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Climate Change: Effects and Adaptation Strategies Among Orange Fleshed Sweet potato (ofsp) Farmers in Anambra East and West Local Government in Anambra State, Nigeria

The study investigated the effects of climate change and adaptation strategies among Orange Fleshed Sweet potato (OFSP) farmers in Anambra East and West local government in Anambra State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to assess the sources of information on climate change by the farmers, determine the causes of climate change in the study area, ascertain the perceived effects of climate change on OFSP farmers, assess the adaptation strategies used by the farmers and identify constraints to climate change adaptation strategies.
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Chemicals Disinfections and Their Effects on The Dimensional Stability of Alginate: Systematic Review

Dental practice involves a risk of exposure to microorganisms causing many infectious diseases. The risk of contamination starts at the beginning of the prosthetic workflow through impressions. Various chemical disinfection protocols for dental impressions are reported in the literature.
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Analysis of Factors Affecting Fertilizer Applications by Yam Farmers in Edo State, Nigeria

The study assessed factors affecting fertilizer applications by yam farmers in Edo State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to: ascertain the basic source of information among the farmers, determine the factors affecting fertilizer applications on yam production and the constraints working against yam production in the study area. Multistage sampling techniques were used in this study.
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The Management of Wetlands in Ghana as a Compliance to the Ramsar Convention

The Government of Ghana recognizes the importance of wetlands as a habitat for wildlife, in the maintenance of the water table, mitigation of flood conditions, and water purification. Wetlands resources are also known to be of socio-economic importance and have been harvested for construction poles, fuel-wood, timber for furniture, and craftwork
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Piriformospora indica: in Relation with Nitrogen and Phosphorus Uptake Mitigate the Effect of Drought and Heavy metal Ions in Plants

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Machine Learning Prediction of Response towards Anti-VEGF Injections in Patients with DME: Prediction of Post-Injection CST

Diabetic macular edema (DME) has become one of the most potential complications that results in loss of vision in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Treatment outcomes that have been predicted directly with advent of machine learning (ML) methods after the initial anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injection, has become extremely vital in the management of DME. Purpose: The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of the ML regression models which were developed and validated to predict the possible post-injection central subfield thickness (CST) value and distant vision best corrected visual acuity (DV BCVA) in eyes with DME before the anti-VEGF injection is administered at either treatment initiation or during treatment monitoring. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in Medical Research Foundation, Chennai, India from January 2010 to December 2020. The model development emphasized on an ensemble ML system consisting of four ML models that were developed and trained independently using the clinical parameters to predict the post injection CST value. The dataset consisting of 906 patients with total of 1874 samples [Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and clinical parameters] were divided into trained and test set, and the model was validated on test dataset. The predicted CST values was then compared against the respective sample’s post injection actual CST value. The comparative results were measured in terms of Correlation Coefficient and Mean Absolute Relative Error (MARE). Results: On evaluation, we found that Support Vector Regression (SVR) with linear kernel performed best among the other models with four different scenarios in term of both CST and DVBCVA prediction with correlation coefficient of 0.65, 0.73, 0.75, 0.85 and 0.83, 0.87, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively.
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Evaluation of The Viability and Phenotipe of Adipose Derived Cells Harvested Using Different Harvesting and Processing Procedures: A Pilot Study

Abstract Background: Clinical studies demonstrated the efficacy of therapies based on the autologous grafting of adult mesenchymal stem cells to accelerate the healing and regenerative processes of the skin and mesenchymal tissues therefore, this is considered a valuable approach in the aesthetic rejuvenation treatment to give volume restoration and skin regeneration effects. Objective: The aim of this project consists of the evaluation of the cell viability of adipose tissue (AT) harvested using the Superficial Enhanced Fluid Fat Injection (SEFFI) procedure standardized by the Authors (AG, FPB). The harvesting procedure was performed using two different cannulas having 0.8 mm and 1 mm side-port holes, respectively. Cells phenotype and ability to adhere to the plastic surface have been analysed. The results have been compared to those recorded in adipose tissue harvested using a liposuction system and processed with enzymatic digestion (collagenase). Methods: This study was performed on adipose tissues harvested from 7 patients (6 females and 1 male) with an average age of 48.5 years with two different techniques and three different cannulas. We compared the cell vitality of every sample at T0 and T72. Moreover, the samples were analysed to determine the phenotype: cells were incubated with antibodies anti human against CD90-FITC, CD73-PeCy7, CD44-PE, CD31-PECy5, CD235a- PECy7, CD34-FITC, CD45-FITC and CD146-FITC and read using the flow cytometer s3e Cell Sorter, BioRad. Results were analysed using the software Flow Jo.
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Identification of Novel De-Novo 12q14 -12q22 Gene Mutations and MTHFR C677T Gene Polymorphism Increase Genetic Susceptibility in Hirschsprung Disease - A Rare Case Report

