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Articles Related to TIC

Bacteriology and Antibiogram of pathogens isolated from wound infections at Cheshire Hall Medical Laboratory, Turks and Caicos Islands

To identify pathogens that are frequently isolated from wound infections in the Turks and Caicos Islands and formulate antibiogram based on their patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility. Bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility data from 1343 wound swabs cultured at the Cheshire Hall Medical Laboratory between January 2013 and November 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique was used to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 79.1% of the 1343 swabs cultured were positive yielding a total of 1687 bacterial isolates. Frequently isolated bacteria included Staphylococcus aureus which accounted for 27.6% of isolates, approximately a third of which were methicillin resistant, Pseudomonas spp. (12.1%), Proteus spp. (8.2%), Enterococcus spp. (7.8%), E. coli (7.2%), Streptococcus agalactiae (6.1%), Klebsiella spp. (5.5%), Acinetobacter spp. (4.3%), coagulase negative Staphyloccus (4.0%) and Enterobacter spp. (3.7%). The overall highest resistance rates were seen among tetracycline (46.3%), erythromycin (37.6%) and ceftriaxone (34.2%). Imipenem, penicillin, meropenem and vancomycin had sensitivity rates ranging from 92.3% to 99.5%. Individual resistance rates varied among isolates, some differing significantly from overall rates. When tested against antibiotics routinely used to treat Pseudomonas spp., resistance rates ranged from 1.4-55.5%.
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Oxygen Balance Homeostasis and Tissue Metabolic Score (TMS) of Patients in Emergency and Critical Care Medicine

Patients admitted to the emergency room or intensive care units (ICUs) need real-time monitoring of body oxygen balance. As of today, the availability of monitoring devices that provide real-time data on tissue level of oxygen homeostasis is very limited. The involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in many pathological states such as stroke, sepsis or heart failure is calling for a real-time evaluation of this intracellular organelle. In order to avoid the deterioration of the most vital organs in the body (brain and heart), we are proposing to monitor a less vital organ, such as the urethral wall, that serves as an early warning signal for the deterioration of body oxygen balance.
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Influences of Various Antibiotics on Clinical Biofilm Producing Staphylococcus Aureus Strains

Biofilm is the layer which is formed with the matrix produced through accumulation of the free organisms on a proper surface. This layer makes treatment of S.aureus infections difficult as it makes S.aureus resistant to antibiotics and inhibits phagocytosis.
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Five Cases of an Accessory Left Vertebral Artery on the Aortic Arch

Vascular variations of the head and neck are common, but oft en go unnoticed because they generally do not present clear clinical symptoms. Lack of awareness of the presence and location of such variations may result in iatrogenic complications or even fatalities. Physicians and surgeons should be cognizant of such variations given their potential clinical signifi cance.
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The Incidence and Durability of Compensatory Hypertrophy in Pediatric Patients with Solitary Kidneys

To evaluate the incidence and durability of compensatory hypertrophy with solitary kidneys in the setting of those with multicystic dysplastic kidney or Wilms tumor status post nephrectomy. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) and Wilms tumor (WT). MCDK patients were verified by sonographic findings prenatally. WT patients entered our study at time of nephrectomy. We compared the natural history of hypertrophy between the two cohorts via renal length measurement. We performed linear regression to predict creatinine clearance from renal length after adjusting for age and cohort status (MCDK v. WT).
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Novel Multi-Functional Dental Cement for Enamel Remineralization and AntiCariogenic Bacteria Activity

