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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Separation from Oil-Contaminated Soil Using Supercritical and Subcritical Water

Finding an environmental-friend and an affordable method to remove contaminated soils from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is now an attractive field for researchers. PAHs are slightly soluble, thus hardly dissolve in organic compounds, and also biological and chemical degradation processes are not effective to remove them, and the process of extracting these pollutants from soil is a complex process. Super-critical fluid extraction is an innovative process in the field of contaminated soil treatment. Extraction with super-critical fluid is a simple and rapid extraction process which uses supercritical fluids as solvents. This method addresses extraction methods using supercritical and subcritical fluid. The results showed that the supercritical fluid process is very suitable to remove the pollutants such as PHCs, PAHs, PCBs, dioxins, Furans, phenols, Chlorophenols, insecticides, metals and radioactive substances. The supercritical fluid extraction using CO2 also has the ability to effectively eliminate organic and inorganic compounds present in different contaminated soils. Moreover, this method is more economical for polluted soil treatment compared to other available methods. On the other hand, using this method that uses water is environment-friendly and has lower cost and a higher safety level. Research has also shown that pressurized hot water extraction (SWE) is a better way to extract PAHs. In this method, the extraction process can be improved by combining the SWE process with the oxidation process by adding oxidants such as air, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, etc.
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Gene Therapy in Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle cell disease is a prevalent and severe monogenic disorder resulting from a homozygous missense mutation in the β-globin gene that leads to polymerization of hemoglobin S. Clinical manifestations of the disease can be critical with considerable morbidity and mortality. One treatment option for the disease is bone marrow transplantation. However this method is restricted to the patients with an appropriately matched donor. Gene therapy by either gene insertion or gene editing, utilizing patient’s own cell is a primary therapeutic option to cure sickle cell disease. However, very less clinical trials have been performed with genetic therapy for treating Sickle cell disease (SCD). Since a couple of decades significant progress has been made in the area of gene therapy for treating monogenic hemoglobin disorders. Numerous therapies are currently in clinical trial stages or in preclinical stages. The safety and efficacy of gene therapy has been greatly improved with the initial use of γ-retrovirus vectors, followed by next-generation lentivirus vectors, and latest gene editing techniques. Although the clinical interpretation of gene therapy has been successful, it involves some limitations including complex cellular abnormalities, inadequate transgene expression, and challenges in achieving effective and persistent inhibition of polymerization of hemoglobin S. This review intends to discuss gene therapy strategies specific to Sickle cell disease, present state of the field, and current status of the gene therapy clinical trials.
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Tio2/Polymer Nanocomposites for Antibacterial Packaging Applications

Packaging material should meet many requirements for safe preservation of food and extend shelf life. Utilization of nanoparticles to prepare active packaging films has been widely investigated. This review deals with food packaging films modified with nano titania to enhance mechanical, barrier and antibacterial properties of the packages.
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Synergistic Eeffect of Polyene Antifungals and Silver Nanoparticles Against Candida Parapsilosis

Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts of the genus Candida spp. Among several pathogenic Candida species, we can highlight the C. parapsilosis due to susceptibility profile. Amphotericin B and nystatin are polyene antifungal drugs most frequently used to combat this type of infection. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) also have antifungal properties and can also provide synergistic action when combined with classic antifungals. Therefore, the aim of this study was evaluate the synergistic action of AgNPs, amphotericin B and nystatin against C. parapsilosis.
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Clinical Significance of microRNA Polymorphisms and Expression Profiles in Oral Cancer Development

MicroRNAs (miRNA) are potent regulators, controlling multiple biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, cell death, development and immune responses. With emerging data supporting that miRNAs play a central role in gene dysregulation in human malignancies, unraveling the miRNA genetic variations in cancer is essential and critical if we want to develop better diagnostic and prognostic system for our patients.
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Formation of Gold Nanoprisms on Atomically Flat Mica Surface

A numerous methods are being used for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (NPs) in liquid media, in micelles and at different interfaces. The size and geometry of NPs depend on parameters of synthesis. Here we propose the growth of Au NPs on atomically flat mica surfaces. In such conditions the monocrystalline and isotropic NPs are being simultaneously formed on the surface.
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Genetic Polymorphisms Associated with Risk of Developing Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Patients with Chronic Aspirin Usage

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly population. Aspirin usage has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of developing this disease. This study aims to determine whether the increased risk of AMD with chronic aspirin usage is related to genetic polymorphisms in the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) genes.
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Relationship of YWHAH Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms to Markers of Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Severity

Introduction: Serum 14-3-3 eta provides diagnostic and prognostic information in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). It is coded by the YWHAH gene with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that 6 previously described YWHAH SNPs might relate to markers of RA disease severity such as seropositivity or erosive changes. Association study performed at an academic hospital Rheumatology Clinic. Subjects studied were 18 years of age or older with RA. TaqMan analysis screened for YWHAH SNPs rs2246704, rs2853884, rs3747158, rs4820059, rs7291050, rs933226. Primary endpoint was presence of at least one copy of the YWHAH SNPs with the markers of RA disease severity.
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Antrochoanal Polyp Harboring Cholesterol Granuloma: A Case Study