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Association of Viruses with Aplastic Anemia: A Case Control Study

Several viruses are often believed to be associated with acquired aplastic anemia. There is paucity of literature proving the association between viruses and aplastic anemia. We aimed to study the association of aplastic anemia with Human Parvovirus B19 (B19V), Epstein Barr virus (EBV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Hepatitis viruses, Measles virus (MV), Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) and Adenovirus (AdV). Between January 2020 to December 2020, confirmed cases of aplastic anemia and age and sex matched controls of iron deficiency anemia were enrolled in the study. They were tested for the above- mentioned viruses for antigen and/or IgM antibody by ELISA and/or nucleic acid by Real Time PCR in serum samples. Relevant history was collected. Cases were followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months after enrollment for recording the outcome. Total 68 cases and 34 controls were included in the study of which 61(89.70%) cases and 12(38.23%) controls were positive for markers of at-least one of the 10 viruses studied. B19V, EBV, CMV and Hepatitis B virus were found to be significantly associated with aplastic anemia. Five patients died within 12 months. Mortality was not associated with viral infections. Viral infections may play a role in pathogenesis of acquired aplastic anemia.
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Forensic Applications of Raman Spectroscopy a Review

The any field of science they have many different techniques method for examine the substance. There have been several major advances in the use of Raman spectroscopy instruments. This method is now a full established method along with, infrared spectroscopy. The process ultimately led to its entry into the forensic science laboratory, and to simplify the process, this article introduces a comprehensive review of Raman spectroscopy; emphasizes how and why this less commonly used method can be a very useful tool for analysing a various evidence. The concepts and principle of Raman spectroscopy are described in two categories the first categories of this article which includes theory, instrumentation, and spectrum data obtained using infrared and Raman techniques for numerous analyse and the Second categories discusses forensic applications of Raman spectroscopy to examine various types of evidence and substance. In this article we study how to examine forensic evidences by using the Raman spectroscopy and make review report on it.
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Pseudotumor Cerebri Associated with Enteric Fever in a Child: A Case Report

Enteric fever is a common infection of tropical countries that can have a variety of neurological complications. Reported neurological complications are encephalopathy, eningism, spastic paralysis-cerebral origin, convulsions, meningitis, parkinsonian syndrome, sensory motor neuropathy, cerebellar involvement, and schizophrenic psychosis. The patient, who was diagnosed with enteric fever and started treatment, developed headache and blurred vision 5 days after the treatment. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis secondary to enteric fever and related pseudotumor cerebri were detected in the patient. When additional symptoms develop despite treatment in patients with enteric fever, complications such as thrombosis and pseudotumor cerebri should be considered.
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Novel Antibiotics for Bloodstream Infections in HSCT

Bloodstream infections (BSI) are one of severe infectious complications faced by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. BSI increases significantly the morbidity and mortality of HSCT patients. Gram-positive bacteria occurred more frequency than gram-negative bacteria over past decades, but rates of gram-negative bloodstream infections have recently increased again. Antibacterial prophylaxis could be justified in HSCT, infections caused by resistant pathogens increased mortality. New antibiotics such as omadacycline, meropenem/vaborbactam, eravacycline, ceftobiprole, tedizolid, dalbavancin, cefiderocol hold promise for the treatment of highly resistant pathogens.
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Evaluation of Weather Conditions as Well as NO2 and PM 2.5 Levels in the Urban Areas of South Brazil in Different Seasons

Due to the ever-increasing importance of studying pollution effects on environment and population, the development of methodologies for the evaluation of atmospheric pollutants has allowed great advances concerning air quality monitoring. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matters (PM2.5) have as major sources vehicle engine exhausts and industrial processes. In the municipality of Pelotas, the economical and industrial growth allied to the expansion of the local vehicle fleet have brought several impacts on human health and environment. For this region, there are few studies concerning air pollution monitoring and dispersion. Data were collected seasonally (summer, autumn, winter and spring) in eight points (Porto, Areal, Centro, Fragata, Simões Lopes, Três Vendas, Laranjal,and Capão do Leão) over the city area, aiming to have a picture of the city as a whole. Annual mean ± standard deviation of the PM2.5 measurements are: Porto 48.95±6.28, Areal 3.29±4.56, Centro 39.56±7.05, Fragata 30.28±3.59,Simões Lopes9.5±.9, Três Vendas 3.4±3.80, Laranjal 29.79±2.34, Capão do Leão 24.25±3.2 and annual mean ±standard deviation for NO2 were: Porto 9.06±.5, Areal 0.49±0.94, Centro 4.3±0.89, Fragata 2.44±0.56, Trem 7.20±0.99, Três Vendas 2.94±.22, Laranjal 8.83±.97, Capão do Leão 6.77±0.76. We conclude that there are significant differences in different places of the city, mainly due to traffic and human activities characteristics of each point. On the other hand, meteorological factors act similarly in all sites concerning the pollution dispersion.
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Socio-Demographic, Clinical Characteristics and Blood Lipid profiles of Type 1 Diabetic Patients Followed in Regional Hospitals in The Northern Zone of Cameroon