This experimental study evaluated the release of fluoride and several minerals related to remineralization from novel functional cement, apatite ionomer cement (AIC), and its anti-bacterial properties compared with glass ionomer cement (GIC) and surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer filler containing composite resin (giomer). Conventional GIC (Fuji III, GC Co., Tokyo, Japan) was used as the control and fundamental materials. In the AIC powder, 28% wt of GIC powder was replaced with spherical-shaped hydroxyapatite powder. The giomer, BeautiSealant (Shofu Co., Kyoto, Japan), was used as a positive control. Each specimen was immersed in deionized water and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (for Al, Si, P, Ca and Sr) and a fluoride-selective electrode. Antibacterial activity against Streptococccus mutans was evaluated using the adenosine-5’-triphosphate luminescence method. Concentrations of released ions from AIC specimens were significantly higher than those from GIC and giomer specimens. Regarding antibacterial activity, luminescence intensity of the AIC group was significantly lower than that of the control and giomer groups. It was concluded that AIC could be a most suitable material for pit and fissure sealant for enamel remineralization and anti-cariogenic and -bacterial activity.
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High Glucose Modulates Responsiveness to Estrogens of Human Derived Female Cultured Osteoblasts and in Osteoblastic Cell Lines

Human female- derived osteoblast- like cells in culture (hObs) and the cell lines (SaOS2 and hFOB) express mRNAs involved in bone biology and physiology such as estrogen receptor α (ERα) and α (ERα), vitamin D receptor (VDR), 1α, 25 (OH) vitamin D3 hydroxylase (1OHase) and 12 and 15 lipoxygenases (12LO and 15LO). These mRNAs are modulated by estrogenic compounds. Since the skeletal protective effects of estrogens are not discernible in diabetic women, we tested the estrogenic modulations of these parameters in cells grown in growth medium containing high glucose (HG; 9.0g/L; 44mM) compared to normal glucose (NG; 4.5g/L; 22mM). HG significantly increased DNA synthesis (DNA) and creatine kinase specific activity (CK). Stimulations of DNA but not of CK by estradiol-17β (E2), by 4, 4’, 4’’-[4-propyl-(1H)-pyrazol-1, 3, 5- triyl] tris-phenol (PPT; ERa specific agonist), or by 2, 3-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN; ER β specific agonist), were modulated by HG. HG Itself up regulated the expression of mRNA of 12LO and 15LO and to less extent ERβ and VDR, but had no effect on ERα and 1OHase mRNA expression. The different hormonal treatments modulated the expressions of VDR, 1OHase, 12LO and 15LO mRNAs which were reduced in HG, whereas the induction of their products 1α, 25 dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (1,25D) and 12- and 15- hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12 and 15 HETE) were only slightly affected by HG. The exact mechanism of HG effects on bone cell responses and its relationship to human bone physiology is not yet clear.
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Current Trends and Risks of Autism and Vaccine Delivery

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is regular heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms like disability in social association, repetitive behavior interest and activities. Etiology of autism and different speculations of ASD were proposed keeping in mind the end goal to clarify the pathophysiology of ASD.
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Phytochemical Study on Ticodendron incognitum (Ticodendraceae) and Determination of its Antimalarial Activity in Vitro

Ticodendron incognitum the only species of the Ticodendraceae family was discovered in Costa Rica in 1989 and currently there are no reports on its chemical composition or biological activity.
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Consumption of Gnetum Africanum and Effects on Dislipidemia in Diabetic Rats

Part of the study was to assess the concentration of secondary metabolic (total: phenolic, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin, tannin) and the antioxidant activities in methanol (MeOH) and methanol-water (MeOH-H2O) extract of GnA.
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A Traumatic Context Can Hide a Sexual Rape

Aeric syndrome during a multiple trauma reflects the severity of this latter, which made mention to extra thoracic or intra thoracic lesion. This requires a good diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. We report the case of a young patient admitted to emergency in an array of closed multiple traumas where the etiological diagnosis was rare and unknown. This case highlights that a careful questioning and a good examination in admission can reveal earlier the diagnosis, the thing that was not well led in our case, because the patient was mute, anxious, and not cooperating making unnoticed rape history.
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Using Simulation and Data Mining For Engineering Knowledge Improvement

