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Articles Related to Cancer

Mechanisms of Resistance to Kinase Inhibitors and Strategies to Prevent the Development of Drug Resistance

Targeting mutant proteins and associated signaling pathways of driver oncogenes by small molecule kinase inhibitors (KIs) are a promising strategy of cancer therapy. However, despite the initial success of treatment, KIs often become ineffective as intrinsic and acquired resistance. This article reviews the English-language literature to explore the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance and to present a challenge for developing drugs to overcome resistance. Mechanisms of acquired resistance include 1) the selection of pre-existing subclones with other mutations, 2) the emergence of secondary mutations in the target kinase domain, 3) upregulation of kinases both within the same kinase family and their related kinase families, as well as activation of alternative bypass pathways, 4) epithelial-mesenchymal transition, 5) overexpression of pro-survival Bcl-2 family proteins and 6) drug efflux mechanisms. Currently available methods are to obtain tumor biopsy samples at recurrence or progression if the tumor lesion is accessible to a biopsy and to use the second- and third-generation KIs based on the individual need of each patient. Furthermore, recent computational challenges provide design principles to prevent the development of drug resistance. In conclusion, we provide an overview of the postulated resistance mechanisms and highlight the future direction of computational structure-based design of new potent KIs.
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Former Effective Immunotherapy without Adverse Events of Inoperable Epithelial Ovarian Cancers and a Prospect for the Immune Prophylaxis

Current cancer treatments by immune checkpoint blockades are limited due to severe adverse events caused by alteration of the immune system required for homeostasis of normal tissues. Common cancer chemotherapy alters the quality of patients’ lives. Platinum-based treatment can lead to severe neurotoxicity with chronic debilitation. Additionally, survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) has remained poor despite extensive cytoreductive surgery, high dose chemotherapy, checkpoint blockades and immunotherapies effective in some other types of cancer. The pathobiology of EOC cancer stem cells (CSCs) is not well understood. Observations demonstrate that EOCs exhibit in vivo two distinct CSC types - perivascular diploid CSCs dividing asymmetrically with the help of the host suicidal CD8+ T cells, and haploid CSCs at the cancer abdominal surface originating from meiosis I cytokinesis of bulk surface cancer cells. The perivascular CSCs contribute to the cancer cell bulk and, via left ovary venous blood, can cause EOC liver metastases. Haploid CSCs released from the bulk cancer surface cause the common pelvic and abdominal EOC spread. Former elimination of the host antibodies blocking T cell effectors by intermittent doses of cyclophosphamide exhibiting significant immunomodulatory anticancer effects, facilitation of the immune system reactivity against alloantigens of cancer cells by blood transfusions, and augmentation of anticancer immunity by bacterial toxins, resulted during the subsequent treatment-free period into rejection of inoperable EOCs without any adverse events during the treatnment. To help prevent cancer relapses, patients treated for advanced primary epithelial cancers should be considered as candidates for continuously stimulating immune anticancer activity by treatments such as daily metformin and weekly lentinan consumptions.
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Thyroid Cancer Incidence and Clinicopathological Differences in Patients with End-Stage Renal Failure

Aim: In the present study we aimed to determine the prevalence of thyroid cancer and the clinicopathological properties of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in a patient population undergoing dialysis for end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all thyroid ultrasonography (USG) examinations performed between January 2007 and December 2015 to determine the incidence of nodular thyroid disease in ESRF and normal patient populations. For both patient groups, differences between patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated in patients diagnosed to have PTC.
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Two-Dimensional Infrared Correlation Spectroscopy, Linear Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy and Non-Linear Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues under Synchrotron Radiation with the Passage of Time

In the current study, we have experimentally and comparatively investigated and compared malignant human cancer cells and tissues before and after irradiating of synchrotron radiation using Two-Dimensional Infrared Correlation Spectroscopy, Linear Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy and Non-Linear Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy.
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Scalp, Skull, Lung and Bone Metastasis from Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma - A Rare Case Report

Concurrent scalp, skull, lung and bone metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma is a very rare event. We herein present the case of a 37- year’s old lady, who presented to us with huge scalp swelling that proved to be metastasis from a follicular thyroid carcinoma. The metastatic workup disclosed bilateral lung metastasis and additional metastasis in right iliac crest and 6th rib. The course of her disease was relentless. Although follicular thyroid carcinoma has an excellent prognosis, the presence of metastatic disease leads to a very dismal prognosis.
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A Nutrition and Physical Activity Education Model for Cancer Risk Reduction Improves Knowledge and Dietary Behaviors among Students in the Alabama Black Belt

An age-appropriate, culturally sensitive Nutrition and Physical Activity Education Model (NPAEM) for cancer risk reduction was developed and implemented. NPAEM was underpinned by the social-cognitive theory. Participants (N=86) were 8 to 11-year-old students from public elementary schools in Macon County, Alabama. The NPAEM comprised of 11 topics and activity/worksheets. Lesson plans, evaluation and hands-on activity/worksheets were developed. The 15-week intervention was cross-sectional, with a pre- and post-assessment design and weekly 45-minute lessons.
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The Influence of Faith and Religiosity in Coping with Breast Cancer

