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Articles Related to Veterinary

A Review on Veterinary Medical Waste Disposal and Management

The purpose of this review is to highlight environmentally sound disposal methods of veterinary pharmaceutcals wastes and the risks associated with its improper disposal, with a systematic review. Pharmaceuticals are produced and used in large volumes increasingly every year throughout the world. Medicinal waste products are medicinal products which are not fit for sale or supply. Waste produced in veterinary practice in common with other medical disciplines can be broken down into general waste similar to household waste, clinical waste and hazardous waste. Disposal of pharmaceutical compounds is becoming a complex environmental issue. The safety and health of the environment is directly affected by the disposal methods. Improper medical waste disposal and management causes all types of pollution (air, soil, and water). Proper waste management have to be undertaken to ensure that it does not affect the environment and not cause health hazards to the people living there. Different types of medical waste require different disposal techniques. The appropriate safe disposal method recommended will depend principally on the pharmaceutical dosage form of the drugs. One of the best advisable veterinary waste disposal practices is to store the waste properly before collection and transportation. Some general medical waste can be disposed of in landfill, others require specialist treatment such as a medical incinerator. Appropriate safety precautions, which minimize the risk to the health and safety of pharmacy staff, should be taken when handling medicinal waste products. Extra precautions should be taken by staff in high-risk groups as they may be at increased risk if they come into contact with particular substances. The cost of pharmaceuticals waste disposal comprises of direct costs of supplies and materials used for collection, transport, storage, treatment, disposal, decontamination and cleaning, the cost of labor and material for training and maintenance, and will vary depending on the treatment method chosen, the capacity of the treatment facility and according to the waste quantity and quality.
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Veterinary Considerations for the Theoretical Resurrection of Extinct Species

The de-extinction of the dinosaur is a dubious possibility but its consideration brings forth some issues that are at least worthy of scientific discussion. In this review, we discuss two distinct issues that have implications for a de-extinct species such as a dinosaur: the ability, or lack thereof, to safely sedate a rare and potentially fractious animal capable of harming the veterinary staff tasked with its care; and, disease risks associated with a species that has been extinct for millions of years. To identify potential sedatives, comparative pharmacology will be needed to uncover the links between receptor pharmacology and the desired clinical outcomes of activating established alpha-2 adrenergic, opioid, and benzodiazepine receptors. Specific to disease control, it will be necessary to understand the unique susceptibility of the new species to current diseases as well as predicting their reservoir capacity for potential human and veterinary pandemic diseases. While the topics presented herein are not exhaustive, this review highlights some of the foremost research that should be conducted in order to serve the unique veterinary needs of a de-extinct species using the dinosaur as a paradigm. Addressing these issues should be considered if an intact dinosaur genome becomes available, regardless of the feasibility of dinosaur resurrection.
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Research in Fracture Healing and Its Clinical Applications in the Veterinary Practice

Bone healing is a complex process consisting of multiple sequential phases needing the coordinated interaction of various cells, growth factors, cytokines and mechanical conditions. However, bone healing is one of the rare regenerative processes resulting in complete restoration of form and function. Fracture treatment aims towards a swift return to functional use of the injured limb. Therefore stabilization is a key requisite. In the veterinary clinic difficult fracture cases often require a unique stabilization by custom made external fixation. While this fixation technique harbors risk factors it offers a high flexibility essentially needed to successfully treat small animal fracture patients. Here we draw the connection between the up-to-date knowledge in bone healing and case reports of external fixation techniques from the small animal practice with respect to benefits and risk factors.
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Diagnostic Approaches towards Camelpox Disease

Camelpox is routinely diagnosed based on clinical signs, pathological findings and cellular and molecular assays.
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Comparison of Two Freezing Extenders and their Influence on Sperm Quality of Tunisian Arab stallions

The objective of the study was to evaluate semen quality of Tunisian Arab stallions frozen with 2 methods using 2 freezing basedextenders: the INRA 96® or the INRA Freeze®.
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Community Perception towards Traditional Healers and Health Centers on Management of Dog Bites and its Relation with Veterinary Public Health Activities

A survey was conducted to investigate whether the community uses traditional healers or modern health centers after exposure to dog bites and veterinary public health responses on the issues in Arba Minch, Ethiopia. Two stage cluster and simple random sampling procedures were employed to select inhabitants and other target study population for this study.
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Serum Haptoglobin Responses following Rumenotomy in the Sahel Goat

Fifteen Sahel goats were randomly allocated into three groups A, B and C to evaluate Serum Haptoglobin (Hp) profiles following rumenotomy as markers of surgical stress using Quantitative ELISA.
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An Effective Treatment Regimen for Warts in Cattle

