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Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Procedure for the Determination of Isavuconazole in Human Plasma

Introduction: Isavuconazole is an antifungal drug used for treating patients with invasive fungal infections. Efficacy and safety of isavuconazole is monitored by measuring plasma isavuconazole concentration using LCMS which is a non-affordable method. We used the HPLC system with a UV detector to measure plasma Isavuconazole concentration. Objective: Improved Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography procedure with UV detection is described which is cost effective, simple, precise and easily processed for the measurement of Isavuconazole, a drug used to treat the patients with invasive fungal infections, in blood plasma. Method: The method involves protein precipitation, addition of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and chromatographic separation on a Hypurity C18 Column using an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer (pH 8.0, 10 mM) (55:45, v/v). The UV detection was performed at 285 nm. The method provides rapid resolution of Isavuconazole in a 50 uL injection. Result: Lower limit of Quantification (LLOQ) is 0.25 μg/ml in a 50 uL injection volume for Isavuconazole with a recovery consistently > 100 %. The assay is validated over linear range of 0.25 to 10 μg/ml. The intra-assay precision is < 3.53 % and inter-assay is <6.38% relative standard deviation of Isavuconazole. The method demonstrated clean separation, clinically acceptable detection limit and a linear range upto 25 ug/mL. Conclusion: The assay demonstrated applicability in quantifying the drug level and monitoring the therapeutic dose for maintaining effective biological level to have better response in fungal infected patients. The method is cheaper as compared to LC-MS/MS and Tandem Mass spectrometry and the results are reportable on the same day of blood collection.
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Arduino Use in Education Systems to Monitor the Noise in Schools Classrooms in Qatar

Many students suffer from the sound of air conditioners and others suffer from light intensity in classroom. The air conditioners and light intensity affect the efficiency and quality of education. Urduino is used a lot in industrial areas because there is a lot of noise pollution. Additionally, it can be used in high traffic regions as well as to monitor noise in different parts of the city. It can also be used in education systems to monitor the noise in classrooms. The purpose of this study was to monitor the noise in classrooms by Arduino Nano that interfaced with a Sound Sensor. A study was conducted to determine the ambient sound and light intensity of a convenience sample at school during September, October and November 2021. Six classrooms’ samples corresponding to hourly fractions of the average sample broken down into the following periods: from 10:00 am to 2:50 pm. Sound levels were measured to assess acoustic conditions. Light levels were measured to assess light conditions. Each classroom from 1 to 6 was tested the ambient sound intensity and light using an Arduino. Noise varies with time and place. The sound level varies between 27.5 dB and 65 dB with the average sound level in the classrooms was 43.53 dB greater than recommended sound level limit of 35 dB. The light intensity varies between 62.50 lux and 208.5 lux. The average light levels around the recommended 300 lux. Everyone emphasized the quality of using the device to measure the noise level in the classroom. The use of the device leads to monitor the noise of the air conditioner or replacing it. The device has the potential to significantly change the noise pollution monitoring system at school. Researchers recommend all students and authorities the importance of the Arduino.
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Prevalence of Minority Mutations That Confer Multi-Drug Resistance Among Patients Failing a Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Based Regimen in Uganda

Background:The extensive use of antiretroviral therapy has favored the emergence of multiple patterns of drug resistance mutations. These mutations evolve over time and are only detected by the conventional Sanger sequencing technology when they exceed 20% at which time there may be cross resistance. Unfortunately, the controversy surrounding the significance of these minority drug resistance mutations is still overwhelming. Methods: Samples were obtained from patients who were failing on an NRTI based regimen between 2010 and 2019. For the subtype A and D analysis, 1000 patient samples were analyzed while the subtype C sub-analysis was comprised of 363 samples. Sanger based sequencing was performed as part of the standard of care. A subset of these samples was further analyzed using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology and analysis of the drug resistance mutations was performed at the 20% and 1% cut off to determine the prevalence of minority multi-drug resistant variants. Results: Although Thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) were prevalent in all subtypes, our analyses showed that these mutations occurred in significantly less proportions among subtype C infections when compared with the subtype A and D counterparts. On the other hand, the Q151M mutation complex was significantly more predominant among patients harboring subtype C variants. Analysis using NGS revealed that minority drug resistant mutations that confer multi-drug resistance (MDR) were present even in patients who exhibited a susceptible genotype based on the Sanger sequencing technique. Conclusion: Although HIV-1 MDR variants occur in all subtypes, their predominance is subtype specific with TAMs being significantly more predominant among subtype A and D while the Q151M complex more predominant among patients harboring subtype C viruses. Even in patients with a fully susceptible genotype based on Sanger technology, minority variants are present and their evolution to full blown MDR occurs over time such that if their early detection is missed, cross resistance is inevitable.
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A Novel Coenzyme Q8A Mutation in a Case with Juvenile-Onset Coenzyme Q10D4: Case Report and Literature Review

Primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency-4 (CoQ10D4) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by childhood-onset of cerebellar ataxia and exercise intolerance. Molecular pathology responsible for clinical findings is mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction. The main clinical manifestation involves early-onset exercise intolerance, progressive cerebellar ataxia and movement disorders. Some affected individuals develop seizures and have mild mental impairment, indicating variable severity.
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Shadow Spaces… Territorial Reserve

The collection and disposal of waste is ancient, but has become a crucial issue in a relatively recent time, as far as quantity to recuperate, recovery of resources to deal with, novelty and variety of materials to destroy and disposal techniques at hand. It is known that a consumer society produces an extraordinary quantity of scrap and it is now clear there is urgency of change in disposal management.
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Tofacitinib as a Therapeutic Option in the Treatment of Refractory Scleritis: A Case Report

