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Mattress Coil Spring Fatigue and Support: A Potential Association with Spine Stiffness and Pain

Prolong mattress use compresses the metal coil springs which may ultimately result in a compromised sleeping surface. This coil spring metal fatigue can result in spinal pain and stiffness. The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of metal fatigue of used mattress coil springs from the areas bearing greatest body weight versus areas subjected to little compression to ascertain the. Six weight bearing coil springs (WBS) were extracted from the center the used (range 8-10 yr.) mattresses (N=32) and six non-weight bearing coil springs (NWBS) were extracted from the head/foot are of the same mattresses. To determine spring weakness a special frame and platform was constructed to compare unloaded spring height with compression distance height following placement of a 1,296 g ingot on the platform. Also, a pressure gauge was used to measure the amount of pressure required to compress the coil springs a distance of 2 cm. Comparison between WBS and NWBS data were statistically treated using independent t-tests and a one-way ANOVA. There were no significant group differences in weight or height in unloaded coils. However, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in coil spring compression distance under load (WBS = 2.78 ± 0.34 cm; NWBS = 1.52 ± 0.39 cm) and force gauge compression (WBS = 1090.51 ± 88.42 g; NWBS = 1213.12 ± 71.38 g) between groups. While manufacturers’ recommendations to replace a mattress is ranges between 8 and 10 yrs., these results indicate that coil spring weakness may occur before 8 yrs. of use. Weak springs leads to loss of weight bearing capacity of the mattress thereby resulting in sagging upon use. Such sagging which may compromise sleep posture with accompanying back pain and poor sleep quality and quantity.
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Clinical Impact of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy to Chronic Calculous Cholecy-stitis: A Retrospective Study

The Aims: The retro-prospective clinical study was to compare these two methods of laparoscopic and classical cholecystectomy. To prove the postoperative benefits of laparoscopic treatment are, less pain, aesthetic aspect without surgical scarring and shorter hospital stay, faster return to social activities as well as more cost effective. Material and Methods: The operated patients, from January 2017 to December 2019 in the abdominal surgery ward in Gjilan. Important data for the study are taken from the operative list, history of the disease, adequate list compiled specifically for this study. The study included 389 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis. Results: According to the results obtained for calculous diseases of the biliary system are predisposed persons with blood group O, Rh-positive, with 44.2%, followed by group A + with 29.5%, group B + with 14.7%. Other blood groups and Rh factors are below 6.5%. Statistical point of view is significant (p <0.05). The study analyzed, C-reactive protein (CRP) values in both research group (RG) and control groups (CG); CRP by gender; and by age group. RG recorded 76.9% of females with increased CRP values> 6, while 23.1% of males. The percentage difference in statistical terms is significant p <0.05. Conclusion: The results obtained have shown that there are no significant differences in the presentation of intra-operative complications in terms of gender and age, to both methods. Optimization measures for postoperative management of patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Continuing education in laparoscopic surgery is important for successful management.
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Hypoglycemic Potential of Ziziphus spina-christi Fruit on Alloxan induced Hyperglycemic Rats

Hyperglycaemia is a key symptom in diabetes mellitus associated with long term damages, dysfunction and eventually failure of organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels. This study is to evaluate the hypoglycaemic potential of orally administered aqueous and ethanol extracts of Zyziphus spina-christ fruit on alloxan induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats. The plant was extracted using maceration using aqueous and 80% ethanol as extraction solvents. Qualitative phytochemical analysis was done. An in vitro assessment of both aqueous and ethanol extract to demonstrate hypoglycaemic activity via inhibition of alpha amylase enzyme and alpha glucosidase enzymes were done. Total of 45 albino rats were used in the study of both sexes divided in 9 groups. Group 1: normal control group, group 2: diabetic control group, group 3: positive control group (metformin 300mg/kg), group 4-6: (150mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 600mg/kg) aqueous extract and group 7-9: (150mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 600mg/kg) ethanol extract. Groups were compared using one way ANOVA for significant differences and Dunnet’s posthoc test was deployed were differences exit. Data were represented as mean ± SEM and p value <0.005 The aqueous and ethanol extract yielded 35.59%% and 46.68% respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, Saponins, Saponins glycosides, steroids, Phytosteroids, carbohydrate and volatile oil. An in vitro assessment of aqueous and ethanol extract demonstrated hypoglycaemic activity via inhibition of both alpha amylase enzyme and alpha glucosidase enzymes. The percentage inhibition of alpha amylase was presented as IC50 of 0.14, 0.19 and 0.58 for the acarbose, ethanol extract and aqueous extract respectively. Alpha glucosidase inhibition was represented by the IC50 of 0.7mg/ml, 0.9mg/ml and 0.7mg/ml for acarbose, ethanol extracts and aqueous extracts. The aqueous and ethanol extracts significantly decrease the blood glucose level. Elevation of cholesterol and LDL was seen in diabetic control group. The results from the studies showed that Ziziphus spina-Christi fruit aqueous and ethanol extracts has an anti-hyperglycaemic potential which is not a dose dependent both in Vitro and in Vivo. Ziziphus spina-Christi fruit aqueous and ethanol extract also causes a significant reduction in cholesterol level.
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2D Analysis of Piezoelectric Layer Over a Rotating Micro-elongated Thermoelastic Medium with DPL Model

