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Trend of HIV/AIDS Reported Cases in Morocco Between 1986 and 2019: A Time Series Analysis

Background: Morocco is a low endemic country of HIV/AIDS that achieved the goal of the second and third 90-90-90 targets in 2019 while still 78% of people living with HIV know their HIV status. The aim of this study was to analyze time trends of HIV/AIDS reported cases during the last 33 years taking into consideration the implementation of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (HCT) services in primary health care facilities. Methodology: This was a time series of HIV/AIDS reported cases at national level between 1986 and 2019. Variable collected for each year were HIV/AIDS reported per 100000 H, age category, gender, origin, CD4 count and route of transmission. Trend of HIV/AIDS reported cases was assessed by Joinpoint Regression Analysis. Annual percentage changes (APCs) were estimated to identify the years (joinpoint) when significant changes occurred in the trend. We therefore examined trends in HIV/AIDS reported cases according to epidemiological variables. Results: Cumulative HIV/AIDS reported cases during the study period was of 17 000. Joinpoint regression showed an increase in HIV/AIDS reported cases between 1986 and 2019. The APC for the period 1986-2012 was of 13.4 (95% CI: 12.0 to 14.8, p <0.05) and the APC from 2012 to 019 was of 5.4 (95% CI: 2.5 to 8.5, p<0.05) with a significant break in the same joinpoint year than HCT implementation in primary health care settings. In stratified analysis, HIV/AIDS reported cases increased but not significantly after joinpoint. A significant decrease was noted in 2015 in urban areas (APC = -10.0, 95% CI: -17.0 to -2.3, p<0.05). Conclusions: HIV/AIDS reported cases were increasing over 33 years, with a significant rise after 2012by 5% per year, corresponding to HCT integration into primary health care setting. Furthermore, Morocco is may be on the right way to eliminate HIV/AIDS in urban areas.
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Comparative Performance of Compacted Clay Liner (CCL) and Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL)

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Prevalence of Significant Ocular Surface Symptoms and Its Relation to Polypharmacy Among In-Patients in A General Internal Medicine Department

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Isolation of Microorganisms Associated with Palm Oil Contaminated Soil

Aim: Palm oil processing generally generates lots of wastewater (palm oil mill effluent), this is usually discharged into the environment in the untreated form and subsequently causes several environmental issues. There is therefore need to isolate microorganisms that can be used to clean up the palm oil contaminated environment especially the soil. Methods and Results: Palm oil contaminated soil was obtained from Oba Adeyemi palm oil mill in Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria, other soil samples which were purposely contaminated with palm oil, were obtained from Ajayi Crowther University Oyo, Oyo State. Isolation, characterization and identification of microorganisms were carried out using morphological and biochemical characterization. The isolates were preliminarily screened for lipolytic activities, this was confirmed by growth on the mineral salt medium after 7 days, signifying hydrolysis. One of the prominent isolates was further identified by sequences analysis of 16S rRNA genes. Forty-one bacterial isolates were identified, which included species of Bacillus (80 %), Pseudomonas (20 %) in the oil mill contaminated soil sample and Bacillus spp. (100 %) in the purposely contaminated soils. Twenty-nine fungal isolates including species of Aspergillus, Oidiodendron, Geotrichum, Penicillum, Saccharomyces were isolated with Aspergillus fumigatus having the highest frequency of occurrence (37.5 %) in artificially contaminated soil and Saccharomyces spp. having the highest frequency of occurrence (91 %) in palm oil contaminated soil from the palm oil mill. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA of one of the prominent isolates showed that it was identified as MN607220 Saccharomyces cerevisae. All the bacterial and fungal isolates had lipolytic activities except Bacillus mycoides and Oidiodendron sp. respectively. Nine of the ten Saccharomyces sp. had lipolytic activities. Conclusion: These screened organisms could therefore be employed for the cleanup of palm oil contamination in the environment. Significance and Impact of Study: Thereby ridding the environment of possible toxic effects especially in areas of need like Malaysia
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Ethnobotanical Study of ARTEMISIA IFRANENSIS J. DIDIER in Timahdite Region (Central Middle Atlas of Morocco)

