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Articles Related to Identification

Wildlife Forensic: Current Techniques and their limitations

The wildlife includes undomesticated and diverse forms of floral and faunal species, which is essential for ecological balance and human survival. The poaching and illegal trade has resulted in sharp decline of many wild species of flora and fauna around the world. The need of the time therefore is to utterly focus on wildlife protection for the sustainable development of biosphere and future viability of human beings. In this review we have focused on different techniques being utilized in wildlife forensic science for identification of wildlife species as well as their geographical origin. These techniques can be employed to control the wildlife crimes and convict the criminals involved in illegal trade of wildlife flora, fauna and their products. These techniques include footprints analyses, morphological and anatomical studies,
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Novel analytical technologies of Quality in the Sheep & Goat Dairy Sector

France, Greece, Italy, and Spain the major sheep and goat milk producers in Europe, got the initiative through an interim of 30 years (1985 – 2015), to organize - through IDF - 7 symposiums aiming at the upgrade of the Dairy Sector. One major interest was the milk quality. Stepwise, the efforts followed cow milk structural development in organizing the testing laboratory, the definition of quality in composition (fat, protein, lactose, total solids), in Hygienic (Total Bacteria Count, Somatic Cell Count, antibiotics residues and Aflatoxin M1 contamination), adulteration with water and detection of milk species. EU, by Decision 2002/657/EC, defined the rules for the Directive 96/23/EC, enumerated the testing methods, the demands in sampling procedures, the minimum limits of performance, the quality control (ISO 17025) and the interpretation of results. The equivalency of results from different laboratories, through ISO 17025, demanded the application of ISO analytical standards.
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Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of the Novel Antibacterial Agent Methoxyphenyl-Oxime from Streptomyces pratensis QUBC97 Isolate

Streptomyces species are medically, industrially, and microbiologically important bacteria that are found in soils and other habitats. Streptomyces isolates and QUBC97 were cultured on a new medium (CCG). Agar plug diffusion test showed antibacterial activity. N-butanol extracts analysed by silica thin layer chromatography (TLC), HPLC purified and identified by MS analysis. QUBC97 was identified based on morphology, PCR, and DNA sequencing of two loci.
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A Preliminary Study on Earprint Identification among Young Adults in Malaysia

The objective of this study was to study ear biometric for identification purpose among young adults in Malaysia. A total of 148 subjects (74 males and 74 females) ranging in age from 18 to 25 years were taken from Campus Kuala Lumpur of National University of Malaysia (UKMKKL). A total of twelve biometrics based on Iannarelli’s method as well as ear length and ear width were used as measurements. Statistical analysis indicated that left and right ears had no significant difference (p > 0.05). Gender difference was found to be highly significant for nine out of fourteen ear biometrics (p < 0.05). However, there were only five out of fourteen ear biometrics had significant difference between Chinese and Malays (p < 0.05). Statistical analysis had also indicated that differences among ages for each ear biometrics were insignificant and no clear correlation between ear biometrics and ages was obtained (p > 0.05). Formulae for gender and race estimation were obtained by using Classification and Regression (C & R) Tree. Formulae of ear length had the highest accuracy (78.7%) for gender estimation.
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Genetic Characterization and Sequence Variations in 12S rRNA of Mitochondrial Gene in Three Indian Civets (Viverridae) Species: Implication in Wildlife Forensics

Comparative genomics of 12S and 16S rRNAs, cytochrome b (Cyt b) and the control region (CR) of mtDNA genome are commonly used in phylogenetics and wildlife forensics. We document the genetic characteristics and sequence variations of 12S rRNA (384 bp) in Indian civets, viz., the common palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) (n=9), small Indian civet (Viverricula indica) (n=7) and Himalayan palm civet (Paguma larvata) (n=5). The nucleotide compositions vary from 17.6% to 36.3%, and found one to two haplotypes in all three civet species. Observed sequence divergence was 0.001 to 0.002 and 0.057 to 0.110 within and between species respectively. The nucleotide diversity was 0.00102 to 0.00184. Tajima’s D value was negative (-0.097256 to -1.36240) but statistically non-significant in all three species. Based on genetic characteristics, we discuss the use of observed forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) and topology in species identification for forensic purposes among these three civet species.
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Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Algerian Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum) Natural Fermented in Underground Silos Matmora “El-Hammoum” and their Antimicrobial Activity Again Pathogenic Germs

