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Evaluation of Calcitriol Administration Against Apoptotic Markers in Ischemic Stroke

Background: Ischemic stroke is one of the most dangerous health issues that leads to neuronal cell death through various mechanisms including, inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) play an important role against ischemic stroke. Objective: The aim of this study was evaluating the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 administration on the activity of Calpain 1, Caspase 3, and JNK apoptotic proteins. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 38 eligible patients were recruited and then were divided into two control and experimental groups. A single oral dose of 10μg 1,25(OH)2D3 was given to experimental group and 4ml of blood samples were collected from all subjects. After isolation of leukocytes from blood samples of patients, flow cytometry was used to investigate the proteins expression of Calpain 1, Caspase 3, and JNK. Results: Our data revealed that the activity of Calpain1, Caspase 3 and JNK were significantly decreased after the administration of 1,25(OH)2D3 in ischemic stroke. Conclusion: Based on our findings, calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) could be considered as a protective approach against ischemic stroke by reducing the activity of apoptotic proteins.
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Biomarkers of Microbial Dysbiosis as Causative Agent of Acute Diarrhea in Dogs

Dysbiosis is microbial imbalance and mostly common in gastrointestinal tract [1]. There is a significant different of microbial communities in diarrheic cases more than healthy dogs’ comparison of gender & clinical signs. Clostridium species is mostly commonly genus found infectious animal cases of diarrhea and moreover in dog in other hand unclassified genus of Ruminococcaceae Bacteroidetes and Faecali bacterium were isolated. The microbiome functional gene content of (PICRUSt) with elevation gastric enzymes & increase titers infra structural proteins in acute diarrhea. Studies and data for dysbiosis with different intestinal disorders in dog associated with acute diarrhea or chronic is very limited. Current study to evaluate microbial dysbiosis. The fecal microbiome, characterized by 655 pyrosequencing of the different genes, AU/CG. There was lower range of bacterial isolates from cases of acute diarrhea compared to animal variation with statistical analysis. Altered microbial imbalance in gut occur with the microbial communities for gastric infection.
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Radiation Dose to Oesophagus in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy: A Retrospective Study

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Management of Breast cancer requires multidisciplinary team approach (viz, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Hormonal therapy & Targeted therapy). Radiotherapy reduces the risk of breast cancer mortality for women after breast conserving surgery and for women after mastectomy for node-positive disease. One of the organs at risk in breast cancer therapy is esophagus. As such, there is potential to expose greater volumes of esophagus to radiation. This may result in increased frequency and severity of acute radiation esophagitis during treatment. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate dosimetric parameters such as mean dose (Dmean) maximum dose (Dmax) which may influence the incidence and severity of esophagitis in breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Material and Methods: Treatment plans of post mastectomy patients who had already received adjuvant RT of dose 50 Gy in 25 # over 5 weeks to the chest wall along with Supraclavicular field (SCF) using 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D CRT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were selected. Mean dose (Dmean) and maximum dose (Dmax) to esophagus was assessed. Results: Dosimetric parameters assessed are Dmean and Dmax. Dmean assessed up to less than or equal to 11Gy and Dmax assessed upto less than or equal to 34Gy. The average of Dmean in this study is 8.34Gy which is within normal limits of prescribed dose. The mean Of Dmax in this study is 24.80Gy which is in limits of prescribed dose. Conclusion: Increased dose to esophagus in observed when IMRT is used especially when supraclavicular or internal mammary nodes are involved. Routine contouring of esophagus and planning accordingly may reduce oesophageal dose and acute oesophageal toxicity.
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Socio-Demographic, Clinical Characteristics and Blood Lipid profiles of Type 1 Diabetic Patients Followed in Regional Hospitals in The Northern Zone of Cameroon

