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Kaempferol 3-glucoside from Azadirachta indica

World population up to 80 percent relies on traditional medicine. Currently use of medicinal plant/herbal medicine for treating various disorders and diseases is quickly evolving. Due to their less side effects. Azadirachta indica (Neem) is one such important medicinal plant widely used in ethno traditional medicine for centuries, which is cosmopolitan in distribution and belongs to the family Meliaceae. In India, it is extensively used in several native medical practices.
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Fahr Disease: A Rare Disease That is Diagnosed Incidentally in the Emergency Department

Fahr Disease (FD) is a rare disorder presenting with basal ganglia calcification and its etiology is still unknown. Although, the common cause of the disease is asymptomatic, but it might manifest with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Dizziness is one of the common symptoms at emergency services and mostly it requires advanced examination to establish a final diagnosis. When a neurological condition is suspected to cause dizziness, it is tried to be diagnosed by imaging methods such as Cranial Computed Tomography (CT) and Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and knowing the relationship between calcification and symptoms will keep the patient away from unnecessary investigations.
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Beneficial Effects of Vitamin E against Indomethacin-induced Glutathione Depletion, Acetylcholinesterase Activity, (Na+,K+)-ATPase Activity and Osmotic Fragility of Erythrocyte

Indomethacin, is a well-known non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor and extensively used as a medicine to reduce pain, fever, stiffness, swelling or inflammatory responses. Indomethacin inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2, which in turn, inhibits the production of prostaglandins in the gastrointestinal tract and disrupts the mucosal lining in the gastrointestinal tract leading to intestinal bleeding and perforation.
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The In Vitro Evaluation of Calcium and Bioactive Glass Based Pulp Capping Materials

Vital pulp preservation in the treatment of deep caries is challenging due to sealing issue. The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical properties and radiopacity of various light curing pulp capping materials. In this study, SEM-EDS analysis and the radiopacity of four different pulp capping materials including ThereCal LC, Biner LC, Calci Plus LC, and Activa-Bioactive were evaluated. Each material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical composition of each material was analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic (EDS) analysis. The diskshaped specimens (8 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness) were prepared from each material and exposed to a digital x-ray along with an aluminum step wedge for the radiopacity assay. The statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and Duncan’s post-hoc test.
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The Contribution of Alcohol Consumption to Overall Cancer Incidence in the Western World: A Meta-Analysis

The effect of alcohol consumption on overall cancer incidence is not clear. The aim of the paper is to estimate the impact of alcohol consumption on risk distribution of the 20 most common cancer types among men and women in the Western world. A meta-analysis of relative risks for the 20 most common cancer types potentially associated with alcohol consumption in the Western world was conducted based on the most recent cancer specific meta-analyses. Cancer risks were compared between men and women applying a sigmoidal dose response model. Drinking 2.5-14.9 g alcohol/day was associated with a small decrease in overall cancer incidence: 0.977 for men and 0.974 for women; followed by a small increase in the 15-29.9 g/day category: 1.029 for men and 1.077 for women. Further increases were observed in the 30-60 g/day category indicating a 5 and 10% increase in overall cancer risk for men and women, respectively. Women appeared to be more sensitive: the alcohol consumption level to acquire overall risk increase is 22 g/day for women and 46 g/day for men.
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Cisplatin-Gemcitabine Related Cardiomyopathy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer NSCLC Patient: A Case Study

Gemcitabine is a pyrimidine analog and cisplatin is a platinum agent, they are usually combined to form a chemotherapeutic doublet used to treat different types of oncological cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although these agents are not known to cause such events, few cases related to possible cardiotoxicity side effects have been reported ; including angina, chronic heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiac ischemia. A 52-year-old African male presented with Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to the bone, pleura and lymph node, EGFR wild type. Patient has a history of hypertension, diabetes, and atrial fibrillation and on rate control medications. He was treated initially with cisplatin-gemcitabine, after which he developed cardiomyopathy.
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Protective Ability of Vitamin E Against Acetylsalicylic Acid-Induced Glutathione Depletion, Acetylcholinesterase and (Na+ ,K+ )-ATPase Activities, and Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a well-recognized non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is well known for the treatment of fever, pain alleviation and inflammatory conditions, especially for the prevention of cardiovascular complications and disorders. However, ASA has been reported to cause hepato- and gastro-toxicities.
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Ulcer with Fatal Perforation of A Gastric Blind Pouch: A Rare and Un-Expected Complication After A Salvage Reconstruction for Esophagus

We present a case of total esophageal reconstruction with a free Jejunal flap in a patient with a history of esophagectomy and two previous failed attempts at reconstruction. Despite the technique here described offers a reliable option when the stomach and colon are not available, the success of the reconstruction might be compromised by the onset of a perforated ulcer at the gastric blind pouch related to previous failed gastric pull-up (GPU) After a major reconstructive surgery of long hours, gastric pouch may develop ulcer with perforation and fatal empyema due to stress, although the severe complication is rare.
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The 2015 Dutch Food-Based Dietary Guidelines on Alcohol Consumption - A Critical Review

