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United States Air Force Academy: Identifying Areas at Risk for the Persistence of Plague using the Bioagent Transport and Environmental Modeling System (BioTEMS)

Introduction: Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, has caused major pandemics in human history and continues to be both a natural and bioterrorist threat to human populations. Plague exists in nature in either an epidemic or enzootic state. Geographic models of the epidemic state have primarily been developed using flea and reservoir species, however little is known of the enzootic state and potential cryptic reservoir species and few endemic models have been produced.
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Scardovia Wiggsiae and the Other Microorganisms in Severe Early Childhood Caries

Severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) is an aggressive form of tooth caries in preschool children. New different bacteria were defined as associated with S-ECC. The aim of this study was to analysis the role of Scardovia wiggsiae and the other cariogenic microorganisms in S-ECC in Turkish children. Two same-sized groups of children were enrolled in the study: the first group consisted of 40 children with S-ECC (mean-age:52.93±11.5months), and the second group consisted of 40 caries-free children (mean-age:49.43±12.47months). The numbers of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and yeasts were examined by culturing techniques, while the presences of S. wiggsiae, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Actinomyces gerencseriae, Veillonella parvula, Fusobacterium nucleatum were examined by using 16S rRNA-based PCR technique in plaque samples. The prevalence of S. wiggsiae, S. mutans, A. gerencseriae, V. parvula and the numbers of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, yeasts were found significantly high (P<0.05) in SECC. Also, the presence of S. wiggsiae with either S. mutans, A. gerencseriae, V. parvula or F. nucleatum were associated (P<0.01) with S-ECC. Understanding the effects of bacteria on initiation and progression of S-ECC will also help to improve protective and preventive treatments.
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Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the appendix with Retroperitoneal and Pelvic Bone Extension - A Case Report and Literature Review

The Appendiceal mucocele (AM) was considered as a rare dilation of the appendiceal lumen. Four different types of AMs are defined according to the cause of obstruction, for both benign and malignant, including retention cysts, epithelial hyperplasia, mucinous cystadenoma, and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma.
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Multidimensional LC/MS-MS Analysis of Synthetic Cannabinoids in Urine, Plasma, and Edibles

Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) present a multitude of problems in terms of maintaining up-to-date methods of detection. They are novel psychoactive substances originally synthesized for medical use and research purposes. Abuse has demonstrated a variety of effects ranging from euphoria to aggressive behavior and death. The marketing, similar naming, and described pharmacological interactions create the dangerous and false perception that SCs are similar to, or the same as, tetrahydrocannabinol in cannabis products
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Development and Optimization of an LC-MS/MS Method for Dosage Form of Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2 ) in Human Plasma

Accurate measurement of ergocalciferol in biological samples has become easier using high-end mass spectra. Currently, various LCMS/MS methods have been developed to quantify ergocalciferol. Use of LC-MS/MS has accomplished to develop an accurate method that could quantify ergocalciferol in a large number of samples where it should be analyzed in the blood immediately after dosage. The objective of this study is to optimize chromatographic conditions and evaluate the LC-MS/MS method for accurate quantification of the dosage form of ergocalciferol in human plasma. Extraction and separation of ergocalciferol in human plasma was achieved using methanol liquid-liquid extraction and by a reverse phase C8 column, respectively
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Gingival Stimulation: An Important Metabolic Regulator?

This study aimed to determine whether a relationship exists between gingival stimulation and the levels of leptin, ghrelin, insulin and glucose, which are important regulators of energy homeostasis. Blood samples for ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin were taken from 15 male volunteers (mean age 25.5±2.3 years; mean body mass index 24.4±2.79 kg/m2), who did not brush their teeth for one day, after a 12 h-long overnight fasting and before standard breakfast (0 min) and thereafter at 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after breakfast. After toothbrushing after dinner and after a 12 h-long overnight fasting, blood samples were taken again before standard breakfast (0 min) and then after at the same time points following tooth brushing.A significant reduction was found in the leptin levels measured at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after tooth brushing (p < 0.005). The ghrelin levels also declined at these time points but were significant at 0, 30 and 120 min (p < 0.05). Despite the reduced insulin levels at 120 and 180 min after tooth brushing (p < 0.05), no significant change was observed in the glucose levels.
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Forensic Science Curricular and Career Planning: A Modified Systems Theory-Based Model for Student Advising

Following the rise in popularity of forensic science, fueled by the media and perhaps necessity, comes the demand for an effective and productive approach to advising students interested in a career in this vast area. Forensic science is a large-scale umbrella term encompassing a multitude of disciplines. Whereas “forensic” means legal, any discipline that has an application to law or the legal system may be considered a “forensic science”. With the seemingly ever-increasing lure of forensic science as a career option, the question arises as to how best to assist students in making a dream job a reality. The purpose of this research is twofold: (1) summarize findings from forensic science job listings in the United States and (2) provide a framework, derived largely from Systems Theory, for understanding the advisee skillset, and suggest a model for a step by step career decision-making and curricular planning approach for professionals working in an advising capacity.
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Effect of Chlorhexidine Application on Dentin Bond Strength Durability of Two Etch-and-Rinse Adhesive versus a Universal Bond System