With the purpose of valorizing the aromatic and medicinal plants, essentielly the Asteraceae family, and ethnopharmacological heritage in the area of Timahdite province of Ifrane, Morocco. An fieldwork has been carried and consists of conducting an ethnobotanical survey on Artemisia ifranensis J. Didier, endemic species, in the region of Timahdite, located in the Moroccan Middle Atlas. The Ethnobotanical study realised in June-July 2012 beside 82 different respondents permitted to describe their medicinal use at the local scale based on the local Known-how, and constitute a source of very precious information for the area studied and for subsequent researches for the domains of the phytochemistry and pharmacology in order to search for new natural substance. In tyhis study, the survey targeted men (70 %) and women (30 %), aged 30 to 50 years and The data Analysis showed that the overall level of schooling of the town was low (64% of the illiterate). The results of the study also had allowed to notice that the leaves was the usual used part (61 %). Most remedies are prepared in decoction (72%). Either, the survey revealed that the medicinal specie was mainly used against diseases of the digestive tract (63%), as well as for other treatment of various diseases as dermatological affection, and for relieving headaches or neuralgia. Moreover, it also comes out from it that the conservation and the sustainable management of the medicinal species identified should be ensured through a management plan.
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Knowledge, Attitude, Acceptance and Utilization of the Female Condom Among Population in Brazzaville

Introduction: Knowledge and use of the male condom is not uncommon. This study sought to fill this gap by exploring Female Condom knowledge, attitude, acceptance and use in a sample of population to inform intervention measures aimed at increasing the acceptability and usage of the Female Condom taking into cognizance its safety and effectiveness. Method Study: A cross-sectional survey conducted between May and July 2019, was used to explore knowledge, attitudes and practices on the female condom targeting Congolese population at Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. To allow the participants to respond to the questionnaire at a time comfortable to him/her. Results: Seven hundred and twenty questionnaires were administered and 567 questionnaires were included in the final analysis giving a response rate of 81%. In total, 277 men and 290 women aged 14 to 63 participated in the study. Among the participants who have already seen the female condom, 80 have already used it, i.e. 21.3%. Of the 80 individuals who reported ever using a female condom, 43 (53.7%) used the female condom with a usual partner and 17 (21.3%) used it with a new partner. Concerning factors contributing to low usage of the female condom, the majority either had difficulty installing (26.3%); great difficulty in fitting (17.5%); the use of the female condom was simply uncomfortable (25%). Discussion: Our study population included 68.3% of participants with higher education, which explains the fact that there is (93.8%) has heard talk about the female condom and among them 66.3% have already seen the female condom. Only 66.3% of people have ever seen a female condom, on the other hand very few people have used it. The majority of people had difficulty using the female condom, including difficulty in inserting the female condom. Difficulties related to the female condom insertion were reported by the majority of the respondents. Conclusion: This study revealed critical gaps in knowledge, condom use, and negotiation skills and highlights the unmet need for interventions to further educate and empower women with and without HIV to prevent spread of HIV in this high-prevalence, high-risk population.
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Detection of a Rheumatic Factor (RF,) Anti- Cyclic Citrullinated Peptides (Anti CCP) Antibodies and C- Reactive Protein (CRP) in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis ( RA)is an autoimmune and inflammatory disease. It is characterized by arthrosynovitis with resultant joint destruction . So, an early clinical diagnosis along with simple serological tests like anti CCP antibodies, C –reactive protein ( CRP) and Rheumatoid factor (RF) play an important role .An attempt was made to study and compare these parameters in OPD and IPD RA patients in our hospital setup, VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital , New Delhi. Aims and Objectives: To study the role of RF , Anti-CCP antibodies and CRP in early detection and prognosis of Rheu- matoid arthritis. Materials and Methods: A Total of 440 samples were studied from January 2018 to December 2020 (3years). Correlation between Rheumatoid factor(RF) ,anti CCP antibodies and CRP in suspected RA patients from various departments like PMR , Orthopaedics , Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Paediatrics was attempted. RF and CRP was performed using latex agglutination test and anti CCP antibody by ELISA. Results and Conclusion: Of 440 samples tested, all the factors were positive in 87 patients . Anti CCP and RF alone was seen in 32 patients. RF and CRP positive in 49 patients, RF alone in 22 patients. In 250 patients all the tests were negative. So, Anti CCP along with RF and CRP showed a better positive predictive value in patients of Rheumatoid arthritis. But positivity of these parameters even in patients who lack sign and symptoms also aids in better diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
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SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia in A Preterm New born Treated Successfully by Dexamethasone

