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Bacteriology and Antibiogram of pathogens isolated from wound infections at Cheshire Hall Medical Laboratory, Turks and Caicos Islands

To identify pathogens that are frequently isolated from wound infections in the Turks and Caicos Islands and formulate antibiogram based on their patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility. Bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility data from 1343 wound swabs cultured at the Cheshire Hall Medical Laboratory between January 2013 and November 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique was used to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 79.1% of the 1343 swabs cultured were positive yielding a total of 1687 bacterial isolates. Frequently isolated bacteria included Staphylococcus aureus which accounted for 27.6% of isolates, approximately a third of which were methicillin resistant, Pseudomonas spp. (12.1%), Proteus spp. (8.2%), Enterococcus spp. (7.8%), E. coli (7.2%), Streptococcus agalactiae (6.1%), Klebsiella spp. (5.5%), Acinetobacter spp. (4.3%), coagulase negative Staphyloccus (4.0%) and Enterobacter spp. (3.7%). The overall highest resistance rates were seen among tetracycline (46.3%), erythromycin (37.6%) and ceftriaxone (34.2%). Imipenem, penicillin, meropenem and vancomycin had sensitivity rates ranging from 92.3% to 99.5%. Individual resistance rates varied among isolates, some differing significantly from overall rates. When tested against antibiotics routinely used to treat Pseudomonas spp., resistance rates ranged from 1.4-55.5%.
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Rumen Methanogens Community as Drivers of Methane Emission

Among the vast and diverse ruminal micro-biota, Archaea account up to 3-4% of the entire microbial population in rumen of ruminants. Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii, Methanobrevibacter thaueri, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Methanosphaera stadtmanae are common ruminal methanogens. Majority of archea are hydrogenotrophic over acetoclastic methanogen in rumen. Methanogens are endowed with co-enzymes that enable them to produce biogenic methane than other microbes. Biogenic methane produced from ruminants has a significant contribution to global warming. So this review enlightened the complete pictures of methanogens in ruminants and their relationships with other ruminal microbes. The study concluded that the methanogen composition remained variable among ruminant species and these dynamics emanated from animal factors, management and geographical variations.
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Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2): A Cross-Cultural Comparison for Surinamese Children at 5 Years of Age

The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) is used globally to identify and describe impairments in motor development in children; however, norms for Surinamese children are lacking. We thus conducted a cross-cultural comparison for Surinamese children 5 years–5 years and 6 months using the Dutch/Flemish (NL) and United Kingdom (UK) norms of the MABC, second edition (MABC-2).
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The Effect of Salbutamol Nebul Treatment on Systolic Pulmonary Artery Pressure in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmoner Disease

The occurrence of pulmonary hypertension [PHT] in patients with chronic obstructive pulmoner disease [COPD] usually indicates progression of the disease and poor prognosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of oxygen and bronchodilator treatment on systolic pulmonary artery pressure induced by exertion test in patients with COPD.
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Treatment of Moderate Fluorosis with Combined Bleaching Protocols

The patient’s concern was the appearance of her maxillary and mandibular teeth, which had a mottled, brown-yellow enamel dysmineralization due to moderate fluorosis. The patient was 45 years old, and lived in Isparta region where drinking water has high concentration of Fluoride ion. Patient was a female doctor and was concerned that the appearance of her teeth would negatively impact interactions with her patients and social life.
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His Bundle Pacing: Short Review of Literature and Technical Aspects

History of pacing has evolved from the primitive state of temporary transvenous pacing by a large fixed machine to leadless modern technology. The pacing site has also been changed from traditional right ventricular apex to various other sites. The concept behind such experiment was due to several complications in the long term from traditional Right Ventricular Apical Pacing (RVAP). The His Bundle pacing results in conduction and contraction similar to and more often called physiological pacing. This mini-review describes the short history of the evolution of the concept of His Bundle pacing and its technical aspects of successful implantation.
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Hypovolemic Shock Following Subgaleal Hemorrhage with Associated Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy in a Term Infant

We are reporting an infant who was born by emergency cesarean section following failed vaginal delivery. This infant was noted to be in hypovolemic shock soon after birth. He developed large subgaleal hemorrhage within 6 hours after birth with associated diffuse intravascular coagulopathy and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. He required multiple transfusions of packed red blood cell, platelets transfusion, fresh frozen plasma transfusions, and a cryoprecipitate. The infant was on body cooling therapy for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy for three days. His neurological exam at the time of discharge was unremarkable. At the time of discharge, an infant is enrolled in an early intervention program with a multi-disciplinary follow-up scheduled.
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Early Spondyloarthritis Presenting as Premenopausal Osteoporosis and Multiple Vertebral Fractures: A Case Report

We report a 30-year-old woman who presented during pregnancy with mechanical type backache due to non-traumatic multiple vertebral fractures. In-depth the assessment revealed multiple risk factors for osteoporosis, including adolescent steroid use for asthma, prolonged breastfeeding, and vitamin D deficiency. She also had persistently elevated inflammatory markers with radiological evidence of early inflammatory Sacro-ileitis. The rheumatoid factor and HLA B27 were negative. She was successfully managed with NSAIDS, zoledronic acid, and calcium supplementation. This is an example of early inflammatory arthritis in the background of multiple risk factors causing osteoporosis severe enough to cause fragility fractures. This signifies the importance of screening for multiple risk factors in pre-menopausal osteoporosis even in the presence of one or two identified risk factors.
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Oxygen Balance Homeostasis and Tissue Metabolic Score (TMS) of Patients in Emergency and Critical Care Medicine