Background: Recently the Dutch Health Council has issued a revised alcohol guideline stating: Do not drink alcohol, or if any only drink one glass daily. The current guidelines are intended to obtain the lowest disease burden of the most burdensome diseases in The Netherlands. The current paper aims to estimate the overall impact of alcohol consumption on these diseases.
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Giemsa Staining and Antibody Characterization of Colpodella sp. (Apicomplexa)

Colpodella species are free-living alveolates that possess an apical complex used for attaching to eukaryotic prey protists for ingestion of the cytoplasmic contents of the prey. Colpodella sp. are the closest relatives of the Apicomplexa, a phylum that includes the important human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In this study, we investigated morphological characteristics of Colpodella (ATCC 50594) in a diprotist culture containing Bodo caudatus as prey in order to identify features differentiating both protists. The level of apical complex protein conservation among free living alveolate relatives of apicomplexans and intracellular apicomplexan pathogens is unknown. Antibodies against proteins of the apical complex in Colpodella sp. are currently unavailable. We performed staining and immunological characterization of Colpodella in a diprotist culture containing B. caudatus to aid routine differentiation of predator and prey in culture. Staining revealed distinguishing morphological features of both protists. The kinetoplast in B.caudatus was identified using Giemsa staining and was used to differentiate B. caudatus from Colpodella sp. trophozoites.
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Multidimensional LC/MS-MS Analysis of Synthetic Cannabinoids in Urine, Plasma, and Edibles

Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) present a multitude of problems in terms of maintaining up-to-date methods of detection. They are novel psychoactive substances originally synthesized for medical use and research purposes. Abuse has demonstrated a variety of effects ranging from euphoria to aggressive behavior and death. The marketing, similar naming, and described pharmacological interactions create the dangerous and false perception that SCs are similar to, or the same as, tetrahydrocannabinol in cannabis products
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Development and Optimization of an LC-MS/MS Method for Dosage Form of Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2 ) in Human Plasma

Accurate measurement of ergocalciferol in biological samples has become easier using high-end mass spectra. Currently, various LCMS/MS methods have been developed to quantify ergocalciferol. Use of LC-MS/MS has accomplished to develop an accurate method that could quantify ergocalciferol in a large number of samples where it should be analyzed in the blood immediately after dosage. The objective of this study is to optimize chromatographic conditions and evaluate the LC-MS/MS method for accurate quantification of the dosage form of ergocalciferol in human plasma. Extraction and separation of ergocalciferol in human plasma was achieved using methanol liquid-liquid extraction and by a reverse phase C8 column, respectively
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A Study on Perceived Stress among Undergraduate Medical Students of Bahir Dar University, Bahir Bar, North West Ethiopia, 2016: Institutional Based Cross Sectional Study

Tertiary education has always been regarded as highly stressful environment to students. Medical and health science training further add to the already stressful environment. Awareness of the existence of stress in medical students by physicians will help in diminishing student’s experience of stress. Therefore, identifying additional stressors in the clinical context is very crucial for providing measures to minimize students’ stress to a tolerable level and helping them to cope better. And the aim of this study is to assess perceived stress and factors associated with it among Bahir Dar University medical students, North West Ethiopia, 2016.
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Usefulness of a Pressure Wire for the Diagnosis of Vasospastic Angina during a Spasm Provocation Test

Spasm provocation tests (SPTs) using a pressure wire and compared the results with those from patients who underwent the same test without a pressure wire.
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The Importance of Brain MRI in the Diagnosis of Marchiafava-Bignami Disease

Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a neurological disorder that has been found to be associated with chronic alcoholism and malnutrition. We report a 45 year old man, chronic alcoholic that developed discouragement for activities involving daily living, changes in retrograde memory in addition to mutism and gait instability. Brain MRI showed central atrophy of the corpus callosum(CC), hypointensity(necrosis) and ventricular dilation(white matter and subcortical region involvement).
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Editorial Board Members Related to LC

Kornélia Tekes

Professor
Department of pharmacodynamics
Semmelweis University
Hungary

Markus Müschen

Professor
Department of Laboratory Medicine
University of California, San Francisco
United States

Eric Fung

Professor of Pharmacology
Department of Oral Biology
University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Dentistry
United States

RAYMOND C. MURRAY

Forensic Geologist
Montana
United States

ZONG JIE CUI

Professor
Institute of Cell Biology
Beijing Normal University
China

Gordon L Fung

Professor
School of Medicine
University of California
United States

ROSE BERKUN

Assistant Professor
Department of Anesthesiology
State University of New York at Buffalo
United States

Koksal Yuca

Professor
Department of Otorhinolaryngology
Oral and maxillofacial surgery
İstinye University Liv Hospital
Turkey

JORGEN LANGE THOMSEN

Professor
Institute of Forensic Medicine
University of Southern Denmark
Denmark

Burton M. Altura

Professor
Department of Medicine
Suny downstate medical center
United States
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