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The Presence of Minority HIV Drug Resistance Variants in The Protease and Gag Regions Confers Poor Response to Therapy Among Subtype A And D Patients

Objective: To determine the prevalence of minority drug resistance variants in the protease and Gag regions among patients failing a protease inhibitor (PI) based regimen with or without a susceptible genotype based on Sanger sequencing technology. Methods: Samples were obtained from patients who were failing on a protease inhibitor-based regimen (n = 500). Sanger based sequencing was performed as part of the standard of care. Mutation analysis was performed using the Stanford HIV drug Resistance database. A subset of these patient samples was grouped into two categories: those failing a PI based with mutations in the protease region (n = 100) and those failing on a PI based regimen without mutations in the protease region (n = 128). These samples were then analyzed in the protease and Gag regions using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology and analysis of the drug resistance mutations was performed at the 20% and 1% cutoffs. Results: An initial analysis of the protease region for patients failing with drug resistance mutations revealed that most patients harbored mutations that confer resistance to Lopinavir and Atazanavir, but these mutations had little effect on Darunavir. Furthermore, NGS revealed that in patients failing with and without drug resistance mutations, minority drug resistance mutations were present at each of the drug resistance codons and at codons that confer multi-drug resistance to protease inhibitors. Further analysis of the Gag gene revealed more genetic diversity among patients failing with no mutations in the protease as evidenced by the proportion of polymorphisms at each codon. Conclusion: Based on Sanger sequencing, a proportion of patients fail a PI based regimen with a susceptible genotype. However, these patients harbor minority variants in the protease and numerous polymorphisms in the Gag region which when combined these could explain their poor response to therapy. Therefore, in order to improve patient care in low resource settings, there is need to adapt NGS as the standard genotyping technique so that minority variants are captured much earlier. In addition, since mutations in the Gag region also play a role in response to PIs, this region should be included in the routine monitoring for response to therapy in patients on a PI based regimen.
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Effects of Gabapentin Enacarbil on Cortical Arousals, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Anterior Tibialis EMG Responses Associated with PLMs in Restless Legs Syndrome

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of gabapentin enacarbil (GEn) on sleep EEG, heart rate (HR), blood presssure, anterior tibialis EMG activity (PLMs power) and subjective complaints in subjects with moderate to severe RLS and disturbed sleep. Methods: This was a single site, single-blind, placebo run-in, fixed dose single group polysomnography (PSG) study. Eligible subjects (age 24-66 years) were treated with placebo for one week and GEn (600 mg/day) for 4 weeks. Two in-laboratory PSGs were collected for adaptation and baseline at the end of the placebo run-in period and for re-adaptation and efficacy assessment at the end of the 4-week treatment period. The primary endpoint was the difference in PSG derived cortical arousal intensity (arousal scale, 0-9) associated with PLMs between 4 weeks of treatment with GEn and placebo. Secondary endpoints included changes in HR responses (ΔHR), nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes (>10 mmHg) secondary to PLMs and PLMs power. Other PSG and subjective measures were assessed. Results: Of 20 subjects enrolled, 18 completed the study. Subjects treated with GEn did not show significant improvements in cortical arousal intensity and ΔHR. However, subjects showed reduced PLMs power (p= 0.013) and associated reductions in nocturnal SBP per hour of sleep (p= 0.041) GEn showed significant improvement in other PSG parameters and subjective endpoints. Conclusion: The data suggests that GEn reduces the frequency and power of PLMs and the corresponding SBP changes in subjects with RLS. Despite reducing the total number of PLM associated arousals and nocturnal HR, the study did not demonstrate consistent effects of GEn on cortical arousal intensity and corresponding HR changes associated with PLMs. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02424695
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Insights into the Potential of Green Algal Polysaccharides Potential to Combat Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus Biofilms

Biofilms are complex sessile microbial community extremely resistant to antibiotics. They typically form on both biotic and abiotic surfaces and are usually associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity in patients in hospital settings. Nosocomial infections are the major cause of infections seen worldwide. Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) represent the most common type of nosocomial infection that affect different parts of the urinary tract in both males and females.
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Chemical Synthesis, Characterization of Ag, Au Nanoparticles and Formulation of Bimetallic Nanostructure onto Tri-block Copolymer Surfaces

