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Articles Related to infection

Inflammatory “Endotheliopathy’’ with COVID 19 Infections in Children, Unanswered Questions for Management Post Recovery

Recent studies from U.K, US and Canada have reported a unique presentation of the novel corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) in the pediatric age group. High fevers, rash, multiorgan involvement was a recurrent mode of presentation; with an overall case fatality rate in the US-Canadian PICU consortium group was reported to be approximately 4.2% [1-7]
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Simultaneous Tuberculous Infection of Lung and Allograft in Renal Transplant

Tuberculosis is common infectious complication in kidney transplant recipients. In immunosuppressed patients, clinical manifestations of tuberculosis are varied and delayed diagnosis and poor clinical outcomes. Especially allograft involvement of tuberculosis can cause allograft loss. In this report, we present the case of 46-year-old man diagnosed disseminated tuberculosis involving allograft kidney successfully treated with maintenance of allograft function.
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Effect of Seed Thermotherapy to Reduce the Viral Diseases of Faba Bean (Vicia Faba L.) in the Interandean Valley of Cochabamba, Bolivia

In Bolivia, the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is cultivated in the Andean region, Altiplano and Interandean valleys. In these valleys mediumsized and early varieties are cultivated.
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Splenic Abscesses as a Complication of Urinary Tract Infection: Case Report and Literature Review

Granular cell tumor, also known as Abrikossoff tumor, is a rare lesion that arises from the nervous system. Most of these tumors are benign and only 1-2% are malignant. Although they can be found in any part of the human body, 45-65% appears in the head and neck region, mainly in the oral cavity. Here, we report 2 cases of granular cell tumor of the tongue, diagnosed by excisional biopsy. Until the present moment, both patients remain with no recurrence.
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Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Pathogens Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Public Health Facilities in Belize

Surgical site infections are amongst the leading cause of morbidity, mortality and cost due to increased hospital stay by patients. A study was conducted to understand antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major pathogens isolated from surgical site infections in Belize.
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Bacteriology and Antibiogram of pathogens isolated from wound infections at Cheshire Hall Medical Laboratory, Turks and Caicos Islands

To identify pathogens that are frequently isolated from wound infections in the Turks and Caicos Islands and formulate antibiogram based on their patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility. Bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility data from 1343 wound swabs cultured at the Cheshire Hall Medical Laboratory between January 2013 and November 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique was used to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 79.1% of the 1343 swabs cultured were positive yielding a total of 1687 bacterial isolates. Frequently isolated bacteria included Staphylococcus aureus which accounted for 27.6% of isolates, approximately a third of which were methicillin resistant, Pseudomonas spp. (12.1%), Proteus spp. (8.2%), Enterococcus spp. (7.8%), E. coli (7.2%), Streptococcus agalactiae (6.1%), Klebsiella spp. (5.5%), Acinetobacter spp. (4.3%), coagulase negative Staphyloccus (4.0%) and Enterobacter spp. (3.7%). The overall highest resistance rates were seen among tetracycline (46.3%), erythromycin (37.6%) and ceftriaxone (34.2%). Imipenem, penicillin, meropenem and vancomycin had sensitivity rates ranging from 92.3% to 99.5%. Individual resistance rates varied among isolates, some differing significantly from overall rates. When tested against antibiotics routinely used to treat Pseudomonas spp., resistance rates ranged from 1.4-55.5%.
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Differential Expression of Proteins Associated with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection on HeLa cell lines

Treatment of Hepatitis B infection is available with the help of existing drugs but the eradication of HBV infection is still under the pipeline. The application of novel drugs and gene-based therapies for HBV infection in need of the hour, however, the lack of efficient cell culture system, animal models for viral infection and replication acts as a major obstacle for novel therapies. This not only hampers the progress of HBV research but also stress the need for effective forthcoming therapeutics for Hepatitis B infection. Proteomic studies to understand the protein ubiquitination and to find molecular markers are the effective tools to study the HBV infection, pathogenesis and its control.
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Veterinary Considerations for the Theoretical Resurrection of Extinct Species

The de-extinction of the dinosaur is a dubious possibility but its consideration brings forth some issues that are at least worthy of scientific discussion. In this review, we discuss two distinct issues that have implications for a de-extinct species such as a dinosaur: the ability, or lack thereof, to safely sedate a rare and potentially fractious animal capable of harming the veterinary staff tasked with its care; and, disease risks associated with a species that has been extinct for millions of years. To identify potential sedatives, comparative pharmacology will be needed to uncover the links between receptor pharmacology and the desired clinical outcomes of activating established alpha-2 adrenergic, opioid, and benzodiazepine receptors. Specific to disease control, it will be necessary to understand the unique susceptibility of the new species to current diseases as well as predicting their reservoir capacity for potential human and veterinary pandemic diseases. While the topics presented herein are not exhaustive, this review highlights some of the foremost research that should be conducted in order to serve the unique veterinary needs of a de-extinct species using the dinosaur as a paradigm. Addressing these issues should be considered if an intact dinosaur genome becomes available, regardless of the feasibility of dinosaur resurrection.
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Pulmonary Nocardiosis: A Rare Diagnosis in an Intensive Care Unit