The Lord-Shulman theory with one relaxation time and the dual-phase-lag model with two relaxation times of thermoelasticity are used in this article to study the influence rotation micro-elongated thermoelastic layer, when a piezo electric layer is above it. To convert a partial differential equation to an ordinary differential equation, the normal mode method is utilized. Numerical computations are implemented for aluminum epoxy, and the results are charted. A comparison is made among the two theories in the complete absence and the presence of a rotation. The presence of a rotation has a major effect on all physical quantities.
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A Review Study on Gender Determination with the Help of Bite Marks Analysis

Bite marks are commonly observed in cases such as slaughter, sexual assault, child abuse cases, and during sports events. Bitemark is a type of ‘patterned injury’ which played an important role as evidence in judicial system. Bite marks can find on various body parts and various edible leftovers at the Crime Scene which can be used as evidence for identification of the criminals. Teeth impression shows sexual dimorphism and therefore helps in gender estimation. The various dental characteristics are individual-specific. A piece of exhaustive information and examination of indentations can help in the vindication of the guiltless as well as give decisive proof to the conviction of criminals. In certain violations, indentation proof is the main proof on which conviction has been accomplished, especially in rape and kid abuse cases. The present review describes the importance of bite mark analysis, estimation of gender through bite marks, and stability of teeth impression in diverse conditions. This article can give a better comprehension of the methodology used in forensic dentistry when investigating dental impressions.
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Confirmation Bias and Restorative Justice in The Setting of a Missed Diagnosis

One factor underlying medical errors in “confirmation bias,” the tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one’s existing beliefs or theories. When a medical error occurs, the physician has a moral duty to examine the factors which lead to its occurrence, to discuss these factors with the patient who suffered the error, and to perform their due diligence to prevent the error from occurring again. Restorative Justice is a form of collaborative decisionmaking including all parties involved in a precipitating event, including the perpetrators, victims, and stakeholders. We report on a case in which confirmation bias played a major role in misdiagnosis followed by the application of Restorative Justice principles to address the consequent mistrust between the physician and patient.
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Estimation of haematological parameters among Sudanese worker exposed to pesticides

Background: exposure to Pesticides may lead to high risk of toxicity, in which these chemical compounds can affect blood component causing chronic diseases and inflammations. Design: This descriptive case control study was conducted in Khartoum state from November to December 2021. Objectives: The goal is to measure the effect of pesticides on blood parameters among exposures compared to healthy individuals using the analysis of complete blood count. And to correlate between duration of work according to age and gender. Materials and Methods: 3 ml of intravenous blood samples were collected from 500 participants, 400 samples from men and 100 samples from women aged between 20-65 years, majority were dealers and the rest of them were working at farms and the structural questionnaire was used. Results: The results of these study show marked increase in red blood cells and absolute lymphocytes count accompanied by decreased in platelets count, platelets distribution width, mean platelets volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and red cells distribution width upon exposures to pesticides for long time. Conclusion: this study concluded that there is decrease in PLTs count, PDW, MPV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, and an increase in RBCs count and absolute lymphocytes count among pesticides exposures.
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Subconcussive Head Blows in American Football: An underestimated Risk?