Background and Objective: In Cameroon, given the galloping growth in the prevalence of diabetes, in particular type 1 diabetes in the northern regions, we undertook this study, with the objective to improve the management of type 1 diabetes by determining the socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and lipid profiles of the patients followed in the care centers of regional hospitals of Maroua, Garoua and Ngaoundere. Methods: We undertook a descriptive cross-sectional study from 07 August 2018 to 07 May 2019 in the care centers of the regional hospitals. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected by interview to consent patient through structured questionnaires in the survey sheet. Anthropometric data were also determined during the survey, and the blood was collected in referred laboratory for determination of some lipid profiles parameters. Results: On a sample of 467 Patient suffering from diabetes, 68 were of type 1, representing a prevalence of 26%. Type 1 diabetes Patients were mostly female (61.8%) and the mean age was 20.72 ± 3.4 years with a high percentage between 20-30 years (51.5%). More than half of our patients were pupils and students, many of them practiced Muslims as religion (58.8%). In most of cases (51.3%), the disease was diagnosed after one year as a result of illness. The majority of our patients were non-smokers (98.5%) and less athletic (32.4%). The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.03 ± 2.7 kg /m2 with an average waist circumference of 80.26 ± 9.23 cm in men and 82.15 ± 10.45 in women. Their treatment was based essentially on insulin therapy, mainly using regular and intermediate insulins. More than half of the subjects had high blood glucose (78.1%), high triglyceride (34.1%) and HDL-cholesterol (29.3%) levels. Most of the patients suffered from overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, arthritis, kidney failure and other diseases (malaria, jaundice, stomach ache). No significant relation was found between clinical and the sociodemographic and blood lipid profiles. Conclusion: It emerges from this study that type 1 diabetes represent high proportions of diabetes cases in septentrional area of Cameroon, and affect mostly young of less than 30 years old, dominated by women, practicing Muslim as religion. Their clinical profile characterized by high frequency of overweight/obesity, kidney failure and arthritis vary, but not significantly, with neither their sociodemographic nor their blood lipid profiles. Absence of sport, female and less control of their hypoglycemia are factors risks of the progression of the disease.
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Carbon-Dioxide Emissions Due to Fossil Fuels Consumption

A majority of Carbon-dioxide including smaller amounts of methane and nitrous are emitted from the consumption of fossil fuels around the world to meet the sustainable development goals and global prosperity. Studies have shown that the increase in greenhouse gases has negative effects on human health, and the environment around us. Emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels in factories and industries either to produce electricity or transport people, goods and services cause the release of CO2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The majority of industrial energy is supplied by nonrenewable energy resources, which mainly consist of fossil fuels. Currently, fossil fuels are the main source of energy and are concentrated in some regions of the world, therefore direct contamination occurs in areas where they are stored or processed. A majority of electricity consumed by cities and countries across the world is produced from fossil fuels, which accounts for the highest percentage of overall CO2 production in that particular country. People will share the common global environmental problems, either it is local or regional, hence immediate actions are needed to tackle problems at national and regional and global levels. Fortunately, with the advent of new technologies and intervention strategies, it is possible to reduce pollution and reduce the rate of rising global temperature that might result in better economy and ecological systems as well as providing sustainable energy resources. In this research the data on nonrenewable energy sources, fossil fuel reserves in different regions, production and consumption rate of fossils have been identified and reviewed. Additionally, mathematical calculation has been done to find the carbon dioxide emission amounts, both international and national legislations as well as further recommendations have been provided to reduce or prevent emissions.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Editorial Board Members Related to ions

Anthony Wai-Leung Kwok

Associate Professor
Tung Wah College
Hong Kong

Richard W. Bianco

Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
University of Minnesota
United States

QIANG LIU

Professor
School of Life Science
University of Science and Technology
China

Huangui Xiong

Professor
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience
University of Nebraska Medical Center
United States

Sobhy Mohamed Gomaa

Professor of Organic Chemistry
Faculty of Science
Cairo University
Egypt

KHALID UL REHMAN HAKEEM

Associate Professor
Faculty of Forestry
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Malaysia

Sherifa Ahmed Hamed

Professor
Department of Neurology and Psychiatry
University of Assiut
Egypt

Sheila Crewther

Professor
School of Psychological Science
Univerity of La Trobe
Australia

RAVINDRA K. MALIK

Professor
Natural and Forensic Sciences Department
Albany State University
United States

CHARLES SCOTT BRUDNEY

Associate Professor
Departments of Medicine, Critical Care and Anesthesiology
Duke University Medical Center
United States
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