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Genomic Asymmetry for Morphology in Allopolyploids within and Out of Brassica

The genomic asymmetry in the nonrandom retention and expression of controlling genes for some traits from one parental diploid is obvious in some natural and synthetic allopolyploids, and has the evolutionary implications. Here we review the genomic asymmetry for the morphological performance in three cultivated Brassica allotetraploids and some intergeneric allopolyploids within Brassicaceae species. For the phenotypic biases of Brassica allotetraploids, Brassica oleracea (genomes CC) is dominant over B. nigra (BB) and B. rapa (AA) in B. carinata (CCBB) and B. napus (CCAA), respectively, and B. nigra is dominant over B. rapa in B. juncea (BBAA), showing the C>B>A dominance hierarchy.
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Correlation of Hemostatic Parameters with Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) Polymorphisms, Mutations, Laboratory, and Clinical Characteristics in 114 Patients with Philadelphia-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

Patients with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (PN-MPN) are at a higher risk for venous thrombosis. Thromboelastometry may prove efficient to evaluate the patient’s thrombotic risk. In this study, based on data from 114 patients with PN-MPN from a single center in Greece, hemostatic profile was assessed with routine coagulation tests, Rotational Thromboelastometry (ROTEM® ), and Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100 and correlated with clinical, laboratory, treatment characteristics, gene mutations and polymorphisms of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)
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Eco Safe Assimilation of Plastic Wastes by Microbes and Biodegradable Alternatives: A Review

Lack of degradability and the closing of landfill sites as well as growing water and land pollution problems have led to concern about plastics. In the past few decades, the use of plastics has enormously increased, mostly used for food packaging. Ironically, the most preferred property of plastics – durability – exerts also the major environmental threat. With the excessive use of plastics and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years.
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To Evaluate the Efficacy of Ultrasound Guided Distraction Osteogenesis by Evaluating Qualitative Estimation of Bone Fill at Regeneration site and Management of Severe Mandibular Hypoplasia Secondary to Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: A Case Report

Distraction Osteogenesis (DO) is an established method for correction of developmental anomaly of the facial skeleton. The early beginning of urgent surgical corrections are allowed in smaller age as even small children suffering from bilateral severe mandibular deficiency who are often associated with breathing and swallowing disorder caused by glossoptosis.
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Increased expression of Nppc and Npr2 in ovarian tissues from mice with polycystic ovary syndrome

Weight loss is an efficient therapy for obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. Here we evaluate the effect of dietary weight reduction on clinical performance in obese PCOS patients. Medical records of fifty obese PCOS patients (age 27 ± 5 years) who had calorie-controlled dietary intervention were reviewed. The patients had a 1200-kcal/day diet until ovulation or for up to three months. Changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, menstruation, acne, and hirsutusm, serum levels of endocrine hormones and adipocytokines, glucolipid metabolism index and insulin resistance were assessed. Menstrual cycle, ovulation andrelapse in the following six months were also reviewed. All patients had menstrual disorder, 43 had acne, and 26 were hirsute. After weight loss, the BMI decreased from 27.89 ± 3.06 to 25.70 ± 2.42 kg/m2 (p < 0.001). Acne and hirsutusm was improved in 39 and 14 patients, respectively. Regular menstruation was restored in 26 patients and lasted for 3.12 months on average. Endocrine hormones levels, adipocytokines levels, glucolipid metabolism and insulin resistance were shifted toward balance. Weight relapse was seen in 11 patients. No side effects occurred. Dietary intervention in obese PCOS patients can improve relevant clinical problems but weight relapse is an issue
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Effect of Seed Thermotherapy to Reduce the Viral Diseases of Faba Bean (Vicia Faba L.) in the Interandean Valley of Cochabamba, Bolivia

In Bolivia, the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is cultivated in the Andean region, Altiplano and Interandean valleys. In these valleys mediumsized and early varieties are cultivated.
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Evaluating the Economic Performance of Reverse Polymerization Technology for Waste Tyre Recycling in Sub-Saharan Africa

