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Articles Related to Mortality

Upswing in Industrial Activity and Infant Mortality During Late 19th Century US

This paper aims to assess the effects of industrial pollution on infant mortality between the years 1850-1940 using full count decennial censuses. In this period, US economy experienced a tremendous rise in industrial activity with significant variation among different counties in absorbing manufacturing industries, which is used as a proxy for variation in space-time industrial pollution.
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Effect of Body Mass Index on 30-day and 1-year Mortality after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

Obesity contributes to chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure, disease states that negatively affect life expectancy.
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Occurrences of Dairy Calf Mortality and Morbidity and the Associated Risk Factors in Sululta and its Environs, Central Ethiopia

Calf morbidity and mortality are important causes of economic losses on dairy farms worldwide. A cross-sectional study and clinical observation was conducted from November 2016 to April 2017 with the objective of determining calf morbidity and mortality and to investigate the potential risk factors for mortality and morbidity in Sululta and its environs. A total of 312 respondents engaged in market oriented small holder dairying were interviewed using a structured questionnaire survey about their farm and calf management practices and major calf health problems encountered and diseases that causes mortality. The overall magnitude of morbidity and mortality of calves were 31.0% and 58.37%, respectively. The major calf diseases found were diarrhea (69.34%), pneumonia (16.54%), liver fluke (2.4%), bloat (2.0%), joint ill (2.4%) and other cases (8.04%). Risk factors such as weaning age, breed and awareness of colostrums, feeding of calf and overall farm management were included. In this study 80.3% of calf mortality occurs under age 3 month and 19.42% is above 3 month. Based on laboratory examination, Salmonella and E.coli were detected from diarrheic calves. Salmonella found at rate of 2/29 (3.6%) and E.coli found at only genus level. In conclusion, the magnitude of calf morbidity and mortality found in this study were much higher than economically tolerable level and could greatly affect the productivity of the dairy farms through mainly decreasing the availability of replacement stock and production of milk. It is therefore, suggested that implementation of improved calf and farm management practices and proper environmental protection in the study areas would significantly reduce calf mortality and morbidity.
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Investigating Heterogeneity in Mortality of Male Pensioners

In this paper, the objective was to study differential factors that explains the mortality rates of male pensioners, comparing the survival patterns of early and normal retirees through a non-parametric approach and a Cox-Proportional Hazard model.
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Causes of Morbidity and Mortality of Wildlife Species Presented to a Wildlife Clinic in East Tennessee, USA, 2000–2011

To determine the causes of wildlife morbidity and mortality in East Tennessee, we performed a retrospective analysis using 14,303 records from cases presented to the wildlife clinic of the University of Tennessee between 2000 and 2011. The cases were first categorized into herptile (includes reptiles and amphibians), mammal, or avian and then classified into 1 of 20 groups based on the primary admitting/presenting sign. The top reasons for presentation were trauma, found abandoned/orphaned, hit by automobile, cat-related injury, and dog-related injury. Overall mortality was 45.3% for the herptile cases, 57.6% for mammal cases, and 65.1% for avian cases. There are a variety of reasons animals were presented to the clinic, and some appear to be attributed to anthropogenic factors such as automobiles (n = 1253) and habitat destruction (n = 218), while the origin of others, such as trauma and disease remain unknown. This study confirms the importance of monitoring wildlife morbidity and mortality as an indicator of ecosystem health and of focusing efforts to reduce the anthropogenic threat on native habitats and resident wildlife populations.
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Prevention and Treatment of Esophageal Cancer in China: Achievements and Challenges-Prevention is the Key

Background: The study investigated esophageal cancer etiology and pathology, along with problems associated with surgical treatments. Keywords: Esophageal cancer; Mortality; Etiology; Pathology; Treatment; 5-year survivalIntroduction Methods: Data from the National Cancer Prevention and Control Office and the National Cancer Registry Center (2012) were assessed for information regarding malignant tumor incidence. These data were also used to conduct a mortality analysis and investigate death records pertaining to esophageal cancer patients. We extracted crude and age-specific mortality data and proportional mortality ratios as well as standard mortality data for Chinese and world populations. Esophageal cancer mortality was compared with death statistical data and literature related to esophageal cancer was collected from the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database and the Chinese Journal Network.
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Predictors of Delayed Diagnosis and Evolution in Sub-Saharan Immigrants with HIV Infection in a Hospital in Madrid (2004–2013)