Data on illness in preterm infants due to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is limited. Duration of viral shedding and treatment options including use of dexamethasone to treat SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in preterm newborns are scarce and not-well reported. We are reporting SARS-COV-2 positive sick preterm twins vertically infected from SARS-COV-2 positive unvaccinated mother. Twin B initially tested negative at 24 & 48 hours of life (HOL) but subsequently tested positive at 72 HOL and developed SARS-COV-2 pneumonia and required a longer duration of respiratory support. We treated her with 10 days of dexamethasone and noted a good clinical response. To our knowledge, we are first to report the use dexamethasone in a premature newborn with SARS-COV-2 pneumonia. Additionally, the duration of viral shedding in both Twin A and Twin B was between 4-5 weeks.
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Case Report: De novo Ocular Myasthenia Gravis after the mRNA Vaccine for SARS-COV2

Autoimmune Myasthenia gravis is a neuromuscular junction disease caused by destruction of the acetylcholine receptor on the postsynaptic membrane, mediated by autoantibodies and clinically characterized by skeletal muscle weakness. This can be triggered by drugs, infections, and in rare cases by vaccines. During the COVID pandemic, de novo cases and exacerbations of myasthenia gravis due to viral infection have been documented. Although few cases related to COVID vaccination. A 69-year-old female patient with blurred vision, a clinic that began 10 days later after receiving first dose of COVID vaccine, and diplopia and right palpebral ptosis after the second dose, 30 days later. In the examination, Edrophonium test was clearly positive, treatment with pyridostigmine and prednisone was started and after 14 days the clinic showed improvement until the resolution of the symptoms There are few reports of exacerbations or triggers for the appearance of myasthenia gravis, a series of 27 cases has been published where there are outbreaks of immune-mediated diseases or the new appearance of autoimmune diseases, in which it is observed that the time of appearance of the outbreak was on average 4 days up to a maximum of 25 days. In conclusion, Myasthenia gravis is a rare complication of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. Its potential severity and the current lack of knowledge of the real incidence after vaccination makes it necessary to maintain an attitude of vigilance in the face of symptoms that suggest it.
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Development of SARS-Cov-2 Circulating Immune Complex Candidate, (CRCx) as A New Promising Vaccine Eliciting Broad Immune Response.

There is a need to develop a universal vaccine that can boost immunity to coronaviruses if some modifications in their structure occur. This is what we are dealing with nowadays: a virus that can mutate its structure, while immunity is standing still in facing the virus. We report on preclinical trials of CRCx 3 and CRCx 2 vaccine candidates in inducing an elevated level of positive neutralizing antibodies as well as a cellular immune response in an animal model to provide protection against SARS-CoV-2. Highly efficient protection against SARS-CoV-2 was obtained with three-dose immunization using 0.25 ml of CRCx vaccine with a 25-mm needle at 7-day intervals between successive injections. In addition, CRCx vaccine candidates exhibit efficient productivity and good genetic stability for vaccine manufacture. These results support the further evaluation of CRCx in a clinical trial.
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An Accidental Intrathecal Injection of Tranexamic Acid: A Never Miss Event

