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Occurrences of Dairy Calf Mortality and Morbidity and the Associated Risk Factors in Sululta and its Environs, Central Ethiopia

Calf morbidity and mortality are important causes of economic losses on dairy farms worldwide. A cross-sectional study and clinical observation was conducted from November 2016 to April 2017 with the objective of determining calf morbidity and mortality and to investigate the potential risk factors for mortality and morbidity in Sululta and its environs. A total of 312 respondents engaged in market oriented small holder dairying were interviewed using a structured questionnaire survey about their farm and calf management practices and major calf health problems encountered and diseases that causes mortality. The overall magnitude of morbidity and mortality of calves were 31.0% and 58.37%, respectively. The major calf diseases found were diarrhea (69.34%), pneumonia (16.54%), liver fluke (2.4%), bloat (2.0%), joint ill (2.4%) and other cases (8.04%). Risk factors such as weaning age, breed and awareness of colostrums, feeding of calf and overall farm management were included. In this study 80.3% of calf mortality occurs under age 3 month and 19.42% is above 3 month. Based on laboratory examination, Salmonella and E.coli were detected from diarrheic calves. Salmonella found at rate of 2/29 (3.6%) and E.coli found at only genus level. In conclusion, the magnitude of calf morbidity and mortality found in this study were much higher than economically tolerable level and could greatly affect the productivity of the dairy farms through mainly decreasing the availability of replacement stock and production of milk. It is therefore, suggested that implementation of improved calf and farm management practices and proper environmental protection in the study areas would significantly reduce calf mortality and morbidity.
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Cattle Ticks and Tick Borne Haemoparasite Species Identification and Associated Risk Factors in Two Districts of West Arsi Zone, Ethiopia

Different tick species and tick-borne diseases of cattle are present in Ethiopia and they induce huge production loss in livestock industry by creating serious animal health problems. The present study was conducted from November 2017 to April 2018 in Arsi Negele and Asasa districts of West Arsi Zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study design and purposive sampling technique were employed to select 384 study animals so as to identify ticks species and tick-haemoparasite species and also to identify risk factors that affect the prevalence and association of tick born diseases. Tick and haemoparasite identification were carried out by using drect stereomicroscopic and direct thin blood examination. The study identified two tick genera and four tick species. The tick species encountered were Rhipicephalus decoloratus (51.6%) Ambylomma variegatum (46.1%) Ambylomma gemma (20.1%) and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.2%). Out of all 384 cattle examined for the presence of tick-born haemoparasites 11.4% (n=44) of them were positive. From this 6.2%, 3.6 %, 1.3% and 0.8% of them were positive for Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale, respectively. Two cattle (0.5%) were found positive for both Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. The highest prevalence of total tick born haemoparasites (57.1%) was occurred in A. Variegatum, A. gemma and R. decoloratus mixed infestations. In conclusion ticks and tick born haemoparasitic infections were common problems in the study area. Thus, awareness creation for farmers about the impacts of ticks and tick born diseases on livestock production and productivity and also applying appropriate and timely strategic tick control methods by veterinary service providers were advisable.
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Interrelationships between Body Weight and Dimensional Shell Measurements of Giant African Land Snails (Archachatina marginata) in Calabar, Nigeria

Two hundred Archachatina marginata snails, one hundred each of A. marginata var. saturalis and A. marginata var. ovum with weights ranging from 33.10 – 349.00 g and 127.60 – 443.40 g, respectively sorted out of a base population were used for this study. Phenotypic traits measured on each of these snail varieties/strains included shell length, shell width, aperture length, aperture width, spiral length, spiral width, diagonal length, length between aperture and first spiral, number of whorls and body weight. Data collected were used to estimate phenotypic correlations between pairs of traits and to predict the relationship between body weight and other dimensional shell measurements (DSM). Results of phenotypic correlations between body weight and the DSM and between the DSM of the two A. marginata varieties showed that all the pairs of phenotypic traits investigated on A. marginata var. ovum expressed positive correlation values, while the pairs investigated on A. marginata var. saturalis showed both positive and negative correlation values. The regression estimates of parameters and coefficients of determination for the simple linear function of A. marginata var. ovum snails showed slightly high and very strong interrelationship between body weight and one phenotypic trait, while the multiple linear function for predicting body weight using four phenotypic traits showed highly significant and very strong interrelationship. In A. maginata var. saturalis snails, both the simple and multiple linear regression equations showed highly significant and very strong interrelationships between body weight and shell parameters. The range values of coefficient of determination showed that 78 to 100% of the variability in both snail strains body weights can be explained by changes in the considered dimensional shell parameters. Also, the linear functions with four and two parameters/traits best predicted the live weights of A. marginata var. saturalis and A. marginata var. ovum snails, respectively. Prediction results showed that explainable traits best predicted live weight when more than one phenotypic/shell trait were fitted into the regression functions.
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Epidemiological Profile of Congenital Cardiopathy Neonatal Revelation in Tehran

Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital disorder in newborns represents a major cause of perinatal death. The prevalence of these malformations is still unrecognized in Tunisia because of the lack of a national register. The aim of this study was describe the epidemiological and clinical aspects of the heart diseases with neonatal diagnosis in Tunisia.
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Knowledge Level of University Students on Food Additives and their Perceptions Regarding Food Safety

We aimed to assess the level of knowledge regarding food additives among medical and engineering students.This cross-sectional descriptive study included students from Inonu University Medicine and Engineering Faculty. The sample size was calculated considering the prevalence rate of food additive knowledge as 22.3%, with a 95% confidence interval, 80% power and 918 individuals. A questionnaire was used to collect the socio-demographic characteristics of the students and their knowledge regarding food additives. Scores for knowledge regarding food additives were created; eight questions were posed to the students, and each known correct answer was given a score of 1. Pearson’s chi-square test, Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal–Wallis test were used for data analysis.Mean age of the students was 21.74 ± 2.56 years, and 51.7% of them were males. Knowledge level regarding the definition of food additives was not different between genders (p > 0.05). Medical students had significantly higher knowledge levels (92.2%) about the definition of food additives compared to those of engineering students (80.4%) (p < 0.05). More males (52.8%) than females (49.3%) and more medical students (51.6%) than engineering students (50.7%) stated a significantly higher rate of daily consumption of processed foods containing additives (p < 0.05). The median scores of knowledge regarding food additives were not significantly different between gender and faculty (p > 0.05).The present study demonstrated that the rate of the participants who knew the definition of food additives as well as those who perceived food additives to be unsafe were high. Although the knowledge levels on FAs of the students were high in general, it was observed that the frequency of food consumed daily was high This suggests that further research and effective interventions are required to ensure that knowledge turns into behaviour.
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Immunohistochemical Localization of LH Receptors in Canine Splenic Hemangiosarcoma

Gonad removal has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of canine hemangiosarcoma. With gonad removal, there is a loss of negative feedback to the anterior pituitary, resulting in persistently elevated concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH). LH receptors can be found in gonadal and extragonadal tissues, including the bladder and skin. The aim of this study was to investigate if LH receptors were expressed in canine splenic hemangiosarcoma. Splenic tumor samples submitted to the Oregon State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory from referring veterinarians were with routine immunohistochemical methods. In addition, survival time following hemangiosarcoma diagnosis was obtained from the referring veterinarians. Five of the eight splenic hemangiosarcomas (62.5 %) were positive for LH receptor expression. LH receptor cellular localization in splenic hemangiosarcoma was cytoplasmic and granular, similar to the positive control canine skin sections (Figure 1C). There was no positive staining in the negative controls. LH receptor is expressed in a proportion of HSAs but further study need to be done to assess the significance of this finding.
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Ectopic Liver Found on Gall Bladder Wall during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Ectopic liver tissue is an uncommon finding and may be found in multiple abdominal sites, most commonly on the gall bladder. It is usually asymptomatic and is discovered incidentally during cholecystectomy, but there are potential complications. We present a case of an ectopic liver seen on the gallbladder serosa during laparoscopic cholecystectomy being performed for symptomatic cholelithiasis, and briefly review the literature.
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Adynamic Donor Ureter: A Case Report with Review of the Literature

We report a unique case of a male recipient who received a zero mismatch kidney with mild anatomical anomalies from his sister. This right kidney was malrotated, had an extra renal pelvis with moderately dilated ureter up to the iliac artery bifurcation. Immediate graft function was achieved on reperfusion, and the recipient was discharged on day 7 with a serum creatinine (SC) of 1.8mg/dl. The DJ stent was removed after 6 weeks, with a rapid increase in SC to 3.5mg/dl, and ultrasound showed mild hydronephrosis with delayed excretion on nuclear imaging. Mechanical obstruction was excluded by retrograde pyelography, and a 5F DJ stent was placed across the ureterovesical anastomosis with an immediate decrease in SC. The case is presented in detail and discussed in the light of the current literature.
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Periodontal Maintenance Therapy and Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis: Brief Review of the Literature and Case Report