The aim of this study was to analyze the delayed diagnosis and evolution of HIV infection in predominantly sub-Saharan immigrants compared to other patients in a hospital in Madrid between 2004 and 2013. We retrospectively analyzed new HIV diagnoses. Late presentation or advanced disease were considered the presence of CD4 lymphocyte counts less than 350 or 200 cells/µl at diagnosis, respectively, or an AIDS-defining disease regardless of the CD4 count. Patients were compared according to their origin and sex.
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Complex Chronic Patients and Atrial Fibrillation: Association with Cognitive Deterioration and Heart Failure

In developed countries, around 3-5% of the people could be identified as chronic complex patients, and they are increasingly at risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) and cognitive impairment. The main objective of this study was to present the current findings on the association between AF and cognitive impairment and mortality risk among chronic complex outpatients (CCP). A multicenter and prospective cohort study of mortality incidence was carried out from 1 January 2013 to 30 September 2016 in a sample of 932 adult patients registered as CCP. To predict hazard ratios, mean survival time, and survival probabilities, a multivariate Cox regression was used.
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Natural Egg Mortality of the African Grey Tree Frog, Chiromantis xerampelina (Amphibia: Rhacophoridae)

Rainfall patterns are recognised as important for normal ecosystem functioning in arid environments. Most attempts made to understand the effect of rainfall on amphibian ecology have focused on long-term rather than short-term trends. Here, factors effecting embryonic mortality and clutch size of the African foam nesting frog Chiromantis xerampelina were examined at two ponds from April – June in 2011-2012 in Malawi. A total of 73 foam nests were monitored following spawning. On average 29% of eggs in 2011 and 26% in 2012 suffered mortality from both ponds and this mortality significantly varied between nests. Linear regression showed that the date of spawning had a significant effect on mortality due to moisture requirements of the eggs. The height of nests over the water surface had a negative impact on clutch size and increased rainfall decreased egg mortality in both years at both ponds. In a changing climate, with rainfall projected to become more infrequent in this region, organisms may not be able to rely on rainfall patterns as cues for reproduction, which may have a negative impact on amphibian populations.
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A Case Series on Severe Corrosive Injury of Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

Corrosive injuries of the Upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) are common in developing countries mostly mortality and morbidity is high in India due to suicidal attempts. In this case series, a 17 years old female and 51 year old male subject intentionally self-harmed by ingesting toilet cleaner containing higher amounts of hydrochloric acid and presented to the emergency department of tertiary care hospital and the different aspects of the case are discussed in detail in this paper.
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Treosulfan Plus Fludarabine – Encouraging Conditioning for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma

Allogeneic transplantation (Allo-SCT) in multiple myeloma is controversial mainly due to the relatively high non-relapse mortality (NRM). The aim with this retrospective single-center study was to evaluate recent transplants particularly after conditioning with treosulfan plus fludarabine (TreoFlu).
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Breast Cancer Detection by Determination of Optical Properties of Non-Malignant and Malignant Breast Tissues

Breast cancer being one of the most frequent form of cancer, is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Early detection can greatly improve a woman`s chances for survival. In this paper we introduce an economic and accurate optical system for breast cancer detection.
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Age Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index: Predictor of 90-Day Mortality after Radical Cystectomy

To evaluate the impact of age adjusted Charlson’s comorbidity index (ACCI) in predicting 90-day mortality in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (MIBC) in a low volume center.
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Prevalence and Determinants of Undernutrition among School Age Slum Children in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

The study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of undernutrition and establishing the relationship between prevailing sociodemographic and environmental factor and undernourishment of children aged 6-12 years in four selected slums in Dhaka City, Bangladesh.
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Appendicitis in Pregnancy: How Vestigial is this?

Appendicitis is a rare pregnancy associated surgical emergency, with appendectomy as the most frequent non obstetrical surgical procedure performed in pregnancy. Diagnostic delay increases maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality thereby highlighting the need for a prompt diagnosis and surgery. Two cases of appendicitis with pregnancy are being reported with abdominal pain as common presenting feature.
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Editorial Board Members Related to Mortality

JING LIN

Associate Professor
Department of Pediatrics
The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
United States

ALI H. MOKDAD

Professor of Global Health
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME)
University of Washington
United States

Afshan B. Hameed

Associate Professor
Department of Medicine
University of California
United States

James Tao

Associate Professor
Department of Neurology
The University of Chicago
United States

Chong Lee

Associate Professor
School of Nutrition & Health Promotion
Arizona State University
United States

DAVID R. BLACK

Professor Emeritus
Department of Health and Kinesiology
Purdue University
United States
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