In human nutrition, cereals constitute the basis of the food pyramid. In Algeria, storage of durum wheat (triticum durum) performs in underground silos matmour in some rural areas, these traditional methods rather simple conservation is an alternative for small producers; but starts to disappear because of settlement of the farming populations in the urban areas.
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Acoustic Analysis for Comparison and Identification of Normal and Disguised Speech of Individuals

Although the rapid development of forensic speaker recognition technology has been conducted, there are still many problems to be solved. The biggest problem arises when the cases involving disguised voice samples come across for the purpose of examination and identification. Such type of voice samples of anonymous callers are frequently encountered in crimes involving kidnapping, blackmailing, hoax extortion and many more, where the speaker makes a deliberate effort to manipulate their natural voice in order to conceal their identity due to the fear of being caught.
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Palatal Rugae Patterns as an Adjuvant to Gender Determination in Forensic Identification Procedures in a Paediatric Population

Identification of an individual who is either living or dead is based on the assumption that all individuals are unique. Whenever an unidentified corpse is found, the individual is classified into characteristic groups and finally the various possibilities are narrowed down.
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Computed Tomography Use on Age Estimation in Forensic Dentistry: A Review

Computed tomography is an alternate imaging modality which can be used to estimate age and to aid on human identification in Forensic Dentistry.
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The Dental Identification of the Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut

Recently, an Egyptian archaeologist, Dr Zahi Hawass, found few mummies. He was convinced that one of them was Hatshepsut, the famous Egyptian queen
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The Medico-Legal Importance of Establishing Human Identity by Palatal Rugoscopy: Evaluation of the Immutability and Individuality of Palatal Rugae under the Influence of Ante Mortem Orthodontic Treatment

The palatal rugae can be an alternative method of forensic identification. Through the years, several investigations focused on the effect of orthodontic treatment in the palatal rugae pattern.
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Conventional and Computational Features in Document Examination

Document examination has been around for more than a century. The field of Document examination has become more diverse and requires authenticity or validation in many areas of examination which involves determination of authorship, fraud detection and personal identification.
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Pharmacokinetics, Biotransformation, Distribution and Excretion of Empagliflozin, a Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter (SGLT 2) Inhibitor, in Mice, Rats, and Dogs

The metabolism, pharmacokinetics, excretion and distribution of a sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT 2) inhibitor, empagliflozin, were studied in mice, rats and beagle dogs following a single oral or intravenous administration of [14C]-empagliflozin. Empagliflozin was well absorbed in all species after oral administration.
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Identification of an Outer Membrane Protein from Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae Serotype 7

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes porcine pleuropneumonia, a disease which occurs world-wide and affects pigs of all ages. The study on the protective immune mechanism is not thoroughly clear. An outer membrane protein (OMP) was identified by screening a phage library of 3~8kb random DNA fragments of A. pleuropneumonia serotype 7.
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Identification of Pyrrolidinophenone-type Designer Drugs by Gas Chromatography/ Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

Use of gas chromatography (GC) combined with time-of –flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with soft ionization generated with three different plasma gases (i.e., Xe, Kr, Ar) was evaluated for the identification of several pyrrolidinophenone-type designer drugs that are commercially available.
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Editorial Board Members Related to Identification

Yan Guo

Assistant Professor
Center for Quantitative Sciences
Vanderbilt University
United States

MATEJ TRAPECAR

Assistant Professor
National Forensic Laboratory
Slovenia

Renukaradhya J. Gourapura

Associate Professor
Food Animal Health Research Program,OARDC
The Ohio State University
United States

Arunima Mukhopadhyay

Research assistant
Paul O'Gorman Leukaemia Research Centre
University of Glasgow
United Kingdom

Nurul Matin

Associate Professor
Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
University of Rajshahi
Bangladesh

Cristiana Palmela Pereira

Assistant Professor
Portuguese Institute of Legal Medicine
University of Lisboa
Portugal

Marc Poirot

Research Director at INSERM
Cancer Research Center of Toulouse
University of Toulouse
France

Janet Liversidge

Professor
School of Medicine and Dentistry
University of Aberdeen Institute of Medical Sciences
United Kingdom

Yongjun Liu

Associate Professor
Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics
Tulane University
United States

Danail Bonchev

Professor
Center for the Study of Biological Complexity
Virginia Commonwealth University
United States
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