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Articles Related to Risk Factor

Analysis on Clinical Features and Risk Factors of Death in Yunnan with Acute Mushroom Poisoning

Mushroom poisoning has become a global public health problem. However, effective treatment of toadstool poisoning and risk factors evaluation are a trouble for clinicians. A total of 137 mushroom poisoning cases were reported, of which 70 (52%) were female. Mortality was 13.1% (18). A latency of ≥6 h was seen in 87 cases (63.50%), with a mortality of 89% (16). Direct bilirubin (DB) ≥34.2 μmol/L was seen in 16 patients, and 124 cases (90.0%) occurred from June to August (summer).
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Can Vitamin D Deficiency be a Risk Factor for Coronary Artery Disease? A Large Cross-Sectional Study of Patients Referred to Cardiovascular Clinic

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide.Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common form of CVD. To prevent CAD we need to assess the risk of future CAD in all patients referred for cardiovascular care, but each of the several available systems for risk assessment has its own limitations. This study was designed to determine whether vitamin D deficiency is a potential risk factor for CAD.
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Development of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is considered a public health problem and its prevalence increases over the years, in Brazil. Currently, 37 million people are living with HIV and 4 million of these patients infected with the virus may have COPD. However, many of these cases may be underreported. In Brazil, these two clinical situations (HIV infection and COPD) have a high incidence, which causes a great expense for the public health, increased morbidity and mortality of these patients. We observed that, in the national literature, there is a gap on the association between these two scenarios.
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Obesity as Behavioral Risk Factors of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases in Young Gabonese Population

Obesity increases of prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in young active populations worldwide. We sought to investigate the status of young men (n=200) and women (n=200) aged from 18 to 39 years old, living at Libreville, by examining their lifestyles and eating habits, and measuring their anthropometric parameters, including, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), percentages of total muscles, lean mass, body and visceral fats, as well as metabolic age and metabolism at rest.
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Hand Hygiene Compliance among Healthcare Workers in Public-Sector Rural Hospitals in Benin

It was a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study conducted in the nine (09) pavilions of Aplahoue District Hospital (Benin). The choice was exhaustive because of the small number of employees. The techniques used for data collection consisted of a survey questionnaire and direct observation when providing health care or services. Comparisons of proportions were made using the chi-square test. To search for associated factors, a univariate analysis of the data by simple linear regression was performed using Fisher’s statistical test with a p value considered significant at a 5% threshold.
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Occurrences of Dairy Calf Mortality and Morbidity and the Associated Risk Factors in Sululta and its Environs, Central Ethiopia

Calf morbidity and mortality are important causes of economic losses on dairy farms worldwide. A cross-sectional study and clinical observation was conducted from November 2016 to April 2017 with the objective of determining calf morbidity and mortality and to investigate the potential risk factors for mortality and morbidity in Sululta and its environs. A total of 312 respondents engaged in market oriented small holder dairying were interviewed using a structured questionnaire survey about their farm and calf management practices and major calf health problems encountered and diseases that causes mortality. The overall magnitude of morbidity and mortality of calves were 31.0% and 58.37%, respectively. The major calf diseases found were diarrhea (69.34%), pneumonia (16.54%), liver fluke (2.4%), bloat (2.0%), joint ill (2.4%) and other cases (8.04%). Risk factors such as weaning age, breed and awareness of colostrums, feeding of calf and overall farm management were included. In this study 80.3% of calf mortality occurs under age 3 month and 19.42% is above 3 month. Based on laboratory examination, Salmonella and E.coli were detected from diarrheic calves. Salmonella found at rate of 2/29 (3.6%) and E.coli found at only genus level. In conclusion, the magnitude of calf morbidity and mortality found in this study were much higher than economically tolerable level and could greatly affect the productivity of the dairy farms through mainly decreasing the availability of replacement stock and production of milk. It is therefore, suggested that implementation of improved calf and farm management practices and proper environmental protection in the study areas would significantly reduce calf mortality and morbidity.
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Cattle Ticks and Tick Borne Haemoparasite Species Identification and Associated Risk Factors in Two Districts of West Arsi Zone, Ethiopia

Different tick species and tick-borne diseases of cattle are present in Ethiopia and they induce huge production loss in livestock industry by creating serious animal health problems. The present study was conducted from November 2017 to April 2018 in Arsi Negele and Asasa districts of West Arsi Zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study design and purposive sampling technique were employed to select 384 study animals so as to identify ticks species and tick-haemoparasite species and also to identify risk factors that affect the prevalence and association of tick born diseases. Tick and haemoparasite identification were carried out by using drect stereomicroscopic and direct thin blood examination. The study identified two tick genera and four tick species. The tick species encountered were Rhipicephalus decoloratus (51.6%) Ambylomma variegatum (46.1%) Ambylomma gemma (20.1%) and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.2%). Out of all 384 cattle examined for the presence of tick-born haemoparasites 11.4% (n=44) of them were positive. From this 6.2%, 3.6 %, 1.3% and 0.8% of them were positive for Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale, respectively. Two cattle (0.5%) were found positive for both Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. The highest prevalence of total tick born haemoparasites (57.1%) was occurred in A. Variegatum, A. gemma and R. decoloratus mixed infestations. In conclusion ticks and tick born haemoparasitic infections were common problems in the study area. Thus, awareness creation for farmers about the impacts of ticks and tick born diseases on livestock production and productivity and also applying appropriate and timely strategic tick control methods by veterinary service providers were advisable.
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Prevalence of Mastitis and Associated risk factors in Jimma Town Dairy Farms, Western Ethiopia