This case report presents an unusual variant of generalized aggressive periodontitis that was managed by nonsurgical therapy which included the use of a novel tooth gel. Also, a brief review of the literature is offered as context for this unusual clinical case. The patient, a 40-year old Caucasian female, presented with advanced bone loss involving all teeth, intense inflammation of the attached gingiva and little obvious supra- or subgingival biofilm and dental calculus. Presence of systemic disease, high levels of periodontal microbial pathogens and IL-1α and IL-1β polymorphisms were evaluated and all determined to be negative. Gingival biopsy resulted in a diagnosis of nonspecific inflammation. Treatment consisted of 2- and 3-month intervals for periodontal maintenance appointments and eventually the introduction of an activated edathamil-based tooth gel. Over the subsequent 4-years the patient’s periodontal status stabilized as manifested by no further loss of tooth supporting bone, a reduction in the percentage of periodontal pockets of 4-6 mm depth and a reduction in the percentage of sites exhibiting bleeding upon periodontal probing. The significance of this case report is to emphasize that, even in cases of severe generalized aggressive periodontitis, nonsurgical periodontal therapy can be effective. In addition, it appears that a novel tooth gel containing activated edathamil is effective at reducing gingival inflammation with a concomitant reduction in percent of sites that bleed on periodontal probing.
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Nigeria’s E-Waste Management: Extended Producer Responsibility and Informal Sector Inclusion

This paper explores the emerging role of the private sector and public-private partnerships for e-waste management in the developing world. We use a combination of two conceptual frameworks, the triple bottom line approach and the sustainable livelihoods approach, to analyze the case study of the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) programme in Nigeria, which was launched in 2016. The sustainable livelihoods approach has been adopted in international development for over two decades, but so far it has not been applied for inclusion of informal sector workers in e-waste. Our findings illustrate how the financial and environmental bottom lines have already received considerable attention during the development of the Nigerian EPR programme, but that the social elements, in particular informal sector inclusion, have received less attention. Consequently, based on proven practices of the sustainable livelihoods approach, this paper identifies opportunities and provides recommendations as to how the international and national private sector players and government agencies involved in Nigeria’s e-waste EPR programme can establish a social engagement model to support inclusion of the informal sector. This model would not only help meet the financial and environmental bottom lines, but also address the social bottom line to improve livelihood outcomes for informal e-waste recyclers.
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Identity in Memory: Ascertaining Consciousness beyond Dementia

Identity formation comes in various definitions within psychology, neurobiology and spiritual worlds, but universally, it may be agreed that identity is a part of having a sense of self-awareness about who we are as individuals.
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Clinical Profile of Muscular Dystrophies in Burkina Faso

To describe clinical profile of muscular dystrophies in Burkina Faso, we retrospectively reviewed 17 patients who had clinical phenotypes of Muscular Dystrophy between 2004 and 2004 in the neurology Department of Yalgado Ouedraogo Teaching Hospital in Ouagadougou.
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Acceptability of Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling as an Intervention for Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV and Associated Factors Among Pregnant Women Attending at Public Health Facilities in Harar Town Eastern Ethiopia 2018

Accepting one’s HIV sero-status is a critical first step in preventing mother to child transmission of HIV. HIV counseling and testing provides an entry point to PMTCT services for pregnant women.
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A Review of the Production and Upgrading of Biofuel; Raw Materials, Processes and Products

The increase in the population of the planet and the rapid economic growth and, consequently, the high consumption of energy has created many environmental problems. Due to these reasons and the lack of renewability of these fossil fuels, there has been a steep trend towards the production of renewable fuels, one of which is the production of energy from biomass. In this study, biofuel production from biomass has been investigated using the pyrolysis method, a method that reduces the production of oil from millions of years to a few seconds, and is the most industrialized thermochemical method for producing fuel from biomass. This research focuses on thermochemical processes, pyrolysis principles, specifications, chemical composition and applications of biofuels, and the devices and equipment needed for it. This research is the A new approach for research and study on bio-refineries in the future.
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Overweight and Obesity in Women: Factor Analysis of Data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey

Overweight and obesity are emerging public health challenges in low-to-middle-income countries. Factors such as urbanization, physical inactivity, changing diets, and harmful consumption of alcohol contribute to this global growth in overweight and obesity, particularly in African countries. This study aimed to identify factors most predictive of overweight and obesity in adult women in Kenya.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to

Yalin Wu

Professor
Department of pharmaceutics
Zhejiang University
China

Keith Murphy

Professor
Department of Biological Sciences
North Dakota State University
United States

Zafar Said

Assistant Professor
Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering (SREE) Department
University of Sharjah
UAE

MAITRI SHAH

Associate Professor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Government Medical College
MS University of Baroda
India

Altayeb Ahmed

Associate Professor
Department of Basic Medical Sciences
King Saudi Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences
Saudi Arabia

Rostislav Kostadinov

Associate Professor
Disaster Medicine
Medical University Plovdiv
Bulgaria

Syed Ameer Haider Jafri

Assistant professor
Department of pedodontic and preventive dentistry
King Salman North West Armed Force Hospital
Saudi Arabia

Alfio Ferlito

Professor
Department of Surgical Sciences
University of Udine
Italy.

Vikram Khanna

Orthopedic Surgeon
Ranjana Hospital
Allahabad

Lars Larsson

Professor
Department of Clinical Neurophysiology
Karolinska Institutet
Sweden
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