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A Framework for Speaker Recognition System

An individual’s voice holds the characteristics to identify that individual uniquely. Automatic Speaker Recognition (ASR) is a technique for recognizing an individual by his/her voice. Controlling access privileges and forensic is the major application areas of Speaker recognition systems. To develop a robust speaker recognition system it is required that the system is able to provide acceptable performance with several operating conditions.
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Cubic Averaging Aggregation Operators with Multiple Attributes Group Decision Making Problem

The group decision making is a very useful technique for ranking the group of alternatives, the cubic averaging operator is new tool in group decision making problems. In this article, we develop a series of new operators so called cubic weighted averaging (CWA) operator, cubic ordered weighted averaging (COWA) operator and cubic hybrid averaging (CHA) operator. We also discussed some particular cases and properties of these operators. Furthermore, we apply the proposed aggregation operators to deal with multiple attribute group decision making in which decision information takes the form of cubic numbers. Finally, we used some practical examples to illustrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed methods by comparing with other methods.
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Human five senses via art

We experience the world around us by our five main senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, taste, and smell that are demonstrated in the following by artworks. Senses feed our brain with bits of information that help us to build a picture of the complicated world around us. Scientifically a sense is defined as a means of receiving information from the environment or from the body and converting it to an electrical-chemical code that is processed by the brain.
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Insulin, Glucagon and Feed Intake Regulation: Ruminant and Rat Models

Hormones belong to metabolic factors that control and regulate feed intake in ruminants and rats. Estrogen depresses feed intake. Insulin is an important hormone possessing both long-term and short-term effects on ruminant nutrient partitioning and feed intake. Insulin is associated with overconsumption in rats. The role of glucagon in feed intake regulation in ruminants has not been thoroughly described. Some evidence exists that exogenous glucagon reduces feed intake in sheep. Intravenous glucagon induced satiety in humans. Intraperitoneal glucagon has not affected feed intake in rats. Research is needed to elucidate how to manipulate animal and human endocrinology to optimize feeding strategies and systems in food-producing animals and to improve human health.
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A Study of Prevalence of Fish Parasite in Hashenge Lake, Tigray, Ethiopia

This study was conducted at Lake Hashenge, Tigray, Ethiopia to identify parasites of fish. The objective of this study was to identify parasite of fish at Lake Hashenge, to determine the prevalence of parasitic disease of fish, to have baseline information about fish parasite in The lake Hashenge. A total of 442 different species of were sampled from the period of November 2008 to April 2009. Those include 217 of Mirror carp and 225 of Oreochromis niloticus. The fish were thoroughly examined both externally and internally for the presence of parasites. In this study the major parasites identified were CLinostomum genera 96(44.2%) in the Mirror carp and 64(28.4%) of Orechromis niloticus. Clinostomum species recovered from the feaces of the fish (gastrointestinal tract). The nematode genera of Capillaria identified from the GIT of 13(6%) Mirror carp and 14(6.2%) Oreochromis niloticus. The genera of Acanthocephalus were recovered from the GIT of 29(13.4%) of Mirror Carp and 25(11.1%) Oreochromis Niloticus. The adult of the genera Camllanus was recovered from 20(9.2%) of Mirror Carp and 27(12%) of Oreochromis Niloticus.
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Ultrasound as a New Imaging Tool to Assess Pathological Change of Joints in Preclinical Mouse Models of Osteoarthritis

Murine osteoarthritis (OA) models are important for exploring OA pathology and treatment in the pre-clinical study. Longitudinal in vivo imaging modalities, including X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, are commonly used diagnostic tools in OA clinic, while end-point histomorphometry analysis is the major outcome measurement in the pre-clinical study because clinical imaging modalities have limited resolution for small animals.
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Novel Alternative Treatment to Plasmapheresis in Evans Syndrome

Evans syndrome is a rare haematological disease characterised by concurrent occurrence of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. The autoimmune haemolysis can lead to hyperbilirubinaemia, profound anaemia and haemodynamic instability. It can be difficult to treat and when refractory to medical treatment it could necessitate emergency splenectomy. Plasmapheresis is used in refractory haemolytic anaemia to aid removal of disease causing autoimmune complexes whilst immunomodulators act to reduce autoantibody response and effectiveness. However, this is an expensive and resource intensive process that is limited to tertiary referral centres. In this case study we present a successful novel alternative for life threatening AIHA in Evans Syndrome using haemofiltration with on-going fresh frozen plasma transfusion when resources are limited or it is not an accessible method.
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Individual and Contextual Aspects Associated with Malocclusion in Brazilian Adolescents

Analytical cross-sectional study using data from the SB Brazil 2010. The dependent variable was malocclusion (absent, set, severe, very severe). Independent variables were classified into: individual (socio-demographic, oral health problems; education, utilization of dental services; self-perception, impact on activities) and contextual (Family Financial Grant, National Health System Development Index (IDSUS), Human Development Index (HDI) and interaction of Gross National Product (GNP) with fluoridated water). A multilevel analysis was executed.
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Oral Health in Asthmatics: A Review

