Articles Related to Sphincter
Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is a known gastrointestinal disorder that has been well documented but is difficult to diagnose noninvasively.
Chronic anal fissure is a commonest anal condition of world population and our country is not an exception. Conservative management is initially recommended with creams and oral analgesics. When conservative measures fail despite of recommended length of therapy, surgical option is offered to the affecters.
Hydatid disease is caused by the larval form of parasitic tapeworm; Echinococcus granulosus. Primary spinal hydatid disease is rare. Primary bone localization is rare and it accounts between 0.5% and 4%. Spinal localization accounts for less than 1%. The infection may be misdiagnosed initially.
Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection in the world and is seen mostly in the developing countries of Asia. We report a case of heavy worm infestation in a 2-year-old child who presented with worms in small bowel, common bile duct and liver with abscesses. He was managed conservatively and recovered well without any sequalae.