Several factors have been identified as contributing to medical errors such as labels, appearance, and location of ampules. In this paper, inadvertent intrathecal Injection of tranexamic acid has resulted from similarities in appearance between tranexamic acid and heavy bupivacaine 0.5% ampoules. The patient experienced severe itching in the gluteal region followed by generalized myoclonic seizures after accidental intrathecal administration of tranexamic acid.
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Development of Mathematical Model for Vibration Accelerated Wound Healing

Chronic wounds substantially reduce the quality of life for millions of people worldwide. As a result, researchers have developed various treatments and therapies to reduce the time for a wound to heal. Mathematical models that help better understand and predict the wound healing process have also been developed. This paper presents and validates a mathematical model known as the vibration enhanced wound healing model (VEWH) that includes the effects of vibration treatment in the wound healing process. The model is based on existing models of cutaneous wound healing but includes the effects of vibration on blood flow, macrophages, chemoattractant, and fibroblasts. These parameters were derived from published data on vibration accelerated wound healing of healthy mice. The VEWH model is confirmed with published experimental animal data that show vibration can reduce the wound healing time by 8%. The model reveals that vibration primarily affects healing through the mechanotransduction of vibration by fibroblasts into greater production of extracellular matrix. Model simulations agree with the validation data, with optimal healing predicted to occur with frequencies between 5 Hz and 25 Hz.
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Tooth Size Discrepancy among Different Malocclusion Groups in a Libyans Sample

Tooth Size Discrepancy (TSD) forms part of the initial diagnosis and is considered when formulating a treatment plan for the individual patient. The present research aimed at determining the extent and prevalence in a representative orthodontic population in Libya, to determine the prevalence of tooth size discrepancies (TSDs) in orthodontic population among different malocclusion groups.
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Insights into the Potential of Green Algal Polysaccharides Potential to Combat Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus Biofilms

Biofilms are complex sessile microbial community extremely resistant to antibiotics. They typically form on both biotic and abiotic surfaces and are usually associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity in patients in hospital settings. Nosocomial infections are the major cause of infections seen worldwide. Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) represent the most common type of nosocomial infection that affect different parts of the urinary tract in both males and females.
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Assessing Burn Patterns and Severity Using IR Visualization – A Case Study Approach

This investigation studies the potential use of infrared (IR) sensing technology to answer key questions of scalding. In particular, scalding incidents are frequently plagued by conflicting recollections, uncertain details, and litigation. Questions often relate to how a scalding spill occurred, how hot the liquid was, the direction of liquid flow, and the connection between burn patterns and spill patterns. Flow patterns, among others are sometimes, challenging to determine after a spill incident. Nevertheless, IR technology can be used for event reconstruction and can help identify the typical burn patterns that result from spills. Here, IR imaging is applied to common scald situations. The IR imaging provides temperature information that is continuous in both space and time and can be used with currently available burn models to predict burn depths and patterns. The IR images are used to generate a burn-depth map superimposed on the patient’s body. This study shows that IR imaging leads to reproducible results that can be used to predict burn-depth patterns based on situation specific spills.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to CC

JENN-FENG SHEEN

Assistant Professor
Department of Biotechnology
National Formosa University
Taiwan

Yan Zhou

Associate Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Guangxi Medical University
China

Huangui Xiong

Professor
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience
University of Nebraska Medical Center
United States

Roy G Beran

Professor
Department of Neurology
University of New South Wales
Australia

Richard W. Bianco

Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
University of Minnesota
United States

Ayman Abdel-Aziz Swelum

Department of Animal Production
College of Food and Agriculture Sciences
King Saud University
Saudi Arabia

Olga S. Latinovic

Assistant Professor
Institute of Human Virology
University of Maryland School of Medicine
United States

Yi Qian

Professor
Biomechanics
Australian School of Advanced Medicine
Macquarie University
Australia

Domenico Rubello

Doctor
Director Department of Imaging Rovigo
General Hospital in Veneto
Italy

Fatih Deniz

Department of Environmental Protection Technologies
Harran University
Turkey
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