Across sectional study of epidemiological risk factors and associated bacterial pathogens was conducted on 216 lactating dairy cows in jimma town from Oct. 2016 to April 2017 to determine the overall prevalence rate, associated bacterial pathogens and to assess effect of risk factors on prevalence of mastitis. Upon physical examination of udder and teats the prevalence of clinical mastitis was 2.3% at cow level and 0.96% at quarter level. Using the California mastitis test (CMT) for detection of sub clinical mastitis, the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis at cow level and quarter level was 60.65 and 38.4% respectively. The overall prevalence of mastitis was 62.96. Out of 323 (38.4%) CMT positive quarters with evidence of sub clinical mastitis, the quarter infection rate for the right rare quarter was highest (41.3%) followed by left rear (38.8%), right and left front (each 36.7%). Up on microbiological examination of milk samples for both clinical and subclinical quarters, out of a total of 331 cultured, 271(81.9%) yielded bacteria whereas 60(18.1%) yielded no bacteria. A total of 263 bacterial pathogens were isolated whereas 8 were mixed infections with more than two different colonies. The main bacterial pathogens isolated were coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (26.6 %), Staphylococcus aureus (24.7%), Escherichia coli (13.31%), Streptococcus species (9.13%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.8%). Other bacteria isolated with low isolation rate were micrococcus species (3.04%), Corynebacterium species (3.4%), Actinomyces pyogenes (3.8%), Bacillus species (3.42%) and other gram negative rods (3.8%). Host factors such as breed, age parity and lactation stage had significant effect on the prevalence of mastitis (p‹0.05). Managemental and environmental factors such as bedding, ventilation, frequency of barn cleaning, udder washing and use of communal towel had significant effect on the occurrence of mastitis (p‹0.05). Whereas milking practice, drainage had insignificant effect on the prevalence of mastitis (p›0.05).
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Factors associated with obesity among Saudi women of reproductive age in Jeddah City

Previous studies have shown that women who are overweight or obese are at risk for adverse reproductive outcomes, including infertility, gestational diabetes, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. However, information surrounding the risk factors for obesity among Saudi women of reproductive age is deficient due to the limited number of studies that assessed obesity prevalence among them.
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Sero-Prevalence of Small Ruminant Brucellosis in Three Selected Districts of Somali Region, Eastern Ethiopia

A cross-sectional study was conducted from November, 2011 to March, 2012 in three selected districts of Jijiga zone, Somali region, Ethiopia, aimed at determining the sero-prevalence and to identify potential risk factors of small ruminant Brucellosis. A total of 291 serum samples (100 from sheep and 191 from goats) were collected from extensive management system with no history of vaccination. All serum samples were initially screened by RBPT and positive reactors to RBPT were further tested by CFT for confirmation. Accordingly, the overall prevalence of Brucellosis in small ruminants was 1.37% (4/291).
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Awareness of Cervical Cancer Risk Factors, Screening Practices and Attitudes among Nurses in a Primary Health Care Setting of Morocco: A Cross-Sectional Study

The effectiveness of the cervical cancer screening activities depends on physicians and nurses’ level of awareness and their adherence to the program.
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Predictors of Stress Fracture Susceptibility in Arab Female Military Recruits during Combat Training: A Preliminary Study

Military recruits and athletes regularly engaging in vigorous physical activities are at increased risk for sustaining lower limb overuse injuries.
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Inguinal Hernia. A Review

Inguinal hernia is a common surgical problem, but it can present a surgical dilemma for the skilled surgeon when it exhibits some unusual contents.
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Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy and Factor V Leiden

Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is an entity that is caused by circulatory insufficiency which affects the proximal portion of the optic nerve. NAION is characterized by the following triad: abrupt and painless loss of vision, optic disc smelling and nerve fiber bundle defects in the visual field of the affected eye.
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Anthropometric Predictors for Multiple Risk Factor Aggregation in Adults from Maracaibo City

There are several anthropometric measures that are useful for diagnosis obesity and also are related to the development of different cardiovascular risk factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive ability of various anthropometric parameters for the multiple risk factors aggregation (MRFA) in the adult population of the city of Maracaibo-Venezuela.
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Editorial Board Members Related to Risk Factor

Edralin A Lucas

Associate Professor
Department of Nutritional Sciences
Oklahoma State University
United States

VICTORIA J VIEIRA-POTTER

Assistant Professor
Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology
University of Missouri
United States

Ana Cristina Lindsay

Associate Professor
Department of Nutrition
University of Massachusetts Boston
United States

Annapaola Zito

Professor
Cardiovascular Diseases Section
University of Bari
Italy

Kelly Sullivan

Assistant Professor
Department of Neurology
University of South Florida
United States

Kristian Linnet

Professor
Department of Forensic Medicine
University of Copenhagen
Denmark

Ock K. Chun

Assistant Professor
Department of Nutritional Sciences
University of Connecticut
United States

CARMEN CASTANEDA SCEPPA

Associate Professor
Department of Health Sciences
Bouvé College of Health Sciences
Northeastern University
United States

Chong Lee

Associate Professor
School of Nutrition & Health Promotion
Arizona State University
United States

Sheila Barrett

Assistant Professor
Department of Nutrition
Northern Illinois University
United States
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