Nocardiosis is an acute, subacute, or chronic bacterial infection that is typically acquired through inhalation and usually presents with pulmonary, central nervous system, and cutaneous manifestations. In critically ill patients, Nocardiosis has an unusually high morbidity and mortality.
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Salmonella Contamination of Fresh Salad Produce: Prevalence, Impact and Reduction Strategies

Fresh salad produce such as lettuce and spinach are an important part of a healthy diet, but are increasingly becoming associated with infection from foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella enterica. This review examines the incidence and origins of Salmonella fresh salad leaf colonization, models the behaviour of the pathogen when within a bagged salad and considers the various infection risk reduction strategies relevant to salad growers, distributors and consumers which can be employed to improve the microbiological safety of fresh salad leaves
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Occupational Exposure to Blood and Bodily Fluids among Health Care Workers in a Medical Teaching Hospital

The objective of this study was to evaluate blood and bodily fluids exposure through needlestick injuries (NSI) and non-percutaneous incidents among healthcare workers (HCWs). This project utilized a dataset collected from J. W. Ruby Memorial Hospital in Morgantown, West Virginia, between January 1, 2014 and August 15, 2017. Data included de-identified codes of employees, occupations, types of exposure to bloodborne pathogens, routes of exposure, infectious disease exposures, and time incidents.
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Efficacy of Purified Glutathione -S- Transferee in Providing Protection against Haemonchus Contortus Infection in Sheep

The efficacy of purified glutathione-s-transferase (GST) to protect sheep against haemonchosis was assessed. Fifteen lambs, 3.5-5month-old, were bisected into five groups (n=3). Two groups were vaccinated with 250μg of each prepared antigen (crude adult antigen (CAA), purified GST) in combination with mineral oil adjuvant at zero, 14th days of the experiment. The other three groups were kept as control groups; non-immunized infected, non-immunized non-infected and adjuvant control. One week after the last booster dose, the lambs in all groups except control negative were challenged with 400 L3/kg live weight orally. Protein characterization of each antigen was done by SDS-PAGE and immunoblting. The vaccine efficacy was estimated by the fecal egg count, where the vaccinated groups showed 58.90% and 79.38% reduction in eggs in CAA and GST respectively. Moreover, 31.45% and 92.10% reduction in abomasal worm count was reported in CAA and GST vaccinated lambs, respectively. The protection was found corresponsive to the sera antibody levels in the immunized groups. It was concluded that the GST had protective efficacy against H. contortus infection in lambs.
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A Retrospective Evaluation of Joint Endoprosthesis Infections and Depending Costs

Joint endoprosthesis are standard treatment in orthopedic surgery, but the risk of infection represents a major drawback for elderly patients with comorbidities. Therefore, we investigated joint endoprosthesis infections in Germany (2005-2012) focusing on elderly patients. We extrapolated infection related costs to estimate the burden for the health care system.
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Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) Used as a Whole Model Organism to Identify New Anti-Infectives Therapeutic Agent for MRSA Pathogens - A Review Paper

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the greatest fears with the number of serious infections on human health regarding antibiotic resistance. It causes a wide range of infections and bacteremia, ranging from inconsequential superficial skin infections, wound suppuration, even pneumonia or deep-seated tissue infections, which may lead to sepsis and fatalities.
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Modelling the Force of Infection for Hepatitis B among Heterogeneous Groups at the Komfo-Anokye Teaching Hospital

The aim of this study is to estimate the age-dependent force of infection for hepatitis B virus (HBV) for sick patients showing symptoms, blood donors and people coming to the serology department to test for the antigen in blood voluntarily. A secondary data was obtained from the serology department at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH, January 2013- June 2016).
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Editorial Board Members Related to infection

Zafar K. Khan

Professor
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Drexel University
United States

Mario P. S. Chin

Assistant Professor
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Temple University
United States

HamidReza Naderi

Associate Professor
Department of Infectious Diseases
Imam Reza University Hospital
Iran

Seham Bassyouni M. Tayel

Professor
Department of Prosthetic Dentistry
Faculty of Dentistry
Alexandria University
Egypt

Kelly A Brayton

Associate Professor
Department of Veterinary Microbiology & Pathology
Washington State University
United States

Rula M. Darwish

Professor
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology
University of Jordan
Jordan

Svetlana I Rogovskaya

Professor
Federal Russian Medical Academy of postgraduate education
Russia

Dagmara McGuinness

Research Associate
College of Medical
Veterinary & Life Sciences
Institute of Cancer Sciences
Western Infirmary Glasgow
Scotland

Pranav Mathur

Associate Scientist
Otonomy Inc.
USA

SANJEEV KUMAR SINGH

Professor
Department of Bioinformatics
Alagappa University
India
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