese individuals. A possible molecular mechanism of the relationship between obesity and vitamin D deficiency may be associated with the metabolism in mature adipocytes, oxidative stress, inflammation and the gene expression regulation capacity of vitamin D which is related to the adipogenesis process. Vitamin D may lead to an increase in insulin secretion and a decrease in insulin resistance by regulating the immune system. Inflammatory cytokine production is thought to be one of the mechanisms of action of vitamin D on insulin resistance. Inflammatory cytokines appear to be associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Low levels of vitamin D may cause disruption of insulin secretion. Vitamin D may be involved in β-cell secretion activity and changes in tissue response to insulin. There is a relationship between inadequate 25(OH)D levels and β-cell dysfunction. Vitamin D may have beneficial effects on β-cell function by suppressing the renin-angiotensin system. Based on all this information, it may be concluded that vitamin D is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes, and vitamin D deficiency may form the basis for these conditions.
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Fuel Metabolism Following 3 Days on a Carbohydrate-Free Diet vs. 3 Days of Fasting in Men with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

A 72-h fast results in a rapid decrease in circulating glucose to a lower level without a change in non-water body mass. Several metabolic adjustments are necessary. A nutrient-sufficient, carbohydrate (CHO)-free diet also has been reported to result in a decrease in glucose, and similar metabolic perturbations. However, direct comparisons are not available in subjects without, or with, type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
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Selenium Supplementation in Obese Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Type 2 Diabetes

Selenium (Se) is a trace element present in many foods. Selenium-protein co-factor plays a critical anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory role in thyroid function, but quite recently its ability to prevent adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis has also been evaluated. The aim of our study was to assess whether thyroid function, as well as, body mass index (BMI) and body composition might improve in Se-treated obese patients as compared to those getting placebo (P).
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Association between Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism of ApoB Gene with Dyslipidemia and Obesity Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Several studies have suggested that Insertion/Deletion polymorphism of ApoB gene is associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD).
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How Should we Screen Overweight and Obese Adolescents for Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Large Public Health Initiatives?

To develop a valid method to identify insulin resistance (IR) in overweight and obese adolescents without requiring a fasting blood sample.
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Healthy and Unhealthy Dietary Patterns are related to Lipid Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

The effects of a single food or nutrient on disease may be insufficient and poor, but the cumulative effect is detectable. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between dietary patterns and lipid parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Anthropometric Predictors for Multiple Risk Factor Aggregation in Adults from Maracaibo City

There are several anthropometric measures that are useful for diagnosis obesity and also are related to the development of different cardiovascular risk factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive ability of various anthropometric parameters for the multiple risk factors aggregation (MRFA) in the adult population of the city of Maracaibo-Venezuela.
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Stability Analysis of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide and Its Mutated Oligomeric Forms

Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37 residue peptide hormone is an ingenious factor in pancreatic amyloid deposits found in cases with type-2 diabetes. Its aggregation into small toxic oligomeric species is presumed to be the reason for cells debilitation and demise in case of diabetic patients.
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Pharmacokinetics, Biotransformation, Distribution and Excretion of Empagliflozin, a Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter (SGLT 2) Inhibitor, in Mice, Rats, and Dogs

The metabolism, pharmacokinetics, excretion and distribution of a sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT 2) inhibitor, empagliflozin, were studied in mice, rats and beagle dogs following a single oral or intravenous administration of [14C]-empagliflozin. Empagliflozin was well absorbed in all species after oral administration.
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The Association of Grades of Photoreceptor Inner Segment-Ellipsoid Band Disruption with Severity of Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

A prospective case-control study was undertaken to evaluate the association of inner segment-ellipsoid (ISel) band disruption with severity of diabetic retinopathy on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. ISel disruption was graded as - grade 0: intact ISel; grade 1: focal disruption (subfoveal ISel disruption) and grade 2: global disruption (ISel disruption involving macular cube). Increased severity of diabetic retinopathy was found to be associated with increase in disruption of ISel (r = 0.49, p < 0.001).
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Editorial Board Members Related to type 2 diabetes

Chong Lee

Associate Professor
School of Nutrition & Health Promotion
Arizona State University
United States

Chandan Saha

Associate Professor
Department of Biostatistics
School of Medicine
Indiana University
United states

KONSTANTINOS KANTARTZIS

Department of Internal Medicine
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology
Nephrology, Vascular Disease and Clinical Chemistry
University of Tübingen
Germany

Josep Bassaganya-Riera

Professor
Virginia Bioinformatics Institute
United States

Jamie I. Baum

Assistant Professor
Department of Food Science
University of Arkansas
United States

Edralin A Lucas

Associate Professor
Department of Nutritional Sciences
Oklahoma State University
United States

Liqing Yu

Associate Professor
Departments of Animal and Avian Sciences
University of Maryland
United States

Solomon Ike Okosun

Associate Professor
Department of Population Health Sciences
School of Public Health
Georgia State University
USA

Sheila Barrett

Assistant Professor
Department of Nutrition
Northern Illinois University
United States

XU-FENG HUANG

Professor
School of Health Sciences
University of Wollongong
Australia
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