Background and Objective: In Cameroon, given the galloping growth in the prevalence of diabetes, in particular type 1 diabetes in the northern regions, we undertook this study, with the objective to improve the management of type 1 diabetes by determining the socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and lipid profiles of the patients followed in the care centers of regional hospitals of Maroua, Garoua and Ngaoundere. Methods: We undertook a descriptive cross-sectional study from 07 August 2018 to 07 May 2019 in the care centers of the regional hospitals. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected by interview to consent patient through structured questionnaires in the survey sheet. Anthropometric data were also determined during the survey, and the blood was collected in referred laboratory for determination of some lipid profiles parameters. Results: On a sample of 467 Patient suffering from diabetes, 68 were of type 1, representing a prevalence of 26%. Type 1 diabetes Patients were mostly female (61.8%) and the mean age was 20.72 ± 3.4 years with a high percentage between 20-30 years (51.5%). More than half of our patients were pupils and students, many of them practiced Muslims as religion (58.8%). In most of cases (51.3%), the disease was diagnosed after one year as a result of illness. The majority of our patients were non-smokers (98.5%) and less athletic (32.4%). The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.03 ± 2.7 kg /m2 with an average waist circumference of 80.26 ± 9.23 cm in men and 82.15 ± 10.45 in women. Their treatment was based essentially on insulin therapy, mainly using regular and intermediate insulins. More than half of the subjects had high blood glucose (78.1%), high triglyceride (34.1%) and HDL-cholesterol (29.3%) levels. Most of the patients suffered from overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, arthritis, kidney failure and other diseases (malaria, jaundice, stomach ache). No significant relation was found between clinical and the sociodemographic and blood lipid profiles. Conclusion: It emerges from this study that type 1 diabetes represent high proportions of diabetes cases in septentrional area of Cameroon, and affect mostly young of less than 30 years old, dominated by women, practicing Muslim as religion. Their clinical profile characterized by high frequency of overweight/obesity, kidney failure and arthritis vary, but not significantly, with neither their sociodemographic nor their blood lipid profiles. Absence of sport, female and less control of their hypoglycemia are factors risks of the progression of the disease.
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Evaluation of System Usability Scale as A Marker of Non-Human Computer Interface’s Usability: A Sanitizer Container-Based Study

The use and the production of sanitizers have increased in the post-pandemic situation to prevent the further spread of COVID-19. Usability assessment of sanitizer containers is essentially required to evaluate the effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfactory use of the sanitizer containers. This study aimed to evaluate the system usability scale (SUS) as a marker of perceived usability of non-human computer interfaces, such as - sanitizer containers. The perceived usability of three types of sanitizer containers was evaluated using SUS. The authors have measured the reliability, convergent, and discriminant validity to evaluate SUS as a marker of usability of sanitizer containers. The result showed that SUS lacks convergent validity though it has a higher reliability coefficient. Thus, this is not the best measure of usability for non-human computer interfaces like-sanitizer containers. The SUS was applied on the flip cap, finger-pressure pump, and spray-type sanitizer containers. The finger-pressure pump container has exhibited a higher SUS score than others. The results of this study have given an idea about the usability of three different kinds of sanitizer containers. This research provides an overview of the application of SUS on non-Human computer interfaces like sanitizer containers. This study provides limitations like lack of convergent validity and ideas to overcome common method bias.
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Factors Influencing Adherence to Hydroxyurea Treatment Among Children with Sickle Cell Disease at the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal Biya Foundation

Introduction: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic hemoglobin disease for which there are many treatment options. Evidence supports the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of hydroxyurea (HU). Nevertheless, its use and adherence to treatment remain suboptimal, hence, the necessity to assess the factors influencing this observance. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the factors influencing observance to HU in children with sickle cell disease from the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal Biya Foundation (MCC of the CBF). Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study from January to June 2020. Children on HU for at least six months, and followed up at MCC of the CBF were included. Data collection was done using a pre-tested questionnaire. The level of compliance was assessed using the Morisky’s observance grid, where 8 points was considered as “good”; 6-7 points as “fair”, and <6 as “poor”. Data were stored in CSPro version 7.0 software, and subsequently analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0 software. Results: Of 142 patients recruited, the level of patient observance was considered “good” in 2.1%, fair in 26.1% and poor in 71.8%. Logistic regression analyses suggested that using hydroxyurea to prevent complications was the only factor that favored good medical adherence [OR=0.37; CI (0.14-0.987)] (p=0.047). Poor compliance was mainly associated with the fear of infertility and and other sides effects associated with the use of HU. Conclusion: Children with SCD in this study have poor compliance with HU. Implementing IEC sessions would make it possible to raise patient/parent awareness and reverse this trend.
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Factors Associated with Junk Food Consumption Affecting Saudi University Female Students

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Evaluation of the Parodontal Health of Schoolchildren from Widou in Ferlo (Senegal)

Introduction: Mechanical disorganization of the bacterial biofilm is the cornerstone of the prevention of gingivitis and periodontitis periodontal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the periodontal health of schoolchildren in Widou, Ferlo. Methodology: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study of schoolchildren living in Widou in the centre of Ferlo. The survey was exhaustive and concerned the only school in the locality. The epidemiological data collected concerned oral hygiene practice, periodontal health and socio-demographic characteristics such as sex, age and educational level. The degree of hygiene was assessed by the Silness and Loe plaque index (Plaque Index); inflammation and bleeding on probing were assessed by the Loe and Silness gingival index (Gingival Index). Results: In a total of 126 schoolchildren, boys and girls were equally represented and the average age was 10 years +/- 2.16.Sixty-nine percent (69%) of the children examined did not use a toothbrush. Of these, more than 47% reported brushing 3 times a day. The plaque index mean value was 1.23 and 99.2% of the population had a moderate plaque control. The average gingival index was 0.96 and 80.2% of the sample had moderate gingival inflammation. Conclusion: The study showed a relatively low rate of toothbrush use in contrast to the tooth stick and a relatively high rate of periodontal index. Communication-based approaches to behaviour change in children are needed to improve periodontal health.
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A Case of Rheumatoid Arthritis Presenting with A Brain Mass