Patients admitted to the emergency room or intensive care units (ICUs) need real-time monitoring of body oxygen balance. As of today, the availability of monitoring devices that provide real-time data on tissue level of oxygen homeostasis is very limited. The involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in many pathological states such as stroke, sepsis or heart failure is calling for a real-time evaluation of this intracellular organelle. In order to avoid the deterioration of the most vital organs in the body (brain and heart), we are proposing to monitor a less vital organ, such as the urethral wall, that serves as an early warning signal for the deterioration of body oxygen balance.
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The ACAI (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp Consumption Improves Blood Pressure Levels in Women with Higher Concentrations of Interferon-Gamma

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is associated with the inflammatory responses modulation, which could culminate in chronic metabolic diseases. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. mart.) pulp consumption on the anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters in women clinically healthy, with IFN-γ, respectively, smaller and higher than 5 pg/mL. Twenty four women in G1 (with IFN-γ concentrations smaller than 5 pg/mL) and sixteen in G2 (with IFN-γ concentrations greater than 5 pg / mL), consumed 200g per day of acai pulp during four weeks. Anthropometric and body composition measurements, biochemical and clinical data were evaluated before and after the intervention
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Nutritional Quality of Inventory at a Milwaukee Food Pantry

Little information exists about the nutritional quality of foods distributed at pantries. Therefore, studies are needed to assess the quality of foods offered by pantries to those lacking consistent access to adequate food. To evaluate the quality of inventory at Food Pantry, Milwaukee as it compares to nutrient recommendations outlined in the USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the pantry’s February 2015 inventory. A computer algorithm was developed to measure the nutrient density of individual items based on percent daily values per 2000 calorie diet for calcium, fiber, protein, sodium, trans fat, and saturated fat; and added sugar composition.
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Impact of Eating Habits on Cellular Regeneration and Weight Balance in the Central African Republic

Food compound has an impact on cell regeneration and body mass index. Studies of observations conducted between 2015 and 2017 among men in the CAR show a similarity in eating habits and in the way of consuming food. Of 148 people from different households with different incomes observed, 79 or 53.38% were male and 69 or 46.32% were female. The median age was 28 years (18-45). In group 1 or G1, 115 (77.7%) retained the African food habit. In addition, 33 people or 22.3% adopted a western-style eating habit and have a preference for fried foods and dairy products with a high-fat content (group 2 or G2). This G2 had more overweight or obesity phenomena than the G1 which presented some weight loss cases with a significant difference. The composition of the African food habit has certainly an influence on the body mass and cellular regeneration thus tissue.
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Assessment of Dietary and Total Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Group of Twenty (G20) and the World

Correlation formulas are developed to estimate the dietary and total greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) from Group of Twenty (G20) and the world in 2014 and 2017 using personal meat consumption as the required input. Among the 43 states involved in G20, the 28 states of the European Union (EU28) are considered as a whole. Based on 47,381 dietary survey samples, a formula is developed to establish the relationship between the meat consumption and GHGEs from human dietary and total activities.
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Women Empowerment and the Nutrition Status of Children Aged Between 6-59 Months

Malnutrition remains a concern in the central province, despite being the most productive province in terms of Agriculture. Most studies in the province have not paid attention to the importance of women empowerment and the nutrition outcomes of the population. In light of this knowledge gap, this study focused on the Women’s empowerment and the nutrition status of children aged 6-59 months.
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Impacts of Climate Change on Livestock Production and Productivity and Different Adaptation Strategies in Ethiopia

This review work was conducted to explore the likely impacts of climate change on livestock production and productivity and different adaptation strategies in Ethiopia. National average temperature has increased by 1 °C since the 1960s. Most of the livestock owners in the country perceive there are a climate change impacts on Livestock production and productivity. The major effects of climate change on livestock production include feed shortage, shortage of water, livestock genetic resources loss, reduced productivity, and decreased mature weight and/or longer time to reach a mature weight in their order of importance. Higher temperatures resulting from climate change may increase the rate of development of certain pathogens or parasites that have one or more life cycle stages outside their animal host.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to

Maria Ioannou

Senior Lecturer
University of Huddersfield
United Kingdom

Almutez Gharaibeh

Associate professor
Department of special surgery
University of Jordan
Jordan

Jiban Shrestha

Scientist
Nepal Agricultural Research Council
National Commercial Agriculture Research Program
Nepal

HEMANT S. AGARWAL

Associate Professor
Department of Pediatrics
University of New Mexico
United States

Wayne Dornan

Dean
College of Aviation and Public Services
Utah Valley University
United States

Athanasia Papazafiropoulou

Consultant
General Hospital of Piraeus “Tzaneio”
Department of Internal Medicine
Greece

Sonia Ouali Hammami

Chairman of Tunisian Geriatric Association
Internal Medicine Department
University of Monastir
Tunisia

Akira Sasaki

Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
Iwate Medical University School of Medicine
Japan

Sambhaji Govind Chintale

Sambhaji Govind Chintale Associate Professor
Department of Otorhinolaryngology
Muhus Nashik University,
Maharashtra, India

SALEH A. NASER

Professor of Medicine and Graduate Coordinator
Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences
University of Central Florida
United States
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