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The Effect of Bundled Interventions on Prevention of Hospital Acquired Clostridium Difficile Infection: An Integrative Review

Hospitalized patients are at an increased risk for acquiring Clostridium Difficile Infection (CDI). Increased virulence of C. difficile strains and increased use of antimicrobials have led to an increase of CDI cases that are more difficult to treat (CDC, 2013). Proper hand hygiene techniques, room cleaning, and equipment cleaning are not consistently being followed by healthcare workers, leading an increased spread of CDI between hospitalized patients. The purpose of this integrative review was to determine the best evidencebased methods to reduce hospital-acquired CDI rates. The evidence reviewed supports the implementation of a multifaceted approach including: (a) proper hand hygiene practices, (b) adequate and appropriate surface cleaning practices, (c) compliance to contact isolation procedures, and (d) strengthening of an existing antimicrobial stewardship committee to reduce hospital-acquired CDI rates.
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Dawn of the Biofilm Disease: Highlights about Biofilm in Bone and Joint & Prosthetic Joint Infections Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment

I present some key considerations of the biofilm disease as part of two complex pathologies such as bone and joint infections and prosthetic joint infections, taking into account the bacterial pathogenic factors to understand the particular nature of these infections, and to achieve an accurate diagnosis and management beyond the antimicrobial therapy. I mention some personal experience of many years in the medical microbiology laboratory and next to the patient’s bed.
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Accurate Age Estimations from Dental Cementum and a Childbirth Indicator - A Pilot Study

This work is a pilot study that introduces an improved method for estimation of a chronological age of a human being using the incremental lines in a dental cementum. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of longitudinal sections of the tooth roots were subject to SEM analysis. The protocol allows accurate age estimation even if the SEM images reveal a limited number of distinct incremental lines. Micrographs were analyzed with a calibrated thickness measuring tool, such as ImageJ. The study was based on fifteen freshly extracted teeth from adult males and females of a known age. An average cementum thickness (C) and average incremental line thickness (IL) was calculated for each chosen perpendicular level of the tooth root from the SEM image.
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Accurate Age Estimations from Dental Cementum and a Childbirth Indicator - A Pilot Study

This work is a pilot study that introduces an improved method for estimation of a chronological age of a human being using the incremental lines in a dental cementum. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of longitudinal sections of the tooth roots were subject to SEM analysis. The protocol allows accurate age estimation even if the SEM images reveal a limited number of distinct incremental lines. Micrographs were analyzed with a calibrated thickness measuring tool, such as ImageJ. The study was based on fifteen freshly extracted teeth from adult males and females of a known age. An average cementum thickness (C) and average incremental line thickness (IL) was calculated for each chosen perpendicular level of the tooth root from the SEM image.
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Computing intrinsic noise of the genetic regulation modeled by Hill functions

Intrinsic noise embedded in stochastic gene regulation due to low copy number of species has been studied using the approach of theoretical modeling and computational simulation, including the standard methods of stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) and linear noise approximation (LNA). At average cell level, Hill functions are widely used as a compact format to represent gene regulation involving multi-transcription-factor binding and cooperativity. Heuristic SSA and LNA methods (hSSA and hLNA) have been applied to study stochastic models employing Hill functions. It is however unclear which modeling and simulation method is suitable to characterize intrinsic noise of Hill-type gene regulation with sufficient accuracy and computational efficiency. In this work, we perform noise analysis of two gene regulatory models represented by second-order activating and inhibitory Hill functions, seeking to evaluate the performance of five existing noise modeling methods.
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Eating Behavior after Experimentally Induced Emotions

Based on theoretical considerations which hypothesize a significant influence of emotions on eating behavior a laboratory experiment was conducted. 127 subjects of both sexes were investigated after the induction of joy or sadness with subsequent presentation of chocolate. Neither gender nor the quality of the emotion had a significant effect on the consumed amount of chocolate, but habitual dietary restraint of the subjects lead to lower intake of the sweet food. The results are discussed with respect to the usefulness of a cognitive control of eating behavior in successful treatment programs for obesity
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Trial on the Efficiency of Topline® Against Natural Tick Infestations of Dromedaries in Mauritania

Topline®, as a 1% “pour-on” solution of fipronil, is produced by MERIAL Company. Fipronil is an acaricide used to control ticks and biting flies of cattle. Dromedaries are regularly infested by ticks. The effectiveness and residual activity of fipronil as a 1% w/w pour-on formulation (Topline®) was studied in a trial on ticks of calves of dromedaries near Nouakchott, Mauritania.
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Mechanisms of Resistance to Kinase Inhibitors and Strategies to Prevent the Development of Drug Resistance

Targeting mutant proteins and associated signaling pathways of driver oncogenes by small molecule kinase inhibitors (KIs) are a promising strategy of cancer therapy. However, despite the initial success of treatment, KIs often become ineffective as intrinsic and acquired resistance. This article reviews the English-language literature to explore the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance and to present a challenge for developing drugs to overcome resistance. Mechanisms of acquired resistance include 1) the selection of pre-existing subclones with other mutations, 2) the emergence of secondary mutations in the target kinase domain, 3) upregulation of kinases both within the same kinase family and their related kinase families, as well as activation of alternative bypass pathways, 4) epithelial-mesenchymal transition, 5) overexpression of pro-survival Bcl-2 family proteins and 6) drug efflux mechanisms. Currently available methods are to obtain tumor biopsy samples at recurrence or progression if the tumor lesion is accessible to a biopsy and to use the second- and third-generation KIs based on the individual need of each patient. Furthermore, recent computational challenges provide design principles to prevent the development of drug resistance. In conclusion, we provide an overview of the postulated resistance mechanisms and highlight the future direction of computational structure-based design of new potent KIs.
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The Human –Cat Relationship, Myths/Superstitions and its Consequences on Cat Ownership in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria

A survey was designed to determine the human-cat relationship, myths/superstition and its consequences on cat ownership in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Close ended structured questionnaires were administered to 200 households randomly selected from four wards in Maiduguri. The response rate was 98.0%. Out of the 200 households, 196 (98.0%) participated, while 4 (2.0%) did not. Of the 196 households that took part in the survey, 168 (84.0%) owned cats while 28 (14.0%) did not. A total of 310 cats were owned by the 168 participating households. Elderly women owned 55.5% of the cats, while children and young ladies owned 35.0% and 3.5% respectively. Only 1 cat was neutered, while the remaining 309 (99.7%) were intact. The cats were kept for the purpose of companionship and rodent control. All the cats were of non-specific breed and had never been vaccinated against any specific disease(s). Some cat owners in Maiduguri believed in myths/superstitions associated with the domestic house cat. However, it was concluded that households in Maiduguri viewed keeping cats positively but did not provide the expected housing, feeding and medications as practiced in more advanced countries.
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Empowering Key Populations (Kps) to Effectively Demand for Equal HIV/AIDS Services

AGHA in partnership with THETA and MNL with funding from CDC is implementing a Local Capacity Initiative project aimed at building capacity of CSOs working with KPs in Mukono, Kampala and Wakiso to advocate for improved HIV services. In Uganda, HIV prevalence among the general population stands at an average of 7.3% while among SWs is 35-37% and MSM at 13.7% between the age of 18-24.Over 40-50% of the new infections come from KPs (UAC, HIV /AIDS Indicator survey 2011). Programs targeting KPs continue to be characterized by limited coverage, poorly linked care, treatment and referral services. The project has increased capacity of 15 CSOs to demand accountability from government on national commitments on KPs; increased capacity of KPs to identify the legal and policy framework that impede equitable access, increased participation and representation of community leaders and KPs living with HIV in the governance structures that influence health services delivery.
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Relationship of YWHAH Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms to Markers of Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Severity

Introduction: Serum 14-3-3 eta provides diagnostic and prognostic information in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). It is coded by the YWHAH gene with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that 6 previously described YWHAH SNPs might relate to markers of RA disease severity such as seropositivity or erosive changes. Association study performed at an academic hospital Rheumatology Clinic. Subjects studied were 18 years of age or older with RA. TaqMan analysis screened for YWHAH SNPs rs2246704, rs2853884, rs3747158, rs4820059, rs7291050, rs933226. Primary endpoint was presence of at least one copy of the YWHAH SNPs with the markers of RA disease severity.
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An Application: Representations of Some Systems on Non-Deterministic EEG Signals

In this paper, we introduce the notion of a complex interval which is significant for interval-valued data and interval-based signal processing. First, we present the space of complex intervals and investigate the quasilinear structure of the space of complex intervals. We observe that this space is Hilbert quasilinear space with a set-valued inner product.
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Photogram - Image Comparison and Identification

A human being is having physical and biological body structure, even though each and every individual is having his own blood group, hair color, retina color, skin complexes, height, breadth etc. that result in his own bodily structure that differentiates with the other individual. After the certain age of subject nearly about twenty years, height or length of his organs or limbs are not increases and fixed bodily structure is built up.
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Hyperkinetic Manifestation in a Patient with Hippocampal Atrophy

Describes a case of a patient that presents with hippocampal atrophy leading to hyperkinetic crises of parietal-occipital origin
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Self-reported Attributes of Police-chiefs Compared to Civil Leadership: Tolerance; Social Interest and Communication

This study has a focus on patterns of work-related interactions, experiences, and attitudes expressed by leaders in the Swedish Police force.A cross-sectional design was used to compare police leaders (n=106) with reference groups recruited for public and private enterprises (n=1650). Work-related ratings were provided by use of a recruitment inventory JobMatch Talent (JMT). In this study, three main JMT scales (including subscales) concerned with relationships were used: Tolerance (h1: Assent image, h2: Tolerant attitude, h3: Trust in others); Social Interest (i1: Showing consideration, i2: Diplomacy, i3: Contact creating); Communication (j1: Impact, j2: Communicative, j3: Openness).
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Editorial Board Members Related to ions

Hung-Jen Liu

Professor and Director
Institute of Molecular Biology
National Chung Hsing University
Taiwan

CHRIS CONSTANTINOU

Professor
Department of Urology
Stanford University Medical School
United States

Murugan Ramalingam

Professor
Department of Centre for Stem Cell Research
Adjunct Professor at Tohoku University, Japan
Christian Medical College
India

Hyunjin Park

Associate Professor
School of Electronic Electrical Engineering
Sungkyunkwan University
Korea

Azad Kumar Kaushik

Associate Professor
Department of Immunology
University of Guelph
Canada

Pongsak Rattanachaikunsopon

Professor
Department of Biological Science
Ubon Ratchathani University
Thailand

Mohamed Salama

Professor
Department of pharmaceutics
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Malaysia

QINGRONG HUANG

Professor
Department of Food Science
Rutgers University
United States

Charles C. Muscoplat

Professor
Department of Food Science and Nutrition
University of Minnesota
United States

MOHAMED AMIN EL GOHARY

Professor
Department of Pediatric Surgery
Burjeel hospital
UAE
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