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Articles Related to Cancer Therapy

Mechanisms of Resistance to Kinase Inhibitors and Strategies to Prevent the Development of Drug Resistance

Targeting mutant proteins and associated signaling pathways of driver oncogenes by small molecule kinase inhibitors (KIs) are a promising strategy of cancer therapy. However, despite the initial success of treatment, KIs often become ineffective as intrinsic and acquired resistance. This article reviews the English-language literature to explore the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance and to present a challenge for developing drugs to overcome resistance. Mechanisms of acquired resistance include 1) the selection of pre-existing subclones with other mutations, 2) the emergence of secondary mutations in the target kinase domain, 3) upregulation of kinases both within the same kinase family and their related kinase families, as well as activation of alternative bypass pathways, 4) epithelial-mesenchymal transition, 5) overexpression of pro-survival Bcl-2 family proteins and 6) drug efflux mechanisms. Currently available methods are to obtain tumor biopsy samples at recurrence or progression if the tumor lesion is accessible to a biopsy and to use the second- and third-generation KIs based on the individual need of each patient. Furthermore, recent computational challenges provide design principles to prevent the development of drug resistance. In conclusion, we provide an overview of the postulated resistance mechanisms and highlight the future direction of computational structure-based design of new potent KIs.
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Perspectives and Potential Applications of Ruthenium-Based Nanocarriers for Cancer Therapy

Cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease characterised by continuous uncontrolled growth and expansion of abnormal cells. In general, in tumor cells the signalling pathways regulating cellular processes, as cell growth and division and cell to cellcommunication result strongly altered.
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Editorial Board Members Related to Cancer Therapy

BRUCE D CHESON

Professor of Medicine
Division of Hematology and Oncology
Georgetown University Hospital
United States

Rajajeyakumar Manivel

Assistant Professor
Department of Physiology
Chennai Medical College Hospital & Research Centre (SRM Group)
Irungalur, Trichy, Tamilnadu
India

GIRJA SHANKER SHUKLA

Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
University of Vermont College of Medicine
United States

Arvind Chhabra

Assistant Professor
Department Of Medicine
University of Connecticut Health Center
United States

Ming Tan

Associate Professor
Mitchell Cancer Institute
United States

Tao Liu

Children's Cancer Institute
University of New South Wales
Australia

Yanyan Li

Assistant Professor
Department of Health and Nutrition Sciences
Montclair State University
United States

Huafeng Zhang

Professor
School of Life Science
University of Science & Technology of China
China

Jinlian Hua

Professor
Shaanxi Centre of Stem Cells Engineering & Technology
Key Lab for Animal Biotechnology of Agriculture Ministry
Northwest A&F University
China

WEN ZHOU

Associate Faculty
Women's Health Faculty
Columbia University
United States
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