Among patients with tuberculosis (TB), approximately 1 to 5 percent develop central nervous system (CNS) complications. A tuberculoma is a conglomerate granulomatous focus that develops from coalescing tubercles acquired during disseminated bacillaemia. Radiographically, tuberculomas are discrete, ring- enhancing lesions of the brain surrounded by perilesional edema and may present as single or multiple lesions. The diagnosis of tuberculoma should be suspected in patients with mass lesion of the brain and relevant epidemiologic factors. A definitive diagnosis of tuberculoma is established via needle biopsy of the CNS lesion for histopathology and acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining and culture. In this case report, we present a 43-year-old woman with a past medical history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) managed with steroids and hydroxychloroquine, who attended to us with a two- month history of numbness and paresthesia of her left extremities and recurrent episodic jerks involving the same side. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large hemorrhagic mass (55 * 40 mm) in right temporo-parietal lobe surrounded by edema and mass effect with small nodule in left peri Rolandic cortex. Following clinical and laboratory clues, MR spectroscopy and brain biopsy, we started with corticosteroids and the following 4 anti-TB drugs: Isoniazid, Rifampin, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol (HRZE). After 2 months, her symptoms completely resolved and a subsequent MRI scan revealed considerable shrinkage of the right-sided mass and left-sided lesion.
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Carbon-Dioxide Emissions Due to Fossil Fuels Consumption

A majority of Carbon-dioxide including smaller amounts of methane and nitrous are emitted from the consumption of fossil fuels around the world to meet the sustainable development goals and global prosperity. Studies have shown that the increase in greenhouse gases has negative effects on human health, and the environment around us. Emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels in factories and industries either to produce electricity or transport people, goods and services cause the release of CO2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The majority of industrial energy is supplied by nonrenewable energy resources, which mainly consist of fossil fuels. Currently, fossil fuels are the main source of energy and are concentrated in some regions of the world, therefore direct contamination occurs in areas where they are stored or processed. A majority of electricity consumed by cities and countries across the world is produced from fossil fuels, which accounts for the highest percentage of overall CO2 production in that particular country. People will share the common global environmental problems, either it is local or regional, hence immediate actions are needed to tackle problems at national and regional and global levels. Fortunately, with the advent of new technologies and intervention strategies, it is possible to reduce pollution and reduce the rate of rising global temperature that might result in better economy and ecological systems as well as providing sustainable energy resources. In this research the data on nonrenewable energy sources, fossil fuel reserves in different regions, production and consumption rate of fossils have been identified and reviewed. Additionally, mathematical calculation has been done to find the carbon dioxide emission amounts, both international and national legislations as well as further recommendations have been provided to reduce or prevent emissions.
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Ethnobotanical Study of ARTEMISIA IFRANENSIS J. DIDIER in Timahdite Region (Central Middle Atlas of Morocco)

With the purpose of valorizing the aromatic and medicinal plants, essentielly the Asteraceae family, and ethnopharmacological heritage in the area of Timahdite province of Ifrane, Morocco. An fieldwork has been carried and consists of conducting an ethnobotanical survey on Artemisia ifranensis J. Didier, endemic species, in the region of Timahdite, located in the Moroccan Middle Atlas. The Ethnobotanical study realised in June-July 2012 beside 82 different respondents permitted to describe their medicinal use at the local scale based on the local Known-how, and constitute a source of very precious information for the area studied and for subsequent researches for the domains of the phytochemistry and pharmacology in order to search for new natural substance. In tyhis study, the survey targeted men (70 %) and women (30 %), aged 30 to 50 years and The data Analysis showed that the overall level of schooling of the town was low (64% of the illiterate). The results of the study also had allowed to notice that the leaves was the usual used part (61 %). Most remedies are prepared in decoction (72%). Either, the survey revealed that the medicinal specie was mainly used against diseases of the digestive tract (63%), as well as for other treatment of various diseases as dermatological affection, and for relieving headaches or neuralgia. Moreover, it also comes out from it that the conservation and the sustainable management of the medicinal species identified should be ensured through a management plan.
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Gangliocytic Paraganglioma of the Appendix; A Rare Case Report and Review

Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) (nonchromaffin paraganglioma, paraganglioma) is a morphologically distinct tumor most commonly occurring in the second part of the duodenum in the proximity of ampulla of Vater. We herein, present a case report of appendiceal mass in a 16-year-old male who presented with recurrent right iliac fossa pain and steno sing cecal tumor on CT abdomen. He underwent right hemicolectomy and histopathological examination of appendix showed infiltration of appendiceal wall with gangliocytic paraganglioma. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of gangliocytic paraganglioma of appendix in our area.
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Clodronate : A Potential DMOAD in Osteoarthtitis

Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory-degenerative joint disease that affects the osteochondral unit with the concomitant intervention of the immune system; this causes pain and progressive functional limitation. With a varied and complex etiopathogenesis, Osteoarthritis has a subtle outcome and an inexorable evolution towards joint deformity. The therapeutic approach makes use of non-pharmacological and pharmacological aids. Pharmacological therapy consists of symptomatic drugs that act on acute and especially chronic pain, in an attempt to decrease the incidence of any structural damage to the cartilage and subchondral bone. If the anti-resorptive drugs cure the subchondral-epiphyseal osteometabolic pathology, the interventions on the cartilage have not produced important and well evaluable results, even after prolonged therapies. This contribution analyzes the profile of Clodronate, used for the treatment of subchondral bone edema in Osteoarthritis, regarding its potential protective effects in cartilage, like DMOADs.
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Knowledge, Attitude, Acceptance and Utilization of the Female Condom Among Population in Brazzaville

Introduction: Knowledge and use of the male condom is not uncommon. This study sought to fill this gap by exploring Female Condom knowledge, attitude, acceptance and use in a sample of population to inform intervention measures aimed at increasing the acceptability and usage of the Female Condom taking into cognizance its safety and effectiveness. Method Study: A cross-sectional survey conducted between May and July 2019, was used to explore knowledge, attitudes and practices on the female condom targeting Congolese population at Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. To allow the participants to respond to the questionnaire at a time comfortable to him/her. Results: Seven hundred and twenty questionnaires were administered and 567 questionnaires were included in the final analysis giving a response rate of 81%. In total, 277 men and 290 women aged 14 to 63 participated in the study. Among the participants who have already seen the female condom, 80 have already used it, i.e. 21.3%. Of the 80 individuals who reported ever using a female condom, 43 (53.7%) used the female condom with a usual partner and 17 (21.3%) used it with a new partner. Concerning factors contributing to low usage of the female condom, the majority either had difficulty installing (26.3%); great difficulty in fitting (17.5%); the use of the female condom was simply uncomfortable (25%). Discussion: Our study population included 68.3% of participants with higher education, which explains the fact that there is (93.8%) has heard talk about the female condom and among them 66.3% have already seen the female condom. Only 66.3% of people have ever seen a female condom, on the other hand very few people have used it. The majority of people had difficulty using the female condom, including difficulty in inserting the female condom. Difficulties related to the female condom insertion were reported by the majority of the respondents. Conclusion: This study revealed critical gaps in knowledge, condom use, and negotiation skills and highlights the unmet need for interventions to further educate and empower women with and without HIV to prevent spread of HIV in this high-prevalence, high-risk population.
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An Unexpected Diagnosis of Plasmacytoma of The Thyroid: A Case Report and Review of The Literature

Plasmacytoma is a malignant proliferation of plasma cells that can arise in the bone marrow (osseous) and in the soft tissues. Extramedullary plasmacytomas most commonly occur in the upper respiratory tract. Thyroid involvement is rare. In this report, we describe a new case plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland in a 60-year-old man with a history of multinodular goiter present for several years and an unexpected rapid increase of the mass associated to dysphagia, dyspnea, and dysphonia. Histopathological examination of surgical specimen, along with immunohistochemical studies, unexpectedly led to the diagnosis of plasmacytoma. We also briefly summarize the last 30 years of literature on thyroid plasmacytoma and review the salient characteristics of this rare condition.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to


Departments of Pediatrics and Surgery
University of California
United States

Henry H. Y. Tong

School of Health Sciences
Macao Polytechnic Institute


Centre for Advanced Computational Solutions
Lincoln University
New Zealand

Dr. Amarnath Mishra

Assistant Professor
Amity Institute of Forensic Sciences
Amity University

Tuan D. Pham

Aizu Research Cluster for Medical Engineering and Informatics
The University of Aizu

Yalin Wu

Department of pharmaceutics
Zhejiang University

Bulang Gao

Department of Medical Research
Hebei Medical University

Chiang-Ting Chien

Department of Biology
National Taiwan Normal University


Toxicogenomics and Predictive Toxicology Division


Professor of “100 talent” at the Institute of Zoology
Chinese Academy of Sciences
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