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Effect of Stigma on COVID-19 Cases Management at the Treatment Unit of the Yaounde Central Hospital, Cameroon

The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has affected the whole world causing the lives of many victims. Africa has recorded more than a million cases and Cameroon around 18,600 cases (August 2020) since the first case was notified. The rapid spread of this disease, (among other factors), could have contributed to create a situation of fear and stigma among affected populations. It is, therefore, necessary to identify the characteristics of this stigma and its effect on the case management of this disease.
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Development of Driving Cycle for Passenger Cars and Estimation of Vehicular Exhaust Emission Factors

Driving pattern of the given vehicle in a city is represented by the driving cycle which is used by modal models for estimation of vehicular emissions. In this study, a driving cycle was developed for passenger cars in the city of Islamabad. A representative route for city was identified which included parts of highway, arteries, and streets. Speed-time data was collected along the selected route in both peak and off-peak hours. The on-board measurement method was adopted for data collection on highways, whereas on arteritis and streets, chase car method has opted for data collection. The developed cycle showed comparable values of average speed and acceleration with New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), but acceleration and deceleration were observed to be lower. The emission estimation and fuel consumption were calculated by the Comprehensive Modal Emission Model (CMEM) for 4 selected vehicle types. The average emissions for the selected vehicles were 204.4 g CO2/km, 2.3 g CO /km, 0.09 g HCs /km, 0.31 g NOx /km emitted, and 65.7 g of fuel consumed /km. The developed cycle showed higher fuel consumption and CO2 emissions /km traveled than NEDC for all 4 passenger car types. However, HCs, CO, and NOx emissions were lower. The developed driving cycle can be used for estimation of the emissions from passenger cars in the city and this information can be useful for future emission projections and policy making.
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Sacral Neuromodulation for Bowel Dysfunction

Prevention of obstetric trauma from damage to the pelvic floor is not always possible and sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) may be necessary later in life. Sacral nerve stimulation has been a promising innovation in the management of moderate to severe faecal incontinence and following sphincter repair failure. Although the indication spectrum for SNS is expanding, the success of neuromodulation for constipation is limited. Adverse events of SNS requiring reintervention are not common but a long-term successful outcome may depend on interventions for maintenance of the device.
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Auricular Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation may Increase the Risk of MildCOVID-19 Infection or of Herpetic Flare: Is there a Role of Microbiota?

SARS-CoV-2 can reach the central nervous system through the vagal nerve. Microbiota may favour or prevent viral spread. Assess whether auricular transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (ATVNS) may favour the occurrence of mild-COVID-19 or the recurrence of herpes simplex type 1. 749 patients were included. 195 patients were recommended and comply with ATVNS. 67 patients of the ATVNS group experienced mild-COVID-19 (34.3%) versus only 28 in the not-recommended ATVNS group (525 patients; 5.3%). A similar percentage was observed in the non-compliant ATVNS group (one case for 29 patients; 3.4%) [p<0.001].
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Investigation and Countermeasure on the Management Problem of Harmful Domestic Garbage Classification

Garbage classification has always been an important issue in environmental protection, resource recycling and social life. In order to improve the management level and recycling efficiency of hazardous household waste reducing its environmental and social risks, this paper designed targeted questionnaires and a total of 954 valid questionnaires were collected. Through the analysis of 954 effective online questionnaires, the results indicate that there are obvious deficiencies in the cognition of hazardous domestic waste, Classification and collection techniques, and identification of hazardous domestic waste. Some measures were put forward, such as establishing scientific channels for the collection, recycling and disposal of hazardous domestic waste, perfecting the management system and catalogue of hazardous domestic waste. The results provide a reference for scientific and standardized management of hazardous domestic waste.
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Healthy Living and Lifestyle with Prophet Teaching

The aim of this review is to highlight the Islamic teachings that go beyond the spiritual and religious life of the Muslim, as it provides a healthy outline for daily life.
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The Pharyngeal Muscle Trainer for the Therapy of Primary Snoring -An innovative therapy approach

Snoring is a concomitant of sleeping. This phenomenon is not only considered annoying, but also often taboo because it affects the privacy of those affected. In addition, however, snoring can be the cause of sometimes life-threatening diseases, such as hypertension, stroke and myocardial infarction.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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Editorial Board Members Related to STI

Nelson Pérez Guerra

Department of Biochemistry
University of Vigo

Qifeng Yang

Department of Breast Surgery
Director, Pathology Tissue Bank
Qilu Hospital, Shandong University

Karim Ennouri

Assistant Professor
Higher Institute of Biotechnology of Sfax

Jianguo Zhang

Associate Professor
School of Computing
University of Dundee
United Kingdom

Abdelaal Shamseldin

Associate Professor
Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute
City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications

Vural Fidan

Vural Fidan, M.D. Department of Otorhinolaryngology
Hacettepe University
Yunus Emre Government Hospital

Kit-Lam Chan

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Universiti Sains Malaysia

Monique Mancuso

Coastal Marine Environment Institute (IAMC)
National Research Council (CNR)

Hung-Jen Liu

Professor and Director
Institute of Molecular Biology
National Chung Hsing University


Department of Ophthalmology
University Hospital “Campus Bio-Medico”
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