Significant work has been attempted to better comprehend the attributes and mechanisms suggested in simulation and data mining in precedent research. More prominent understanding causes not only give progresses in numerous fields but also enable experts to better consider the last target.
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An Insight into the Role of Spliceosomal Mutations in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

The identification of altered splicing signatures in Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) could likely provide key markers for diagnosis, prognostication and development of novel therapeutics. This review presents an insight into role of spliceosomal gene mutations in the pathogenesis of MDS, emphasizing on their clinical and prognostic significance. We also discuss emerging studies delineating the functional consequences of these mutations and pointing towards the emergence of a new leukemogenic pathway involving spliceosomal dysfunction.
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Defeating Surgical Anguish: A Worldwide Tale of Creativity, Hostility, and Discovery

In the pre-anesthesia era, the anguish of planned surgical maneuver was dreadful and the experience of actual procedure “utterly speechless torture”. Although, the concept of pain relief and even total insensibility was not unfamiliar to medical profession, some of the “Big Giants in Medicine” believed “knife and pain as inseparable” and the efforts to relieve or prevent pain “in vain”. In such a situation the anesthesia,one of the greatest boons of science for mankind, “burst like a revolution on medical profession”. Despite hostility from religious sect, professional colleagues and civil societies the pioneers in discovery of anesthesia stood firm, unshaken by the negative criticism. Although the fate of the active contestant of “Ether Controversy” was mournful,their untiring and dedicated struggle to relieve the sufferings of mankind can never be underscored. Renowned Arab surgeon Ibn al Quff (1232-1286 AD) was the first to suggest anesthesia as independent speciality. However, it took almost 700 years for his dream to come true.
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Modified and Combined Lateral and Posterolateral Approach an Alternative Treatment to Tibial Plateau Fractures

The selection of a surgical approach for the treatment of tibia plateau fractures is an important decision. Approximately 7% of all tibia plateau fractures affect the posterolateral corner. Displaced posterolateral tibia plateau fractures require anatomic articular reduction and buttress plate fixation on the posterior aspect. These aims are difficult to reach through a lateral or anterolateral approach. The standard posterolateral approach with fibula osteotomy and release of the posterolateral corner is a traumatic procedure, which includes the risk of fragment denudation. Isolated posterior approaches do not allow sufficient visual control of fracture reduction, especially if the fracture is complex. Therefore, the aim of this case report was to present a surgical approach for posterolateral tibial plateau fractures that both protects the soft tissue and allows for good visual control of fracture reduction. The approach involves a lateral arthrotomy for visualizing the joint surface and a posterolateral approach for the fracture reduction and plate fixation, which are both achieved through one posterolateral skin incision. Using this approach, we achieved reduction of the articular surface and stable fixation in patients at the final follow-up visit. No complications and no loss of reduction were observed. Additionally, the new posterolateral approach permits direct visual exposure and facilitates the application of a buttress plate. This approach does not require fibular osteotomy, and fragments of the posterolateral corner do not have to be detached from the soft tissue network.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to TIC

EHAB SAMIR AZIZ FARAG

Associate Professor
Department of General Anesthesiology
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine
United States

Arvind Chhabra

Assistant Professor
Department Of Medicine
University of Connecticut Health Center
United States

Keith Murphy

Professor
Department of Biological Sciences
North Dakota State University
United States

Richard Simman

Clinical Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
Wright State University Boonshoft School
United States

Gregory Murphy

Professor
Department of Health Science
La Trobe University
Australia

Domenico Rubello

Director
Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT Centre
Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital
Italy

VANA SPOULOU

Associate Professor
Department of Paediatrics
University of Athens Medical School
Greece

Julie Teruya-Feldstein

Director
Hematopathology
Immunohistochemistry Laboratory
United States

Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa

Professor
Pesticide Chemistry Department
National Research Centre (NRC)
Egypt

Zuhair Muhi-eldeen

Professor
Department of Medicinal chemistry
Petra University
Jordan
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