Cholesterol granuloma (CG) is a foreign body reaction to the deposition and inadequate drainage of cholesterol crystals that are frequently found in association with chronic diseases. The clinical symptoms are non-specific. The differential diagnosis of CG includes cysts, mucocoeles and neoplasms. Radiological and histopathological findings are essential for diagnosis of CG. In this report it is aimed to introduce a case of CG in antrochoanal polyp with its clinical and histopathological findings.
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Mitochondrial Production of Perhydroxyl Radical (HO2 • ) as Inducer of Aging and Age-Related Pathologies

All organisms age, in the search of the universal mechanisms of aging Barja analyzed results obtained with various species of mammals and birds and concluded that only two known factors correlate in the right sense (inversely) with animal longevity in vertebrates: the long life span is associated with (a) low rates of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, and (b) low degree of fatty acid polyunsaturation of cellular membranes including the mitochondrial ones [Barja (2014) Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 127:1-27].
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Comparison between Polyacid-Modified Composite Resin and Conventional Composite Resin used for Primary Molars Restoration

Ten recently extracted primary molars, were used in this study for the measurement of the shear bond strength. Occlusal enamel was ground, leaving a flat dentin surface, on which a cylindrical specimen of each of the two tested materials was applied and light-cured according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Specimens were then mounted in self-cure acrylic resin. Ten specimens were used for the measurement of the compressive strength. The specimens were prepared in a special-cylindrical mold, then light-cured according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The compressive and shear bond strength of each specimen was measured using a Universal Testing Machine.Ten specimens of each of the two resin materials were used to measure the abrasion resistance. The test was performed by means of a toothbrushing machine and abrasive dentifrice slurry. The specimens were weighed before and after the test. Weight loss of the specimens were calculated after the test and reported as percent weight loss. Regarding microleakage test, Class V cavities were prepared in the buccal surface of 36 exfoliated or extracted human primary molars.
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DNA Polymerase as Therapeutic Intervention for Treating Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

In recent years, increasing evidence has pointed to the potential role of fibrinolysis in the pathogenesis of MS. Based on hypotheses describing the aggressive autoimmune responses observed in MS patients, a result of impaired between (t-PA and PA1-1) which are a key molecules in both fibrinolysis and extracellular proteolysis. The present study was done to investigate the therapeutic potential of polymerase enzyme in modulating the changes occurred between levels of Tissue- type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) in patients with multiple sclerosis. A pilot study was carried out on a total of twenty-one patients (17 females, 4 males; aged 22-46 years) with demyelination suggestive of MS and clinically silent T2 brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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Novel analytical technologies of Quality in the Sheep & Goat Dairy Sector

France, Greece, Italy, and Spain the major sheep and goat milk producers in Europe, got the initiative through an interim of 30 years (1985 – 2015), to organize - through IDF - 7 symposiums aiming at the upgrade of the Dairy Sector. One major interest was the milk quality. Stepwise, the efforts followed cow milk structural development in organizing the testing laboratory, the definition of quality in composition (fat, protein, lactose, total solids), in Hygienic (Total Bacteria Count, Somatic Cell Count, antibiotics residues and Aflatoxin M1 contamination), adulteration with water and detection of milk species. EU, by Decision 2002/657/EC, defined the rules for the Directive 96/23/EC, enumerated the testing methods, the demands in sampling procedures, the minimum limits of performance, the quality control (ISO 17025) and the interpretation of results. The equivalency of results from different laboratories, through ISO 17025, demanded the application of ISO analytical standards.
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A Review: Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Helical Springs

NanotechnologyAbstractIntroductionIn order to successfully reduce the weight of a helical spring it is possible to optimize the material parameters or to use alternative advanced materials instead of conventional engineering ones. Springs are used for vibration damping in mechanical systems and are generally made of steel. As an alternative to material of steel springs in the scope of the study, mechanical behaviors of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite helical springs have been investigated. The FRP composite material has made it possible to reduce the weight of helical spring without any reduction on load carrying capacity. Due to increasing competition and innovation in recent decades, vehicle industries show interest in replacing conventional steel spring with FRP composite helical spring which has advantages such as higher strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. The study gives the brief look on the suitability of FRP composite helical springs on related mechanical systems. The objective of the present work is evaluation of the design, analysis and fabrication of FRP composite helical springs.
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Selected Compounds Modulate Various Inflammatory Biomarkers in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Macrophages of PPAR-α Knockout Mice

Inflammation has been implicated in cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We have recently screened several compounds that modulate inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and nitric oxide) in response to a variety of stimuli. Our hypothesis is that compounds with those anti-inflammatory properties will be useful for treatment of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other diseases based on inflammation.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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Editorial Board Members Related to poly

Kamyar Shameli

Senior Lecturer
Department of Environmental Engineering & Green Technology
Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology
Malaysia

Changle Chen

Professor
Department of Polymer Science
University of Science and Technology of China
China

Robert Luk

Associate Professor
Department of Computing
Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Hong Kong

YUNBO LI

Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine
United States

Ashik Hayat

Nephrologist
Department of Medicine and Nephrology
Taranaki Base Hospital
New Zealand

Bin Zhou

Scientist
J. Craig Venter Institute
United States

Viorica Lopez-Avila

Research Scientist
Agilent Technologies
United States

Yang Cao

Associate Professor
Department of Computer Science
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
United States

Jurgen Konig

Professor
Department of Nutritional Sciences
University of Vienna
Austria

Kell Mortensen

Professor
Niels Bohr Institute
University of Copenhagen
Denmark
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