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Zoning and Modeling of Noise Pollution of Mashhad Police Highway by Statistical Technique, GIS Software and TNM2.5 Model

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Cocoa Butter Intake Regulates Gut Immunity through the Release and Transport of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10: Activation of Negative Feedback Control System with Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines

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Application of a Low-Cost Material for Uranium Removal: Experimental Variables and Study of Concomitants

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Comparison of Water Availability and Water Management between Turkey and Ethiopia

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Application of Vegetable Oil Based Machining Fluids in Green Manufacturing Processes, A Review

Cutting fluids are an inherent part of the modern manufacturing system. In the vegetable oil based cutting fluids, the base fluids should be some vegetable oil. In general, vegetable oil is highly attractive substitutes for petroleum based oils because they are environmentally friendly, renewable, less toxic and readily biodegradable. In this review paper, the author investigates some of the published research papers on the application of vegetable oil based machining fluids (including Nano-fluids) in the different machining processes like turning, milling, grinding and drilling. Besides that, this study also summarize the effect of the different biodegradable oil based machining fluids on the performance factors such as surface integrity, machining force, tool wear, power consumption, and temperature produced during the machining process. It has been reported in various literature that using vegetable oil based Nano machining fluid results high surface features, reduced tool wear, cutting force, power consumption and lower temperature rise in the machining process due to better lubrication and cooling properties.
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Machine Learning Prediction of Response towards Anti-VEGF Injections in Patients with DME: Prediction of Post-Injection CST

Diabetic macular edema (DME) has become one of the most potential complications that results in loss of vision in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Treatment outcomes that have been predicted directly with advent of machine learning (ML) methods after the initial anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injection, has become extremely vital in the management of DME. Purpose: The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of the ML regression models which were developed and validated to predict the possible post-injection central subfield thickness (CST) value and distant vision best corrected visual acuity (DV BCVA) in eyes with DME before the anti-VEGF injection is administered at either treatment initiation or during treatment monitoring. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in Medical Research Foundation, Chennai, India from January 2010 to December 2020. The model development emphasized on an ensemble ML system consisting of four ML models that were developed and trained independently using the clinical parameters to predict the post injection CST value. The dataset consisting of 906 patients with total of 1874 samples [Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and clinical parameters] were divided into trained and test set, and the model was validated on test dataset. The predicted CST values was then compared against the respective sample’s post injection actual CST value. The comparative results were measured in terms of Correlation Coefficient and Mean Absolute Relative Error (MARE). Results: On evaluation, we found that Support Vector Regression (SVR) with linear kernel performed best among the other models with four different scenarios in term of both CST and DVBCVA prediction with correlation coefficient of 0.65, 0.73, 0.75, 0.85 and 0.83, 0.87, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively.
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Evaluation of The Viability and Phenotipe of Adipose Derived Cells Harvested Using Different Harvesting and Processing Procedures: A Pilot Study

Abstract Background: Clinical studies demonstrated the efficacy of therapies based on the autologous grafting of adult mesenchymal stem cells to accelerate the healing and regenerative processes of the skin and mesenchymal tissues therefore, this is considered a valuable approach in the aesthetic rejuvenation treatment to give volume restoration and skin regeneration effects. Objective: The aim of this project consists of the evaluation of the cell viability of adipose tissue (AT) harvested using the Superficial Enhanced Fluid Fat Injection (SEFFI) procedure standardized by the Authors (AG, FPB). The harvesting procedure was performed using two different cannulas having 0.8 mm and 1 mm side-port holes, respectively. Cells phenotype and ability to adhere to the plastic surface have been analysed. The results have been compared to those recorded in adipose tissue harvested using a liposuction system and processed with enzymatic digestion (collagenase). Methods: This study was performed on adipose tissues harvested from 7 patients (6 females and 1 male) with an average age of 48.5 years with two different techniques and three different cannulas. We compared the cell vitality of every sample at T0 and T72. Moreover, the samples were analysed to determine the phenotype: cells were incubated with antibodies anti human against CD90-FITC, CD73-PeCy7, CD44-PE, CD31-PECy5, CD235a- PECy7, CD34-FITC, CD45-FITC and CD146-FITC and read using the flow cytometer s3e Cell Sorter, BioRad. Results were analysed using the software Flow Jo.
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Leptin Receptor Gene Variant Rs1137101 and Ghrelin Gene Variant Rs696217 are Associated with Body Mass Index in Brazilian Population: A Case-Control Study