This was a 50-year-old patient with recurrent bilateral nodular anterior scleritis refractory to several treatments, including immunosuppressants and anti Tnfα. She was assessed for the different causes of immune-mediated and infectious diseases, but nothing was found. Tofacitinib was started 5 mg twice a day, which led to the spacing of crises until their total disappearance. At present, the patient has been crisis-free for nine months. In conclusion, the use of Janus Kinase inhibitor (Tofacitinib) alone was effective in the treatment of refractory recurrent nodular anterior scleritis.
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The Occurrence of Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Complications and an Evaluation of the Methods Utilized to Mitigate Them

Despite intravenous (IV) catheters being among the most common invasive clinical devices used in a hospital setting, they are associated with complication rates up to 50% in large medical centers. High patient burden combined with enormous costs to the healthcare system necessitates improvement in IV catheter safety and utilization.
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Auditory Evoked Potentials as Yardstick for Tinnitus

: Aiming to evaluate the recent theoretical postulates on tinnitus underscoring the role of thalamocortical neural tracts, the present study 1) explores Middle Latency Response (MLR) as a possible physiological measure of tinnitus: thus investigates the predicted exaggeration of Pa-Na, Na-Pb interpeak amplitudes in tinnitus patients and 2) explores MLR as a prognostic indicator of Tinnitus Retraining Therapy: thus evaluates possible decrease in Pa-Na & Na-Pb amplitude after 2weeks exposure to Tinnitus Retraining Therapy.
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Assessment of the Food Base and Eating Behaviour of Camels in Different Regions of the World

Present study was planned in order understand the surveillance, browsing behavior and nutritive value of camel browse vegetations. Review of literatures indicated that camel is mostly found at arid and semi-arid areas of the world where average rain fall becomes less than 350 mm per year. The estimated population in the world is 19 million, among which 17 million are supposed to be one-humped dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) and 2 million two-humped Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus).
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Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Including Skunk Liquid, Household Cleaning Products, and Others

The air pollution’s situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) can be simply described as ‘catastrophic.’
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Metabolic Effects of an Inositol-Resveratrol Nutraceutical Combination in Non-Diabetic Overweight/Obese Subjects with Altered Glucose Tolerance

Insulin resistance (IR) is almost constistently associated with overweight or obesity in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Nutraceutical compounds improving insulin resistance (IR) may be useful in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in metabolic diseases.
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Safety Concerns of Glaucoma Chemotherapy among G6PD Deficient Glaucoma Patients: A Pilot Study

The aim of this study was to assess the potential acute adverse effects associated with the use of anti-glaucoma medications among glaucoma patients with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency.
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Recurrent Mucinous Ovarian Neoplasms: Rationale and Results of a New Treatment Plan in Four Patients

Recurrence of a mucinous ovarian neoplasm after resection is unusual but this does happen. If possible, a repeat surgical removal of recurrent disease is the treatment of choice. The results of a repeat intervention are poor. A review of our results of treatment of recurrent mucinous ovarian neoplasms was performed.
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Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal: Case Report

Squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal may masquerade as an infective process causing late diagnosis. A delay in treatment as a result of missed diagnosis would carry a poor prognosis as the disease progresses to an advanced stage. We present a case of a man with history of chronic otorrhea, who developed left sided otalgia associated with hearing loss. otoscopic examination shows a mass in her left ear and pus discharge which was initially treated as an infection. The biopsy of the mass was proven to be squamous cell carcinoma. High index of suspicion is necessary when encountering patients presenting with a mass in the ear canal with prior history of chronic otorrhea or cholesteatoma. Proper tissue biopsy is crucial. Early diagnosis is required for better prognosis for the patient.
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Oxygen Balance Homeostasis and Tissue Metabolic Score (TMS) of Patients in Emergency and Critical Care Medicine

Patients admitted to the emergency room or intensive care units (ICUs) need real-time monitoring of body oxygen balance. As of today, the availability of monitoring devices that provide real-time data on tissue level of oxygen homeostasis is very limited. The involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in many pathological states such as stroke, sepsis or heart failure is calling for a real-time evaluation of this intracellular organelle. In order to avoid the deterioration of the most vital organs in the body (brain and heart), we are proposing to monitor a less vital organ, such as the urethral wall, that serves as an early warning signal for the deterioration of body oxygen balance.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Editorial Board Members Related to ITO

Guanghua Yan

Assistant Professor
Department of Radiation Oncology
University of Florida
United States

Mohammad Al-Haggar

Professor
Department of Pediatrics & Neurogenetics
Faculty of Medicine
Mansoura University
Egypt

Saber Mohamed Abd-Allah

Associate Professor
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Beni-Suef University
Egypt

KAEI NASU

Professor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Oita University
Japan

Mohamed Eddouoks

Professor
Faculty of Sciences and Techniques Errachidia
Moulay Ismail University
Morocco

Mehdi Vosoughi

Assistant Professor
Department of environmental health engineering
Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
Iran

Osman Balci

Professor
Department of Computer Science
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
United States

JOEL E. RICHTER

Professor
Department of Medicine
University of South Florida
United States

Ekrem Dogan

Professor
Department of Internal Medicine
Division of Nephrology
Selahaddin Eyyubi University
Turkey

Henrique Serezani

Assistant Professor
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Indiana University
United States
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