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Articles Related to AIDS

Trend of HIV/AIDS Reported Cases in Morocco Between 1986 and 2019: A Time Series Analysis

Background: Morocco is a low endemic country of HIV/AIDS that achieved the goal of the second and third 90-90-90 targets in 2019 while still 78% of people living with HIV know their HIV status. The aim of this study was to analyze time trends of HIV/AIDS reported cases during the last 33 years taking into consideration the implementation of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (HCT) services in primary health care facilities. Methodology: This was a time series of HIV/AIDS reported cases at national level between 1986 and 2019. Variable collected for each year were HIV/AIDS reported per 100000 H, age category, gender, origin, CD4 count and route of transmission. Trend of HIV/AIDS reported cases was assessed by Joinpoint Regression Analysis. Annual percentage changes (APCs) were estimated to identify the years (joinpoint) when significant changes occurred in the trend. We therefore examined trends in HIV/AIDS reported cases according to epidemiological variables. Results: Cumulative HIV/AIDS reported cases during the study period was of 17 000. Joinpoint regression showed an increase in HIV/AIDS reported cases between 1986 and 2019. The APC for the period 1986-2012 was of 13.4 (95% CI: 12.0 to 14.8, p <0.05) and the APC from 2012 to 019 was of 5.4 (95% CI: 2.5 to 8.5, p<0.05) with a significant break in the same joinpoint year than HCT implementation in primary health care settings. In stratified analysis, HIV/AIDS reported cases increased but not significantly after joinpoint. A significant decrease was noted in 2015 in urban areas (APC = -10.0, 95% CI: -17.0 to -2.3, p<0.05). Conclusions: HIV/AIDS reported cases were increasing over 33 years, with a significant rise after 2012by 5% per year, corresponding to HCT integration into primary health care setting. Furthermore, Morocco is may be on the right way to eliminate HIV/AIDS in urban areas.
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Level of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Ekiti State

Introduction: The use of anti-retroviral drugs slows down disease progression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and this has improved the quality of life and life expectancy of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, optimum use of antiretroviral drugs (adherence) by PLWHA is the key to achieving viral load suppression and preventing drug resistance in them. Objective: This study determined the level of adherence to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) among PLWHA in Ekiti State. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 PLWHA in Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti and 300 PLWHA in Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti aged 18 years and above using ARV for at least six months prior to the study. Quantitative data were collected from the participants using a structured questionnaire while sixteen in-depth interviews were conducted among purposively selected PLWHA in both study centres to further elicit qualitative information on determinants of adherence. Quantitative data were analyzed with SPSS 22 using descriptive statistics while content analysis was used for qualitative data. Regression analysis was done to identify determinants of adherence at p value < 0.05. Results: About 60% of the PLWHA had high level of ART adherence while 18.9% had low adherence. Most of the respondents were female (66.0%), married (76.1%) and Christians (89.4%) and had post-secondary education (43.4%). Respondents’ age (X2=32.483), educational status (X2=2.473), marital status (X2=40.083), occupation (X2=57.951) and distance from the clinic (X2=13.181) significantly influenced the level of adherence. Patient factors such as forget timing of the medication, pill burden and feeling better, psychosocial factors like stigmatization, non-disclosure of status and depression; and healthcare factors such as long clinic waiting time and absence of support are some of the barriers to optimum ART adherence. Conclusion: Counseling on drug adherence and psycho-social support to PLWHA will further improve their level of adherence to medication.
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The Argument for Thoughtful Empiricism in AIDS Vaccine Development

History teaches that successful vaccine development is a highly empirical process involving guesswork and tinkering, typically done in the face of woefully incomplete biological understanding. The AIDS vaccine effort effectively abandoned this classical approach early on.
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Enteric Pathogens in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome from Porto Velho City, Rondonia State, Western Amazon, Brazil

Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), mainly those who live under poor sanitary and socioeconomic conditions, are often diagnosed with Gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases. The lowest CD4+ T-cell counts are not found in the plasma, but in the GI tract, the biggest HIV source, thus allowing opportunistic infections. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify the epidemiological factors of GI infections and the prevalent pathogens in HIV patients from Porto Velho City, Rondônia State.
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Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Twin Sisters after Ibuprofen Administration. New Insights in Pathogenesis and Literature Review

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are closely-related, severe, acute life-threatening, drug-induced skin and mucosal disorders with a high mortality rate or long-term damages. These medical conditions are considered a delayed, typeIV hypersensitivity reaction and can be triggered by drugs, infections and malignancies.
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Stimulation of IL-16 Release by Cells Exposed to HIV Virion Proteins

The pathogenesis and immune response to a chronic viral infection is multifaceted especially for HIV infection. The effect of HIV on the systemic immunoenvironment of the infected individual is profound and triggered by multiple stimuli. While replication competent viral infection induces a large spectrum of immune responses, such as cytokine release, we focused on what happens when cells are exposed to replication incompetent virions and their components.
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Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Among General Practitioners in Health Facilities in Brazzaville in Republic of Congo

Despite the growing HIV burden, the disease continues to receive a relatively high public health priority in the Republic of Congo. To establish the knowledge, attitude, and practice on HIV/AIDS among general practitioners working in Brazzaville and to register their actual behavior in the prevention of HIV/AIDS. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample size was 35 General Practitioners. A self- administered questionnaire was used to collect data in a four-week period in August 2017. Selected at random, were asked to participate. The data collected was analyzed using the Statistical Program for EpiInfo.
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Stigma and Discriminatory Attitude towards People Living with HIV/AIDS among High School Students