Introduction: Obesity is a multifactorial condition influenced by environment and genetic factors. Controlling appetite and satiety involves complex interactions between the hypothalamus, which is responsible for homeostasis regulation energy, and hormones that regulate appetite including leptin and ghrelin. Leptin plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure, generating an increase in energy burning and decreasing food intake. And ghrelin is directly involved in the regulation of short-term energy balance. Objectives: To verify frequency, biochemical profile and Body Mass Index (BMI) variations according to SNPs in LEPR and GHRL gene. Subjects and Methods: 163 both genders subjects were classified into Study Group (SG): 103 subjects with obesity; Control Group (CG): 60 non-obese. Blood samples were collected to perform DNA extraction and biochemical profile analysis. Statistical significance was established at p < 0.05. Results: The genotype and allele frequency were similar between groups for both polymorphisms. The _/A genotype of the GHRL rs696217 polymorphism was associated to increased BMI in SG compared CG (p = 0.003) and increased triglycerides (TG) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDLc) values in CG (p < 0, 05). The _/A genotype was also associated with increased fasting glucose compared to CC genotype only in CG (p = 0.031). Considering the LEPR rs1137101 polymorphism, AA genotype subjects presented higher BMI compared to _/G genotype subjects (p = 0.024). No difference between biochemical profile variables related to LEPR rs1137101 polymorphism was found. Conclusion: AA genotypes of the LEPR rs1137101 polymorphism and _/A of the GHRL rs696217 polymorphism suggest being risk factors for BMI and the latter is associated with fasting glucose, VLDLc and TG variation.
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Investigation of Neuroprotective Effects of Ripasudil in Mechanic Optic Nerve Injury Model

Purpose: We aimed to create mechanic optic nerve injury model in rats and investigate the neuroprotective effects of ripasudil on retinal ganglion cells. Study Design: Experimental study Methods: Mechanic optic nerve injury model was created in the right eyes of male Wistar rats (n=15). Rats were divided into three groups: glaucoma model with sham treatment (group1) and 20 µM intravitreal ripasudil treatment (group 2) and 50 µM intravitreal ripasudil treatment (group 3). Treatment was applied intravitreally and rats were sacrificed at the end of 4 weeks. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Brn-3a antibody,anti- Iba1 was examined by immunohistochemistry. Results: The number of Brn-3a positive RGC in the mechanical optic nerve injury model was 5.33 ± 2.08 (min: 3, max: 7) in sham group, 10.25 ± 2.63 (min: 8, max: 14) in 20 µM group and 16.75 ± 5.43 (min:9, max: 21) in 50 µM group (p <0.05). GFAP positive RGC counts were recorded as 24.33 ± 2.08 (min: 22, max: 26) in sham group, 16.75 ± 1.70 (min: 15, max: 19) in 20 µM group and 13.00 ± 4.08 (min:10 , max: 19) in 50 µM group (p <0.05). Ripasudil treatment also decreased Iba1 expression in the retina of mechanic optic nerve injury groups. In addition, ripasudil treatment prevented apoptotic cell death by increasing Bcl-xL protein expression and preserved Tfam protein expression in the retina. Conclusions: Our experimental study has shown that ripasudil is neuropreotective in mechanical optic nerve injury model.
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Detection of Early Blight Using K-Means Clustering

Early blight is one of the major diseases of tomatoes that affects the leaves and fruit quality. Detection and estimation of the disease severity are performed using the visual observation method. Visual detection requires significant time for visual inspection of a large cultivated area. Thus, image processing techniques have proven to be an effective method as compared to visual analysis. In this study, digital image processing methods and techniques were used to detect early blight of tomato, estimate the disease severity, and classify tomato leaves. Totally, 198 infected plants were randomly taken from the Haramaya University research site "Raree" at four different times. Diseased potato leaf images were captured, resized, and stored for experimentation. The stored images were processed using median filtering to remove noise while preserving useful features in an image and image enhancement. The RGB images were transformed to gray scale and CIELAB color space, and the k-means clustering was applied to estimate the disease severity of the potato leaves, and Otsu’s thresholding algorithm was applied to estimate the disease severity of both the detached and live leaves. MATLAB algorithms will be developed to determine the total area and infected lesion area of the leaf samples.
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Forensic Applications of Raman Spectroscopy a Review

The any field of science they have many different techniques method for examine the substance. There have been several major advances in the use of Raman spectroscopy instruments. This method is now a full established method along with, infrared spectroscopy. The process ultimately led to its entry into the forensic science laboratory, and to simplify the process, this article introduces a comprehensive review of Raman spectroscopy; emphasizes how and why this less commonly used method can be a very useful tool for analysing a various evidence. The concepts and principle of Raman spectroscopy are described in two categories the first categories of this article which includes theory, instrumentation, and spectrum data obtained using infrared and Raman techniques for numerous analyse and the Second categories discusses forensic applications of Raman spectroscopy to examine various types of evidence and substance. In this article we study how to examine forensic evidences by using the Raman spectroscopy and make review report on it.
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Assessment of Bacteriological Quality of Raw Bulk Milk of Camel, Cow and Goat from Local Markets in Yabello District, Borana Zone, Oromia Regional State