The study was aimed to evaluate the potency and for advocation of a homeopathic drug regimen against warts. Sixty six cattle of variable age presented with warts on skin, eyelids, ears, muzzle, udder and external genitals.
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Bacteriological Quality of Milk in Raw Bovine Bulk Milk in the Selected Milk Collection Centers: Smallholder Dairy Processing Ethiopia

Cross-sectional study was conducted to examine and identify quality of raw bovine milk from in Arsi Zone and East Shewa Zone, in Oromia, Ethiopia. The purpose of the study was to assess hygienic practices during milking, milk collection and bacteriological quality of cow’s milk in Arsi and East Shewa Zones milk collection centers.
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The Use of Forensic Entomology in Legal Veterinary Medicine: A Case Study in the North of Italy

During winter 2010 a forensic entomological study was undertaken in San Bartolomeo in Bosco (FE) Emilia-Romagna Region (North of Italy) on different animal carrion found in a farm several days after they died.
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Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (Flutd) – An Emerging Problem of Recent Era

Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) is a supposed to a life threatening condition in cats, especially in males (Toms), when obstructive. Early diagnosis and treatment is necessary otherwise it may lead to death. Condition appears with stranguria, pollakiuria, dysuria and sometime in severe conditions hematuria and anuria may be present. Similar five cases of age ranging from 3-6 years, with common history of commercial feed and indoor placement were examined during the course of 3 month. Firstly clinical evaluation including clinical parameters and physical manipulation was done followed by laboratory tests. Complete blood count (CBC) didn’t give any significant change but urinalysis results were quite doubtful with high values of specific gravity (SP), pH, erythrocyte, bacterial and leukocyte count.
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Acute Type C Botulism with Fatal Consequences in a Holstein Breeding Establishment in Northern Italy

BOTULISM is a neuro-paralytic intoxication illness caused by the ingestion of neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum with contaminated water or food. The Gram-positive spore-producing bacterium Cl. botulinum is found worldwide and can survive in spore form for up to 30 years in numerous substrates in the environment. Cl. botulinum is classified into 7 or 8 different types (A, B, C (C1, C2), D, E, F, G) depending on the antigen properties of the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) produced, with intoxication mostly appearing in cattle following the ingestion of neurotoxins of type C and D and, less frequently, of type B.
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Dermatophytosis in a Dog Seropositive for Ehrlichia Spp

In this report, we present a case of dermatophytosis in a dog seropositive for Ehrlichia spp.Mild annular skin lesions observed on initial presentation persisted and became worse during the course of antibiotic therapy. Microscopic examination of the fungal culture of skin scrapings revealed infection with Microsporum gypseum. The patient fully recovered following treatment with topical 1% clotrimazole and antifungal shampoo.
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Surgical Wound Management in Dogs using an Improved Stable Chlorine Dioxide Antiseptic Solution.

Three surgical case reports are presented to demonstrate the clinical efficacy of using an improved aqueous solution of chlorine dioxide complex (160 ppm) as a topical antiseptic in the post operative management of serious wounds in dogs. In vitro studies are included to demonstrate the antiseptic properties of this new chlorine dioxide complex.
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Outcome Following Surgical Correction of Abomasal Displacement in Lactating Dairy Cattle: A Retrospective Study of 127 Cases (1999-2010)

The objectives of this retrospective study were 1. To determine the effect of three surgical techniques (right flank omentopexy, right flank omentoabomasopexy, and left flank abomasopexy), and 2. To determine the effect of concurrent disease on return to normal milk production. Return to normal milk production occurred in 86.3% of cows diagnosed with LDA. Results suggested that cattle diagnosed with LDA corrected via right flank omentopexy or left flank abomasopexy were significantly more likely to return to normal milk production as compared to those corrected via right flank omentoabomasopexy (p<0.02). No significant difference in return to normal milk production was noted between surgical techniques for correction of RDA (p=1.000) and right abomasal volvulus (p=0.596). Concurrent disease diagnoses did not affect return to milk production. Reported complications were infrequent (n=11).
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Editorial Board Members Related to Veterinary

Saber Mohamed Abd-Allah

Associate Professor
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Beni-Suef University
Egypt

S. Peder Cuneo

Professor
Arizona Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
University of Arizona
United States

Charles O. Thoen

Professor
College of Veterinary Medicine
Iowa State University
United States

Mohamed Abdo Rizk

Professor
Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases
Mansoura University
Egypt

Andrzej Wernicki

Professor
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
University of Life Sciences
Poland

Hisao Kurazono

Professor
Department of Animal and Food Hygiene
Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine
Japan

Paban K. Dash

Senior scientist
Defence Research & Development Establishment
India

Monique Mancuso

Researcher
Coastal Marine Environment Institute (IAMC)
National Research Council (CNR)
Italy

TANYA D. GRAHAM

Professor
Veterinary Pathologist
South Dakota State University
United States

Kristopher J. Irizarry

Associate Professor
College of Veterinary Medicine
Western University of Health Sciences
United States
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