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Articles Related to RIE

Long-Term Outcome of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Early Adulthood: Clinical Experience from a Saudi Tertiary Hospital

To report the long-term outcome including disease activity, damage and social status, quality of life at the last follow-up visit in a Saudi cohort of adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and to determine the predictive factors.
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Modelling the Occurrence of Dental Carries in Adult Population in Ghana; a Comparison of Competing Count Regression Models

Dental carries is a disease with both high prevalence and severity in adults’ worldwide population. Dental carries affect over half of the population in both developed and developing countries globally. Since the outcomes from dental carries are mostly discrete, they are often modelled using count regression models. It is therefore the purpose of this study to determine the appropriate count regression model that efficiently fits the Decayed Mining and Filled Teeth Data (DMFTDATA) and further identify the key risk factors contributing significantly to dental carries in adults in Ghana using the appropriate count regression model.
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Screening and Identiying Farmers’ Prefered Varieties for Adaptability and Resistance to Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) in Sierra Leone

Cassava plays an important role as a food security crop in Sub – Saharan Africa. However, yields of cassava in Sierra Leone are generally low. Adoption of improved varieties resistant to the Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) which is one of the most limiting factors of production remains low. Therefore cultivation of local varieties infected with the cassava mosaic disease dominates the farming system in Sierra Leone.
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Correlation and Path Analysis Studies in Medium Duration Rice Varieties of Andhra Pradesh

The present investigation is carried out to study the correlation and path analysis in twenty five medium duration (120-125 days) varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Character association of the yield attributing traits reveled significant positive association of grain yield per hectare with plant height, 1000 seed weight and panicle length. Hence selection in these traits can improve yield.
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The Relationship between Infertility and Nutrition

The problem of infertility could arise from the woman, the man or both of them and sometimes it could stem from without a reason. The reasons of male infertility could be varicocele, idiopathic infertility, obstruction, undescended testis, immunological mechanisms, ejaculation disorder, testicular insufficiency, medicine-radiation effect, endocrine disorders such as diabetes, excessive consumption of alcohol, smoking and environmental toxins such as pesticides and lead.
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The Quality Changes of Frozen and Dried Tiny Shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense) Meat during Six Months Storage

In this study, Macrobrachium nipponense tiny shrimp meats using two methods of drying and freezing along with metalized polyethylene pouches were kept for 6 months. Then their chemical properties (proximate composition, thiobarbituric acid (TBARS), peroxide value (PV), total volatile nitrogen (TVB-N) and free fatty acids (FFA)), microbial (total bacteria count) and sensory (odor, flavor, and color) analyses were evaluated.
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Switching Darunavir/Ritonavir to Darunavir/Cobicistat in Clinical Practice Experience with 150 patients through 48 weeks

Darunavir (DRV) boosted with ritonavir (RTV) is currently among the preferred antiretroviral agents. Cobicistat (COBI), a new cytochrome P450 inhibitor is replacing RTV as pharmacoenhancer. Coformulated DRV/COBI has been approved based on bioequivalence data; however results on efficacy and safety in clinical practice are scarce. COBI inhibits creatinine tubular secretion, thus raising concerns about its renal safety.
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Constipated Patients Fed Goat Milk Protein Formula: A Case Series Study

This study employed a case-series design with infants aged between 1 and 4 months. Infants with symptoms of constipation were recruited at two paediatric clinics in Barcelona, Spain. At the time of recruitment, all infants were fed a standard formula made with cow milk protein. Infants were provided with a formula based on goat milk protein and 55% of total fat from goat milk. After 3 weeks, stool consistency, stool frequency, crying and infant behaviour were measured. Fat, nitrogen, water and carbohydrates in the stools were also determined by NIRA (near-infrared reflectance analysis).
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Synthesis and Characterization of Clay Brick Using Waste Groundnut Shell Ash

Clay bricks have been made since ancient periods. The higher demand for this brick fails to support the needs. This is because clay is the non-renewable materials. Therefore, new artificial cement blocks have been introduced to satisfy the fast demand in the world. However, the clay bricks are the most eco-friendly and form green environment. Thus, the government, researchers, and engineers trying to introduce the clay bricks with the value addition of natural agro waste materials. In one way, these materials improve the physical properties of the clay as well as reduce the environmental pollutions. Our aim at this research was to introduce a green environment clay bricks of value-added Groundnut Shell Ash (GSA) as a partial substitution.
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Trial on the Efficiency of Topline® Against Natural Tick Infestations of Dromedaries in Mauritania

Topline®, as a 1% “pour-on” solution of fipronil, is produced by MERIAL Company. Fipronil is an acaricide used to control ticks and biting flies of cattle. Dromedaries are regularly infested by ticks. The effectiveness and residual activity of fipronil as a 1% w/w pour-on formulation (Topline®) was studied in a trial on ticks of calves of dromedaries near Nouakchott, Mauritania.
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Giemsa Staining and Antibody Characterization of Colpodella sp. (Apicomplexa)