The study was conducted from September 2020 to June 2021 to assess the bacteriological quality of raw bulk milk from urban and rural local market sites in Borana pastoral area of Oromia Regional State, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 78 milk samples were collected and analyzed for bacterial load using standard plate count and coliform count techniques and isolation of pathogenic bacteria was conducted. The total mean aerobic bacterial counts of raw bulk milk samples of camel, cow and goat were 8.51 log cfu/ml, 8.73 log cfu/ml and 8.54 log cfu/ml respectively. Regarding the location of milk market sites, the mean total aerobic bacterial count was 8.72 log cfu/ml and 8.49 log cfu/ml in urban and rural milk market sites respectively. The total mean coliform counts of raw bulk milk samples of camel, cow and goat were 6.51log cfu/ml, 6.55 log cfu/ml and 6.47 log cfu/ml respectively. Regarding the location of milk market sites the total mean coliform counts was 6.63 log cfu/ml and 6.40log cfu/ml from urban and rural milk market sites respectively. Comparing the mean differences of the total mean aerobic and coliform bacterial counts, there was no significant mean differences (p>0.05) among the animal milk samples. However, there was significant mean differences (p<0.05) among the milk market sites. Different bacterial species were isolated from camel, cow and goat raw milk sample from the urban and rural milk market sites. The major bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus (both pathogenic and non-pathogenic), Escherichia coli and Bacillus species. Generally, the unhygienic milk handling resulted in poor milk quality in the pastoral area. Therefore, there is a need of training for persons at the various milk market sites on strict hygienic measures to improve the bacteriological safety of cow milk.
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Percutaneous Pigtail Catheters for Management of Neonatal Pneumothorax: A Better Alternative to Chest Tube Thoracostomy

Background: Pneumothorax is potentially a life-threatening condition in neonates with little compensatory pulmonary reserve. Hemodynamically significant pneumothorax requires drainage with large-bore chest tubes, and more recently with small-calibre percutaneous pigtail catheters. This study aims to explicate the effectiveness and safety of both the drainage systems exploring ease of insertion, rates of air-leak resolution, recurrence rates as well as potential procedural complications. Methods: This was a retrospective observational audit reviewing medical records of newborns with symptomatic pneumothorax admitted to tertiary neonatal intensive care unit over 4-year duration, and treated with either chest tube or pigtail catheters as the initial treatment approach. Demographic data, details related to pneumothorax, drain related parameters as well as outcome and efficacy parameters were compared among these two methods of intervention. Results: Out of 51 drainage procedures, 27 infants underwent pigtail insertion compared to 24 infants requiring chest tube thoracostomy. Baseline demographic data, time for radiological clearance and resolution of air leak, duration of drain in-situ, recurrence and complication rate, as well as hospitalisation duration were comparable among the two groups. Group of infants who underwent pigtail insertion required significantly less sedation (51.9% vs 83.3%; p=0.021) and invasive ventilation (63% vs 95.8%; p=0.011) than chest tube insertion. Significantly smaller calibre (8.22±1.6Fr vs 9.08±1.44Fr; p<0.05) catheter was required for pneumothorax drainage with pigtail catheter whose insertion was reported to be more operator friendly
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Malignant Scalp Tumors: Retrospective Analysis of 1000 Patients.

Background: Limited data on large cohort of patients with malignant tumors of the scalp are available in the literature. The aim of this study was to review a large cohort of patients with malignant scalp tumors to determine epidemilogy, tumor characteristics of this region and treatment. Materials and Method: A retrospective review of patients with malignant scalp tumors diagnosed histopathologically between 2005 and 2021 was performed. Demographic features and tumor characteristics were analyzed. Results: A total of 1080 patients (M: F 3,5:1) were treated and followed up for a mean period of 42 months (12-120 months). Age at diagnosis ranged from 12 to 98 years. Most malignant scalp tumors (95,1%) occurred in those 50 years or older and in bald patients (87%). Basal cell carcinomas (59,2%), squamous cell carcinomas (32,2%) and melanomas were the most common histologic types. Incidence was highest on the frontal of temporal region (66,1%). Recurrence was frequently in squamous and basal cell carcinomas but uncommon in melanoma. Conclusions: Tumors of the scalp accounted about 8,01 % of all skin cancers. Tend to be basal and squamous cell carcinomas, many of which occur in the temporal and frontal region of bald men. The outlook for patients with scalp tumor is positive, although we suggest excision margins of at least 3-4 mm and continued clinical vigilance is warranted given their higher recurrence rates.
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Comparative Performance of Compacted Clay Liner (CCL) and Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL)

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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to MA

Firas E. Zahr

Assistant Professor
Cardiovascular Medicine
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine
United States

Rebecca Blake

Director of Nutrition & Food Services
Elizabeth Seton Pediatric Center
United States

Jianfei Qi

Assistant Professor
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
University of Maryland School of Medicine
United States

QINGRONG HUANG

Professor
Department of Food Science
Rutgers University
United States

Yue Chen

Assistant Professor
Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics,
University of Minnesota
United States

LAURA IRIS COSEN-BINKER

Assistant Professor
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology
Boston University
USA

MARK LAFTAVI

Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
State University of New York at Buffalo
United States

Jane F Manakil

Professor
Department of Dentistry and Oral Health
Griffith University
Australia

Davit Melkumyan

Head of Arson and Explosives expertises
Department of the National Bureau of Expertises
National Academy of Sciences(NAS)
Armenia

George Panayiotakis

Professor
Department of Medicine
University of Patras
Greece
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