The study researches the influence of faith and religiosity in coping with breast cancer based on the analysis of spiritual well-being and the association of spirituality/religiosity and its practices with the acceptance of diagnosis, treatment adherence and future prospects for the patient. A descriptive and field research carried out with patients diagnosed with breast cancer resulted in the evident conclusion that faith and religiosity present themselves as the determinant, potent and active factors in their clinical treatments and in their lives.
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Prevention and Treatment of Esophageal Cancer in China: Achievements and Challenges-Prevention is the Key

Background: The study investigated esophageal cancer etiology and pathology, along with problems associated with surgical treatments. Keywords: Esophageal cancer; Mortality; Etiology; Pathology; Treatment; 5-year survivalIntroduction Methods: Data from the National Cancer Prevention and Control Office and the National Cancer Registry Center (2012) were assessed for information regarding malignant tumor incidence. These data were also used to conduct a mortality analysis and investigate death records pertaining to esophageal cancer patients. We extracted crude and age-specific mortality data and proportional mortality ratios as well as standard mortality data for Chinese and world populations. Esophageal cancer mortality was compared with death statistical data and literature related to esophageal cancer was collected from the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database and the Chinese Journal Network.
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Double Stroke and Double Malignancy: A Case Report

Stroke associated with malignancy is rapidly increasing. Lesion types mainly resemble cardio embolic multiple ischemic lesions. We present a rare stroke patient with both ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions simultaneously. The etiology of stroke was found to be due to lung cancer and essential thrombocytosis. Differential diagnosis in this case can help for further investigation of strokes with malignancy.
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Compliance in the Duration of Administration of Anticancer Chemotherapy: Comparative Study of Two Different Administration Modalities (PVC versus IVAD)

Objective: To evaluate the compliance of chemotherapy administration duration by comparing the peripheral venous catheter (PVC) route with the implantable venous access device (IVAD).Keywords: Chemotherapy; Gravity perfusion; Peripheral venous; Implantable venous access deviceIntroduction Methods: This was a retrospective study that analyzed 566 cycles of chemotherapy administered by PVC at the Cancer Unit of Yalgado Ouédraogo University Hospital and 258 cycles administered by IVAD at the Oncology Department of Treichville University Hospital in Abidjan. We compared the differences between the programmed duration of chemotherapy and the actual duration of administration according to the two routes of administration.
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The Use of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Cancer Patients with Heart Failure

Investigate the use of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in cancer patients with heart failure (HF); assess factors associated with ischemic and non-ischemic HF. Many newer cancer therapies are cardiotoxic; thus, the incidence of HF has been increasing in this high-risk patient population. CRT has beneficial effects on morbidity, mortality, and left ventricular function in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, yet cancer patients and survivors who develop severe HF and are eligible for CRT often does not receive it.
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Immune Checkpoint and Ovarian Cancer

Many scientists and biotechnology companies had given up on the idea of cancer immunotherapy in 1990s. Almost a decade after first detection of T cell suppression effect of CTLA4 the identity of its antibody was established. While they are found effective in many cancers including melanoma, lung cancer etc. immune checkpoint inhibitors have lent an important measure to manage recurrent and refractory ovarian cancer. This subject needs constant updating specially for students of ovarian cancer who are looking at this avenue of cure with much hope.
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Advances in the Treatment of Breast Cancer-Emphasis on fertility preservationA Case Report

With the recent advances in breast cancer treatment the 5 year survival rates have increased significantly with overall 20yrs survival in developed countries like USA. With further improvement being designed in the treatment of breast cancers with more and more sophisticated models to study breast cancer in human beings using the modern microfluidic models one expects more and younger breast cancer survivors to be needing fertility treatments. Here we review the modern advances in breast cancer treatments and the need for emphasizing on fertility preservation before starting any chemotherapeutic or other management as recommended by both ASO and ASRM.
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Late Cerebellar Vermis Metastasis of Breast Cancer Presenting as Pseudo-Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common peripheral vestibular disease; however intracranial lesions can mimic it. Intractable, not self-limiting paroxysmal positional vertigo sustained by intracranial tumors is called malignant paroxysmal positional vertigo (MPPV) while, when radiological imaging shows vascular cerebellar vermis lesions and there are atypical findings on the Dix-Hallpike maneuver, we speak about pseudo-benign paroxysmal type (pseudo-BPPV).
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Challenges in the Pharmacological Management of Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in Children in the Maintenance Phase of Therapy at Kenyatta National Hospital

Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma is an extremely chemo sensitive with a five year event free survival of greater than 90% in developed countries and a one year survival rate of 40-50% in developing countries.
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Editorial Board Members Related to Cancer

Lina H K LIM

Associate Professor
Department of Physiology
National University of Singapore

Baolin Zhang

Division of Therapeutic Proteins
Office of Biotechnology Products
FDA/Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
United States

Suzanne M. Miller

Division of Cancer
Fox Chase Cancer Center
United States

Suman Sirimulla

Assistant Professor
Department of Basic Sciences
St. Louis College of Pharmacy
St. Louis, MO
United States.


Associate Scientist
Department of Neuroscience
Temple University
United States

Angel Simeonov Galabov

Department of Virology
The Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology

Nejat Dalay

Istanbul University Oncology Institute

Jeffrey Michael Venstrom

Assistant Professor
Department of Medicine
University of California, San Francisco
United States


Associate Professor
Department of Gastroenterology
Shenyang Northern Hospital

Jinlian Hua

Shaanxi Centre of Stem Cells Engineering & Technology
Key Lab for Animal Biotechnology of Agriculture Ministry
Northwest A&F University
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