Colpodella species are free-living alveolates that possess an apical complex used for attaching to eukaryotic prey protists for ingestion of the cytoplasmic contents of the prey. Colpodella sp. are the closest relatives of the Apicomplexa, a phylum that includes the important human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In this study, we investigated morphological characteristics of Colpodella (ATCC 50594) in a diprotist culture containing Bodo caudatus as prey in order to identify features differentiating both protists. The level of apical complex protein conservation among free living alveolate relatives of apicomplexans and intracellular apicomplexan pathogens is unknown. Antibodies against proteins of the apical complex in Colpodella sp. are currently unavailable. We performed staining and immunological characterization of Colpodella in a diprotist culture containing B. caudatus to aid routine differentiation of predator and prey in culture. Staining revealed distinguishing morphological features of both protists. The kinetoplast in B.caudatus was identified using Giemsa staining and was used to differentiate B. caudatus from Colpodella sp. trophozoites.
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Pot Pourri - A Bundle of Findings

This 63 year old gentleman, known to suffer from retroviral disease for the past 12 years, first presented in 2011 with carcinoma of caecum, for which he underwent a radical right hemicolectomy. Following this, he presented with descending colon malignancy for which completion colectomy with ileo sigmoid anastomosis was performed (2013). In 2014 he had a right inguinal hernia for which total extraperitoneal hernioplasty was done (TEP) and a mesh tacked with the structures in the posterior wall of inguinal canal.
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Psychosocial Flag Signs in Patients with Compensable Occupational Lumbar Spine Injuries

Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the prevalence of psychological flag signs (yellow, black and blue) in workers who had sustained a low back injury and to examine the relationship between the presence and number of these signs and the level of pain, disability, anxiety, depression and ability to work. Methods: This study involved a review of the electronic files of injured workers with an active work-related claim related to the lumbar spine. The information on demographics, presence and number of psychosocial and workplace risk factors, level of disability as measured by the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), pain intensity as measured by the numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), and anxiety and depression as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was extracted from standardized forms.
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Effect of Cold Wet sheet Pack on Body Temperature among Healthy Individuals - Result of a Single Arm Study

Hydrotherapy, as the name suggests is the most ancient method of treating diseases by using water in its various forms. The use of water for therapy has been around for hundreds of years. The cold wet sheet pack is one of the common hydrotherapy techniques used for reducing body weight. There have been no documented studies conducted to scientifically evaluate this effect. This study is an attempt to examine the effect of cold wet sheet pack on body temperature. Application of cold wet sheet pack for particular duration increases the body temperature by utilization of calories thus may leads to reduction of bodyweight. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomly selected from medical students enrolled in a naturopathic programme. The participants were of both sexes aged between 18 and 25 years under normal Body mass index (18.5-25). A cold (20 oC± 1 oC) wet sheet pack has given to each of the participants for one hour duration. The outcome measures were resting blood pressure, body temperature and pulse rate. 30 Participants were successfully completed the study, all participants have shown a raise in body temperature after intervention which was statistically significant (P=0.003). There is no significant change in blood pressure and pulse rate. Also there was a week positive correlation between body mass index and body temperature. A cold wet sheet pack for one hour has shown a raise in body temperature, which indicate that the cold wet sheet pack have a role in reducing body weight by utilizing the calories. However, these observations are based on a short term single arm pre-post design on healthy students. A cold wet sheet pack has been demonstrated in this study to have a significant effect in increasing body temperature and shows perspiration by utilization of calories. Large scale randomized control trials in obese patients over a longer period are warranted to conform the results which was uncovered in this study.
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Scardovia Wiggsiae and the Other Microorganisms in Severe Early Childhood Caries

Severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) is an aggressive form of tooth caries in preschool children. New different bacteria were defined as associated with S-ECC. The aim of this study was to analysis the role of Scardovia wiggsiae and the other cariogenic microorganisms in S-ECC in Turkish children. Two same-sized groups of children were enrolled in the study: the first group consisted of 40 children with S-ECC (mean-age:52.93±11.5months), and the second group consisted of 40 caries-free children (mean-age:49.43±12.47months). The numbers of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and yeasts were examined by culturing techniques, while the presences of S. wiggsiae, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Actinomyces gerencseriae, Veillonella parvula, Fusobacterium nucleatum were examined by using 16S rRNA-based PCR technique in plaque samples. The prevalence of S. wiggsiae, S. mutans, A. gerencseriae, V. parvula and the numbers of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, yeasts were found significantly high (P<0.05) in SECC. Also, the presence of S. wiggsiae with either S. mutans, A. gerencseriae, V. parvula or F. nucleatum were associated (P<0.01) with S-ECC. Understanding the effects of bacteria on initiation and progression of S-ECC will also help to improve protective and preventive treatments.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Editorial Board Members Related to RIE


Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ain Shams University

Jane F Manakil

Department of Dentistry and Oral Health
Griffith University

Arunima Mukhopadhyay

Research assistant
Paul O'Gorman Leukaemia Research Centre
University of Glasgow
United Kingdom

Syed W. Shah

Associate Professor
School of Health Sciences
Universiti Sains Malaysia

Cameron Newton

Associate Professor
School of Management
Queensland University of Technology


Department of Microbiology
Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

Rasha Sayed Hanafi

Associate Professor
Pharmaceutical and Biomedical analysis
German University


Professor Emeritus
Department of Health and Kinesiology
Purdue University
United States


Department of Neurology and Pediatrics
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
United States

Martin A. Katzman

Clinic Director and Staff Psychiatrist
START Clinic for Mood and Anxiety Disorders
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