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Articles Related to MS

Mechanisms of Resistance to Kinase Inhibitors and Strategies to Prevent the Development of Drug Resistance

Targeting mutant proteins and associated signaling pathways of driver oncogenes by small molecule kinase inhibitors (KIs) are a promising strategy of cancer therapy. However, despite the initial success of treatment, KIs often become ineffective as intrinsic and acquired resistance. This article reviews the English-language literature to explore the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance and to present a challenge for developing drugs to overcome resistance. Mechanisms of acquired resistance include 1) the selection of pre-existing subclones with other mutations, 2) the emergence of secondary mutations in the target kinase domain, 3) upregulation of kinases both within the same kinase family and their related kinase families, as well as activation of alternative bypass pathways, 4) epithelial-mesenchymal transition, 5) overexpression of pro-survival Bcl-2 family proteins and 6) drug efflux mechanisms. Currently available methods are to obtain tumor biopsy samples at recurrence or progression if the tumor lesion is accessible to a biopsy and to use the second- and third-generation KIs based on the individual need of each patient. Furthermore, recent computational challenges provide design principles to prevent the development of drug resistance. In conclusion, we provide an overview of the postulated resistance mechanisms and highlight the future direction of computational structure-based design of new potent KIs.
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Giemsa Staining and Antibody Characterization of Colpodella sp. (Apicomplexa)

Colpodella species are free-living alveolates that possess an apical complex used for attaching to eukaryotic prey protists for ingestion of the cytoplasmic contents of the prey. Colpodella sp. are the closest relatives of the Apicomplexa, a phylum that includes the important human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In this study, we investigated morphological characteristics of Colpodella (ATCC 50594) in a diprotist culture containing Bodo caudatus as prey in order to identify features differentiating both protists. The level of apical complex protein conservation among free living alveolate relatives of apicomplexans and intracellular apicomplexan pathogens is unknown. Antibodies against proteins of the apical complex in Colpodella sp. are currently unavailable. We performed staining and immunological characterization of Colpodella in a diprotist culture containing B. caudatus to aid routine differentiation of predator and prey in culture. Staining revealed distinguishing morphological features of both protists. The kinetoplast in B.caudatus was identified using Giemsa staining and was used to differentiate B. caudatus from Colpodella sp. trophozoites.
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A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial Evaluating the Effects of an Investigational Study Product on Exercise Induced Muscle Soreness, Markers of Inflammation, Muscle Damage and Exercise Performance in Healthy Males

Gherkin, a pure botanical extract from cucumber is a phytonutrient rich vegetable which may have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and pain relieving properties. The purpose of this randomized double-blind placebo study was to determine the effects of Gherkin (Cuvitus™, Actido®)on exercise performance, markers of inflammation and acute muscle soreness in healthy males.
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Relationship of YWHAH Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms to Markers of Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Severity

Introduction: Serum 14-3-3 eta provides diagnostic and prognostic information in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). It is coded by the YWHAH gene with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that 6 previously described YWHAH SNPs might relate to markers of RA disease severity such as seropositivity or erosive changes. Association study performed at an academic hospital Rheumatology Clinic. Subjects studied were 18 years of age or older with RA. TaqMan analysis screened for YWHAH SNPs rs2246704, rs2853884, rs3747158, rs4820059, rs7291050, rs933226. Primary endpoint was presence of at least one copy of the YWHAH SNPs with the markers of RA disease severity.
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An Application: Representations of Some Systems on Non-Deterministic EEG Signals

In this paper, we introduce the notion of a complex interval which is significant for interval-valued data and interval-based signal processing. First, we present the space of complex intervals and investigate the quasilinear structure of the space of complex intervals. We observe that this space is Hilbert quasilinear space with a set-valued inner product.
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United States Air Force Academy: Identifying Areas at Risk for the Persistence of Plague using the Bioagent Transport and Environmental Modeling System (BioTEMS)

Introduction: Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, has caused major pandemics in human history and continues to be both a natural and bioterrorist threat to human populations. Plague exists in nature in either an epidemic or enzootic state. Geographic models of the epidemic state have primarily been developed using flea and reservoir species, however little is known of the enzootic state and potential cryptic reservoir species and few endemic models have been produced.
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Scardovia Wiggsiae and the Other Microorganisms in Severe Early Childhood Caries

Severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) is an aggressive form of tooth caries in preschool children. New different bacteria were defined as associated with S-ECC. The aim of this study was to analysis the role of Scardovia wiggsiae and the other cariogenic microorganisms in S-ECC in Turkish children. Two same-sized groups of children were enrolled in the study: the first group consisted of 40 children with S-ECC (mean-age:52.93±11.5months), and the second group consisted of 40 caries-free children (mean-age:49.43±12.47months). The numbers of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and yeasts were examined by culturing techniques, while the presences of S. wiggsiae, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Actinomyces gerencseriae, Veillonella parvula, Fusobacterium nucleatum were examined by using 16S rRNA-based PCR technique in plaque samples. The prevalence of S. wiggsiae, S. mutans, A. gerencseriae, V. parvula and the numbers of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, yeasts were found significantly high (P<0.05) in SECC. Also, the presence of S. wiggsiae with either S. mutans, A. gerencseriae, V. parvula or F. nucleatum were associated (P<0.01) with S-ECC. Understanding the effects of bacteria on initiation and progression of S-ECC will also help to improve protective and preventive treatments.
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Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the appendix with Retroperitoneal and Pelvic Bone Extension - A Case Report and Literature Review