Application of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP) inhibitors such as chlorhexidine (CHX) is capable of reducing bond strength loss over time by preventing collagen fibrils degradation.
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Poor Metabolic Quality Embryo is Capable to Implant – A Case Report

There has been little advance in embryo selection criteria since the first IVF. To this day, we select embryos by morphological criteria, which provide little information as to the actual embryo quality.
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Targeted Killing of Streptococcus mutans in Biofilms by a Pheromone Guided Antimicrobial Peptide HP30

Streptococcus mutans is a leading cariogenic pathogen of dental caries worldwide. Clinically, eliminating S. mutans from dental biofilms using antibiotics is not practical, because these agents indiscriminately kill other members of the resident flora, leading to ecological disruption and other negative clinical consequences. To develop target-specific antimicrobials, we evaluated several fusion peptides and identified a new peptide HP30 that showed a high selectivity for targeted killing of S. mutans.
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Suspected Allergic Reaction in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

Over the course of several years, three members of a Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) group showed periodical bouts of pruritus and dermatological lesions. The affected animals were a 25-year-old cow and her 5 and 7-year-old offspring, all housed in a mixed indoor/outdoor facility. The signs were first noted in 2005 and escalated over time until 2012, when a final diagnosis of the problem was attempted. Diagnostic tests included blood analysis and skin biopsies, swab microbiological cultures from the wheals, intradermal tests and response to treatment with corticosteroids. Clinical picture and histopathological findings, as well as response to methylprednisolone, were considered compatible with an allergic dermatitis.
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Equines as Tools Vs Partners: A Critical Look at the Uses and Beliefs Surrounding Horses in Equine Therapies and Argument for Mechanical Horses

Horses have their own unique status as therapy animals due to their function in both physical and psychotherapies. Current models of Equine Assisted Activities and Therapies (EAAT) utilize horses for a range of physical, psychological and learning therapies to benefit humans, often referring to horses as therapeutic “partners”. To fulfill certification requirements for existing models of EAAT, practitioners are required to study equine behavior through the belief systems currently modeled in the natural horsemanship community. Despite requiring knowledge in horse behavior, studies and anecdotal evidence suggests that horses used in EAAT commonly display confusion or escape behaviors, “burn out” and/or display signs of depression. These behaviors could be a result of contradictions in the interpretation of equine behavior within the natural horsemanship practices or a lack of understanding and utilization of equine learning theory within the context of EAAT.
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Prevention and Control of Production Limiting Goat Diseases on Small Farms

This article was written in support of development of new strategies to control economically important diseases of goats, and advance the body of knowledge of agricultural professionals and small farmers on disease surveillance and biosecurity for farm operations. The goat industry has been looking for more effective ways to alleviate health problems for a long time. There is an evolving need for scientists, agricultural professionals with expertise in small ruminants, along with the input from goat producers, to develop strategies tailored for specific disease prevalence that affects sustainable small ruminant productions.
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Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Algerian Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum) Natural Fermented in Underground Silos Matmora “El-Hammoum” and their Antimicrobial Activity Again Pathogenic Germs

In human nutrition, cereals constitute the basis of the food pyramid. In Algeria, storage of durum wheat (triticum durum) performs in underground silos matmour in some rural areas, these traditional methods rather simple conservation is an alternative for small producers; but starts to disappear because of settlement of the farming populations in the urban areas.
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Seroepidemiology of Neospora Caninum in Dairy Cattle Farms with a History of Abortion in Isfahan Province, Iran

Neospora caninum is a worldwide-distributed pathogen which causes abortions in dairy cattle, leading to economic losses in the cattle industry.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to MS

IBRAHIM ANWAR AHMED ABDELAZIM

Professor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ain Shams University
Egypt

Eric Fung

Professor of Pharmacology
Department of Oral Biology
University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Dentistry
United States

Hongxia Hao

Lecturer
Department of Chemistry
University of Toronto
Canada

Tony Jun Huang

Professor
Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics
Pennsylvania State University
United States

Daniela Iannazzo

University Researcher
Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering
University of Messina
Italy

ALAA EL-DEEN BAKRY YASSIN

Associate Professor
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences
Saudi Arabia

Angela Myracle

Assistant Professor
School of Food and Agriculture
University of Maine
United States

Bryan Krantz

Associate professor
Department of Microbial Pathogenesis
University of Maryland
United States

Faheem Ahmad

Assistant Professor
Department of Botany
Aligarh Muslim University
India

N. S. NEKI

Professor of Medicine
Government Medical College and Guru Nanak Dev Hospital
Amritsar
India
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