Asthma is a chronic inflammation of airway tract characterized by airway obstruction and hyper responsiveness presenting with symptoms of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness and dyspnoea. It is a serious health issue with the worldwide occurrence. Antiasthmatic drugs have unfavorable effects on oral health causing dental caries, xerostomia, dental erosion, periodontal disease and orofacial deformities. This review concludes that asthma drastically affects oral health but preventive measures can help to improve quality of life.
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Determinants of Medication Adherence in Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

A major issue in adherence to medical treatment in nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is mothers’ fear of perceived teratogenic damage. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of adherence to medication treatment in NVP. A prospective cohort study based on telephone interviews among women who experienced NVP and counseled by Motherisk Israel NVP Helpline, located in a teratology information service. The consultation was divided into pharmacological and non-pharmacological recommendations. Data on adherence to medications and pregnancy outcomes were collected during telephone follow up interviews which were carried out soon after the birth of the child.
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Switching Darunavir/Ritonavir to Darunavir/Cobicistat in Clinical Practice Experience with 150 patients through 48 weeks

Darunavir (DRV) boosted with ritonavir (RTV) is currently among the preferred antiretroviral agents. Cobicistat (COBI), a new cytochrome P450 inhibitor is replacing RTV as pharmacoenhancer. Coformulated DRV/COBI has been approved based on bioequivalence data; however results on efficacy and safety in clinical practice are scarce. COBI inhibits creatinine tubular secretion, thus raising concerns about its renal safety.
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Sequence Variant in the TRIM39-RPP21 Gene Readthrough is Shared Across a Cohort of Arabian Foals Diagnosed with Juvenile Idiopathic Epilepsy

Juvenile idiopathic epilepsy (JIE) is a self-limiting neurological disorder with a suspected genetic predisposition affecting young Arabian foals of the Egyptian lineage. The condition is characterized by tonic-clonic seizures with intermittent post-ictal blindness, in which most incidents are sporadic and unrecognized. This study aimed to identify genetic components shared across a local cohort of Arabian foals diagnosed with JIE via a combined whole genome and targeted resequencing approach: Initial whole genome comparisons between a small cohort of nine diagnosed foals (cases) and 27 controls from other horse breeds identified variants uniquely shared amongst the case cohort.
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Detecting and Reporting Four Types of Elder Abuse: How Official Adult Protective Services Reports Obscure Older Adults’ Self-Efficacy

It is widely held that older adults are unlikely to self-report their abusive situation to officials such as adult protective services (APS). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which older adults self-report or alternatively, disclose to informal sources of support who in turn place official reports. Interviews were conducted with 71 APS caseworkers, 55 of their older clients, and 32 non-abusive persons familiar with the situation. The same person who detected also reported the abuse in only 69% of the cases. While 39.5% of the older victims detected their abuse, only 18.3% also reported the abuse. The remaining older victims disclosed to someone who in turn placed a report. By listening to victim’s voices, it was revealed that at least some older adults exercise considerably more self-efficacy in their abusive situation than official reporting statistics indicate. Implications for research and policy are discussed.
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Genetic Polymorphisms Associated with Risk of Developing Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Patients with Chronic Aspirin Usage

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly population. Aspirin usage has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of developing this disease. This study aims to determine whether the increased risk of AMD with chronic aspirin usage is related to genetic polymorphisms in the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) genes.
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Dawn of the Biofilm Disease: Highlights about Biofilm in Bone and Joint & Prosthetic Joint Infections Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment

I present some key considerations of the biofilm disease as part of two complex pathologies such as bone and joint infections and prosthetic joint infections, taking into account the bacterial pathogenic factors to understand the particular nature of these infections, and to achieve an accurate diagnosis and management beyond the antimicrobial therapy. I mention some personal experience of many years in the medical microbiology laboratory and next to the patient’s bed.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to

Paul H. Wooley

Professor
Orthopaedic Research Institute
Wichita State University
United States

Hyung C Woo

Assistant Professor
School of medicine
University of Maryland
United States

Ch. Niranjan Patra

Professor
Department of Pharmaceutics
Roland Institute of Pharmaceutical sciences
India

ALI AMIN

Assistant Professor
Warren Alpert Medical School
Brown University
United States

Pei-Chun Liao

Professor
Department of Life Science
National Taiwan Normal University
Taiwan

Luisa Amelia Dempere

Major Analytical Instrumentation Center
United States

Lan Zhou

Assistant Professor
Department of Pathology
Case Western Reserve University
United States

Ekrem Dogan

Professor
Department of Internal Medicine
Division of Nephrology
Selahaddin Eyyubi University
Turkey

Mohammad Reza Shakibaie

Associate Professor
Department of Microbiology
Kerman University of Medical Sciences
Iran

AYMAN ELTAIRY MAHMOUD MAHDY

Associate Professor
Division of Urology
University of Cincinnati
United States
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