The Appendiceal mucocele (AM) was considered as a rare dilation of the appendiceal lumen. Four different types of AMs are defined according to the cause of obstruction, for both benign and malignant, including retention cysts, epithelial hyperplasia, mucinous cystadenoma, and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma.
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Multidimensional LC/MS-MS Analysis of Synthetic Cannabinoids in Urine, Plasma, and Edibles

Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) present a multitude of problems in terms of maintaining up-to-date methods of detection. They are novel psychoactive substances originally synthesized for medical use and research purposes. Abuse has demonstrated a variety of effects ranging from euphoria to aggressive behavior and death. The marketing, similar naming, and described pharmacological interactions create the dangerous and false perception that SCs are similar to, or the same as, tetrahydrocannabinol in cannabis products
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Development and Optimization of an LC-MS/MS Method for Dosage Form of Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2 ) in Human Plasma

Accurate measurement of ergocalciferol in biological samples has become easier using high-end mass spectra. Currently, various LCMS/MS methods have been developed to quantify ergocalciferol. Use of LC-MS/MS has accomplished to develop an accurate method that could quantify ergocalciferol in a large number of samples where it should be analyzed in the blood immediately after dosage. The objective of this study is to optimize chromatographic conditions and evaluate the LC-MS/MS method for accurate quantification of the dosage form of ergocalciferol in human plasma. Extraction and separation of ergocalciferol in human plasma was achieved using methanol liquid-liquid extraction and by a reverse phase C8 column, respectively
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Gingival Stimulation: An Important Metabolic Regulator?

This study aimed to determine whether a relationship exists between gingival stimulation and the levels of leptin, ghrelin, insulin and glucose, which are important regulators of energy homeostasis. Blood samples for ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin were taken from 15 male volunteers (mean age 25.5±2.3 years; mean body mass index 24.4±2.79 kg/m2), who did not brush their teeth for one day, after a 12 h-long overnight fasting and before standard breakfast (0 min) and thereafter at 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after breakfast. After toothbrushing after dinner and after a 12 h-long overnight fasting, blood samples were taken again before standard breakfast (0 min) and then after at the same time points following tooth brushing.A significant reduction was found in the leptin levels measured at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after tooth brushing (p < 0.005). The ghrelin levels also declined at these time points but were significant at 0, 30 and 120 min (p < 0.05). Despite the reduced insulin levels at 120 and 180 min after tooth brushing (p < 0.05), no significant change was observed in the glucose levels.
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Forensic Science Curricular and Career Planning: A Modified Systems Theory-Based Model for Student Advising

Following the rise in popularity of forensic science, fueled by the media and perhaps necessity, comes the demand for an effective and productive approach to advising students interested in a career in this vast area. Forensic science is a large-scale umbrella term encompassing a multitude of disciplines. Whereas “forensic” means legal, any discipline that has an application to law or the legal system may be considered a “forensic science”. With the seemingly ever-increasing lure of forensic science as a career option, the question arises as to how best to assist students in making a dream job a reality. The purpose of this research is twofold: (1) summarize findings from forensic science job listings in the United States and (2) provide a framework, derived largely from Systems Theory, for understanding the advisee skillset, and suggest a model for a step by step career decision-making and curricular planning approach for professionals working in an advising capacity.
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Effect of Chlorhexidine Application on Dentin Bond Strength Durability of Two Etch-and-Rinse Adhesive versus a Universal Bond System

Application of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP) inhibitors such as chlorhexidine (CHX) is capable of reducing bond strength loss over time by preventing collagen fibrils degradation.
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Poor Metabolic Quality Embryo is Capable to Implant – A Case Report

There has been little advance in embryo selection criteria since the first IVF. To this day, we select embryos by morphological criteria, which provide little information as to the actual embryo quality.
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Targeted Killing of Streptococcus mutans in Biofilms by a Pheromone Guided Antimicrobial Peptide HP30

Streptococcus mutans is a leading cariogenic pathogen of dental caries worldwide. Clinically, eliminating S. mutans from dental biofilms using antibiotics is not practical, because these agents indiscriminately kill other members of the resident flora, leading to ecological disruption and other negative clinical consequences. To develop target-specific antimicrobials, we evaluated several fusion peptides and identified a new peptide HP30 that showed a high selectivity for targeted killing of S. mutans.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to MS

Rula M. Darwish

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology
University of Jordan

Osman Balci

Department of Computer Science
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
United States

Ramani Ramchandran

Department of Pediatrics
Medical College of Wisconsin
United States

Ahmed S. Zidan

Associate Professor
Department of Pharmaceutics and industrial pharmacy
Zagazig University

Salerno Marco

Department of Nanophysics
Italian Institute of Technology

Jeffrey E. Lee

Assistant Professor
Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology
University of Toronto


Associate Professor
Center of Biomolecular Therapeutics
University of Maryland
United States

Richard Simman

Clinical Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
Wright State University Boonshoft School
United States

Grant Dewson

Laboratory Head
Cell Signalling and Cell Death Division
Walter & Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research

Avner Meoded

Neuroimaging Research Fellow
United States
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