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Evaluation of Characterization Results of Ru, Sb And V_Doped Sno2 Coatings Deposited by Using Produced and Commercial Targets

Ruthenium, Antimony and Vanadium doped and undoped tin oxide (SnO2) thin films were prepared by the R.F. Sputtering method. At the beginning of the thin film production studies, pellets were formed by pressing the filled and undoped tin oxide powders in the laboratory environment. The purpose of creating these pellets is to replace commercially purchased target material that acts as the coating material in the sputter coating device. The aim of the study is to use these pellets instead of this commercial target due to its disadvantages such as long lead time and expensiveness, and thus to produce easier, more diverse and high quality thin films. This study includes the synthesis of pure and doped thin films of tin oxide semiconductor material, which has a wide band gap and attracts attention with its wide spread use thanks to this feature, subjecting it to annealing process under different temperatures and times, and structural and morphological characterization studies: XRD, SEM, AFM, XPS, UV-Vis Spectrophotometer and Nano-hardness machine. The study showed that doped and undoped tin oxide films showed similar properties to similar studies seen in the literature, so that the pellets formed in the laboratory environment functioned. No major structural difference was observed in the films produced as a result of the use of pellets and target. As a result of the findings of the study, it has been seen that it is a preliminary study for the investigation of gas sensing properties.
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Acute Type C Botulism with Fatal Consequences in a Holstein Breeding Establishment in Northern Italy

BOTULISM is a neuro-paralytic intoxication illness caused by the ingestion of neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum with contaminated water or food. The Gram-positive spore-producing bacterium Cl. botulinum is found worldwide and can survive in spore form for up to 30 years in numerous substrates in the environment. Cl. botulinum is classified into 7 or 8 different types (A, B, C (C1, C2), D, E, F, G) depending on the antigen properties of the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) produced, with intoxication mostly appearing in cattle following the ingestion of neurotoxins of type C and D and, less frequently, of type B.
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