The unlawful and uncontrolled disposal of waste tyres is greatly disturbing in terms of the environmental concerns and the economic misfortune. In combating this menace, there is growing interest in the application of efficient and environmental-friendly alternatives to the traditional recycling methods for waste tyres. Pyrolysis can be considered as an appropriate non-conventional method for complex materials such as tyres. Several works have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of biofuels and greater energy efficiency. This study considers Reverse Polymerization, a microwave-assisted pyrolysis process to extract complete yield and higher quality of valuable products, while avoiding toxic emissions into the environment. The feasibility of such innovative recycling process in Sub-Sahara Africa is essential in order to convince concerned authorities to buy into such advanced technologies with great benefits. The investment analysis and economic performance indicators from the study demonstrated that the operation of such proposed recycling system in the continent is economically feasible. However, the operation of such facility under the present market conditions might highly be challenged by high investment risk as the project is highly capital intensive.
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Copper Oxide Nano-Hydrogel Composite and their Toxicology Studies: A Green Chemistry Approach

The increasing demand for skin care products formulated with metal oxide nanoparticles such as Zinc oxide, Titanium oxide and Copper oxide nanoparticles calls for toxicological safety concerns. Phytochemical assisted synthesis of Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) has been achieved by a simple, one-pot chemical procedure using polyphenol-rich aqueous extract of Solanum torvum L. as a reducing and capping agent.
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Thermoresponsive Crosslinked Ampholytic Terpolymers (CATs): Effect of Salt Concentration on Porosity, Thermal, Mechanical, Electrical Conduction, and Imprintable Properties

Intra- or inter-chain dipole–dipole interactions between opposite charges cause collapse of the structure in polyampholyte hydrogels formed by using ionic monomers with different charges. Furthermore, these interactions are unavoidable as in the case of clamped polymer chains.
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Automated Polyp Detection System in Colonoscopy Using Deep Learning and Image Processing Techniques

Undetected colonic polyps are considered a major cause of interval cancer of the colon. The Automatic Polyp Detection System (APDS) (Magentiq Eye LTD, Haifa, Israel) was developed to enhance the ability of endoscopists to detect polyps during screening colonoscopy. It is designed to be used both in real-time and offline. APDS runs directly on the video output of the endoscopic camera and highlights the polyp on the screen. APDS utilizes the power of Deep Learning and Computer Vision in order to improve polyp detection rates thus improving the performance of the endoscopist.
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Automated Polyp Detection System in Colonoscopy Using Deep Learning and Image Processing Techniques

Undetected colonic polyps are considered a major cause of interval cancer of the colon. The Automatic Polyp Detection System (APDS) (Magentiq Eye LTD, Haifa, Israel) was developed to enhance the ability of endoscopists to detect polyps during screening colonoscopy. It is designed to be used both in real-time and offline. APDS runs directly on the video output of the endoscopic camera and highlights the polyp on the screen. APDS utilizes the power of Deep Learning and Computer Vision in order to improve polyp detection rates thus improving the performance of the endoscopist.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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Editorial Board Members Related to poly

MARCO CARUSELLI

Pediatric Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit
La Timone Children’s Hospital
France

GAETANO GIAMMONA

Professor
Pharmaceutical Technologies
University of Palermo
Italy

T Theivasanthi

Assistant Professor
Kalasalingam University
Krishnankoil
India

Guey-Jen Lee-Chen

Professor
Department of Life Science
National Taiwan Normal University
Taiwan

Pankaj Srivastava

VATS Surgeon
Om Surgical Center & Maternity Home
Varanasi
India

Madhuresh Kumar Sethi

Researcher
Research and Development
Mylan Laboratories Limited
India

Viorica Lopez-Avila

Research Scientist
Agilent Technologies
United States

Tamer El-Sayed Ali

Professor
Department of Oceanography
Alexandria University
Egypt

Yang Cao

Associate Professor
Department of Computer Science
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
United States

Ana Rita Ramalho Figueiras

Faculty of Pharmacy
University of Coimbra
Portugal
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