Milk consumption is popular in Malaysia especially among the younger ages. Nonetheless, there is a lack of quantitative data on milk consumption by children in Malaysia.
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Prenatal development consists of three stages in dogs. These stages are called preimplantation, embryonic and fetal period respectively. Embryonic or fetal losses may occur as a result of any causes that damage embryo or fetus during prenatal development period. These losses are called resorption, abortion, mummification and maceration according to the stage of pregnancy. Fetal maceration is often observed in cattle, but also can occur in other domestic animals. The incidence is quite low in bitches. The materials of this case were two bitches in different breeds that are Pointer and Golden retriever. They were brought to Clinics of Obstetrics and Gynecology by their owners with the complaints of growth in their abdomen, increase in weight and decrease in movements at different times. Firstly, detailed anamnesis was taken from their owners. As the mating status of both bitches is unknown, the probabilities of pregnancy and pregnancy pathologies have been neglected in the clinics previously referred to with the same complaints and both bitches were diagnosed with obesity by considering breed predisposition. In this context, it was learned that there was no treatment except for the suggestion of on low energy content foods and exercises however no healthy improvements were observed in both bitches. Gynecological, ultrasonography and radiographic examinations, whole blood and serum biochemistry analysis were performed on both bitches after anamnesis was taken. When the findings of the analysis and examination were evaluated, it was concluded that the fetuses were autolyzed in the uterus without being aborted. It was concluded to perform ovariohysterectomy operation on both dogs for treatment. When the removed uterus tissues were examined, it was seen that both bitches had fetal maceration.
This study involved some morphometric parameters of the skull of thirty adult Gwembe Dwarf Goats (15 males and 15 females) without any apparent skeletal disorders. Lower jaws were not included in this study. A total of 43 linear measurements were analyzed. The analysis reflected no differences between sexes, thereby indicating lack of general conformation differences between males and females. However, comparison of the parameters that exhibited most variance revealed that horncore basal circumference and length of the horn core on the front margin were strongly influenced by sex.
Hemoglobin A2 (Hb A2) is a minor component of the hemoglobin present in normal adult red blood cells, accounting for 1.5-3.5% of the total hemoglobin in healthy individuals.