In 1987, the World Health Organization Global Programme on AIDS identified three phases of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: the epidemic of HIV, the epidemic of AIDS, and the epidemic of stigma and discrimination. The report also notified that the third phase is a central issue to the global AIDS challenge and the disease itself. Despite continued multilateral efforts to tackle HIV/AIDS, stigma and discrimination remain among the most poorly understood aspects of the epidemic. In this paper, stigma and discriminatory attitude among high school students was assessed.
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Risky Sexual Practices among Adolescents Living with HIV Accessing HIV and AIDS Care Services at Health Facilities in the Central Region of Uganda

Adolescents living with HIV in Uganda are sexually active just like their uninfected peers. With the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the surviving population of adolescents prenatally infected with HIV is increasing and they are becoming sexually active.
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Analysis of Trends in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS Related Conditions in Masvingo Province 2004-2009

Globally 42 million adults and children are estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS of which 22 million of these cases are in Sub Sahara Africa. In Zimbabwe 1.6 million adults aged 15 years and above are living with HIV/ AIDS and in Masvingo Province HIV/AIDS is ranked 2nd on the top ten causes of OPD attendance.
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Empowering Key Populations (Kps) to Effectively Demand for Equal HIV/AIDS Services

AGHA in partnership with THETA and MNL with funding from CDC is implementing a Local Capacity Initiative project aimed at building capacity of CSOs working with KPs in Mukono, Kampala and Wakiso to advocate for improved HIV services. In Uganda, HIV prevalence among the general population stands at an average of 7.3% while among SWs is 35-37% and MSM at 13.7% between the age of 18-24.Over 40-50% of the new infections come from KPs (UAC, HIV /AIDS Indicator survey 2011). Programs targeting KPs continue to be characterized by limited coverage, poorly linked care, treatment and referral services. The project has increased capacity of 15 CSOs to demand accountability from government on national commitments on KPs; increased capacity of KPs to identify the legal and policy framework that impede equitable access, increased participation and representation of community leaders and KPs living with HIV in the governance structures that influence health services delivery.
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Chronic Pain – Can It Be Cured?

Chronic pain is currently treated with several drugs and therapies that can be helpful, but usually do not cure chronic pain. In fact, many drug therapies make the pain worse or are toxic to the patient. Chronic pain treatment frequently involves oral or injected drugs because the perception is that chronic pain comes from an internal source. Chronic pain, and all other forms of pain, should be treated in the skin. Mechanisms of induction of chronic pain will be discussed and skin targets for the treatment and cure of chronic pain will be presented.
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Clients’ Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Supportive Counseling in Botswana: A Qualitative Study

The United Nations has created the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) initiative in an attempt to end the HIV/AIDS epidemic worldwide by the year 2030. In an effort to assist in the SDG cause, the current study sought to obtain data from clients in Botswana regarding the perceptions of their experiences with HIV/AIDS counseling from 25 randomly selected hospitals/clinics.
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Predictors of Delayed Diagnosis and Evolution in Sub-Saharan Immigrants with HIV Infection in a Hospital in Madrid (2004–2013)

The aim of this study was to analyze the delayed diagnosis and evolution of HIV infection in predominantly sub-Saharan immigrants compared to other patients in a hospital in Madrid between 2004 and 2013. We retrospectively analyzed new HIV diagnoses. Late presentation or advanced disease were considered the presence of CD4 lymphocyte counts less than 350 or 200 cells/µl at diagnosis, respectively, or an AIDS-defining disease regardless of the CD4 count. Patients were compared according to their origin and sex.
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The Psychosocial Factors that Influencing HIV-AIDS Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence

The socio-cultural context of illness has become a major research area, and it has made significant contributions to our understanding of the socio-cultural dimensions of illness. In this article, we briefly trace the roots of a socio-cultural approach to illness, and we present some of the key findings of socio-cultural organized under main themes. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy drugs in the treatment of HIV infection is complicated because of many psychosocial factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the psychosocial factors involved in non-compliance with ART among people infected with HIV in Alert Hospital in Ethiopia.
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Editorial Board Members Related to AIDS

Esam Z. Dajani

Adjunct Professor of Medicine
Loyola University
USA

Jennifer Chan

Associate Professor
Institute for Gender, Race, Sexuality and Social Justice
University of British Columbia
Canada

Mohamed Khayet

Professor
Department of Applied Physics
Complutense University of Madrid
Spain

SHITTU RASAQ OLATUNJI

Head of Department of HIV/AIDS and Family Medicine
Kwara State Specialist Hospital
Nigeria

YARON NIV

Clinical Professor of Medicine
Tel-Aviv University
Israel

PHILIPOS PETROS GILE

Planing , Monitoring and Evaluation programs
Ethiopian Universities' Partnership Forum
Ethiopia

Bechan Sharma

Professor
Department of Biochemistry
University of Allahabad
India

Huangui Xiong

Professor
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience
University of Nebraska Medical Center
United States

RAJNISH S. DAVE

Associate Scientist
Department of Neuroscience
Temple University
United States

Emmanuel Ho

Assistant Professor
Department of Immunology
University of Manitoba
Canada
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