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Review Article: Managing Spinal Cord Injury on Anesthesiologists’ Perspective

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is trauma to the area of the vertebrae resulting in spinal cord lesions resulting in neurological disorders, depending on the location of the spinal nerve damage and the injured nerve tissue. The symptoms of SCI can range from pain and paralysis to incontinence. SCI due to trauma is estimated to occur in 30-40 per million population per year, and about 8,000- 10,000 sufferers each year; generally, occurs in adolescents and young adults. Although the annual incidence of events is relatively low, the cost of care and rehabilitation for spinal cord injuries is very high, at around US $ 53,000 / patient.
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Bosma Syndrome “Mimic” in a Young Infant - Case Report and Literature Review

Bosma arrhinia microphthalmia syndrome is a rare entity of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormalities of the nose and eyes and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
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Narrative Review of Challenges and Considerations in Resuming Elective Gynaecology Surgery in Climate of Continuing Community Transmission of Covid-19 in a Low Resource Setting

The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020 and since then COVID-19 infection has been reported in all parts of the world. Several Healthcare systems reduced or canceled none emergency or urgent surgeries to effectively manage the pandemic. Recently, the reported incidence of new cases of COVID-19 has reduced in some regions and some Healthcare systems are resuming elective gynecologic surgery. This narrative review explores the challenges of planning and resuming elective gynecologic surgery in a climate of continuing community transmission.
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Formulation and Evaluation of Sustained Occular Delivery of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride

The aim of the present work was formulation and evaluation of in-situ gelling system of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride. The poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by conventional ophthalmic solution due to rapid precorneal elimination of the drug may be overcomed by the use of in-situ gel forming system that are installed as drop into the eye and undergo sol to gel transition in the cul-de-sac.
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How the Artificial Intelligence Tool Psumo-CD is working for Predicting Sumoylation Sites in Proteins

In 2016 a very powerful AI (artificial intelligence) tool has been established for predicting sumoylation sites in proteins, one of the most important post modifications in proteins [1].
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Solid State Characterization of Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Magnesium Gluconate using PXRD, PSA, DSC and TGA/DTG Analysis

Magnesium gluconate (Mag-G) is an important nutraceutical and pharmaceutical compound used as a source of magnesium to maintain the overall quality of life as well as for the prevention and treatment of various human diseases. The current study evaluated the influence of the Trivedi Effect® on the physicochemical and thermal properties of Mag-G using sophisticated analytical techniques. Mag-G powder was divided into control and treated parts.
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A Thoroughgoing Detail of Surgical Dressings

Injury to the skin provides a unique challenge, as wound healing is a complex and intricate process. Acute wounds have the potential to move from the acute wound to chronic wounds, requiring the physician to have a thorough understanding of outside interventions to bring these wounds back into the healing cascade. Surgical enrichment/dressings are applications for wounds, burns, and ulcers. They should be regarded as supportive of healing; are desirable but not essential in an emergency.
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A Simple Method for the Quantification of Atenolol from the Forensic Human Blood and Visceral Samples by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography

A simple High-Performance Thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method has been developed for determination of atenolol in human blood and viscera. The mobile phase was ethyl acetate, acetone, ethyl alcohol, ammonia solution in the ratio of 45:45:7:3. The densitometry scanning at 254 nm was found to be maximum absorption for standard atenolol. The standard and extracted atenolol from samples were detected by HPTLC and confirmed with authenticated spectra at 254 nm. The quantity of the atenolol determined to be 1.6 µg for viscera and 1.5 µg for blood sample.
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Successful use of Eltrombopag for Management of Temozolomide Related Severe Prolonged Thrombocytopenia and Aplastic Anaemia in The Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) in a Regional Centre: A Case Report and Literature Review

Temozolomide is an orally administered chemotherapeutic drug used concurrently with radiation for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Although the addition of Temozolomide has shown to improve overall survival, it is commonly associated with haematological complications. Eltrombopag is an oral thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist that is also used off-label for temozolomide-induced aplastic anaemia.
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Thrombocytopenia and Predicting the Severity of Coronavirus 2019

The novel coronavirus, SARS-COV-2, that has emerged as pneumonia (COVID-19), is raising global concern. The current study aimed to quantify the diagnostic value of platelet count for the disease severity assessment.
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Case Study: SAT, A New Treatment for Clinical Goat Endometritis

Endometritis is a common disease in peripartum livestock leading to economic losses. A two-year-old, primiparous Egyptian Baladi doe suffered from mucopurulent endometritis. In a standing position using a new treatment called SAT, 10 ml of boiling water (≈100 oC) was slowly injected within the uterine lumen. Peripheral blood and cervical discharge samples were collected before injection (bi) and at 8, 24, 48, 96, 144 and 216 hrs. post injection (pi) and were sent to the lab.
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An Adjuvant Approach to Alleviate Reoccurring or Treatment Resistant Symptoms of IBD in Companion Animals

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common yet distressing condition afflicting tissues of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in companion animals; symptoms include vomiting, diarrhoea, loss of appetite and weight loss. Pathogenesis of IBD may link to both diet and parasitic or bacterial infections of the gut. Although current treatments may provide some relief to the animal, unfortunately recurrent flaring of symptoms is not uncommon. Therapeutic interventions available to the veterinarian include those that focus on treating any underlying infection and or a change in diet, both employed with the aim of reducing inflammation.
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Seasonal Abundance of the Seychelles Scale, Icerya Seychellarum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) Infesting Guava Trees

The main objective of the present work was to study the population trend of the Seychelles scale, Icerya seychellarum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) on guava trees at Abu-Suwair district in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt during two consecutive years (2018-19). The results showed that insect population was recorded on guava trees all the year round and has three peaks of seasonal activity per year i.e., June, August/September and November.
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Multiple Sclerosis Disease Modifying Therapy and Cancer risks

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory condition not commonly associated with cancer. Although since 1993 with the introduction of disease modifying therapies (DMTs), changing the natural history of the disease, cancer risk appears associated with some of these new therapies. We present the most common risks associated with each DMTs.
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Melphalan Impacts Temporarily on Pancreatic Enzymes

Multiple myeloma is a malignant disease caused by monoclonal proliferation of multiple myeloma plasma cells [1]. In patients, high-dose melphalan chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation are administered. Common side effects of high dose melphalan are oral mucositis, enteritis, and neutropenia [2].
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to m

SIVAKUMAR S. BALAKRISHNAN

Associate Professor
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Penang Medical College
Malaysia

Carmelo Romeo

Pediatric Surgeon
Department of Pediatric, Gynecological, Microbiological and Biomedical Sceinces
University of Messina
Italy

Eleazar Chaib

Professor
Department of Surgery and Anatomy
University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine
Brazil

Syed Aitizaz Uddin

Deputy Chief Cardiac Surgery
Pediatric Cardiac Surgeon
Madinah Cardiac Center
Saudi Arabia

Sayed M. Hassan

Senior Research Scientist
University of Georgia
USA

V. Ashok Kumar

Research Scientist
Department of Aeronautics
National Cheng Kung University
Taiwan

Altayeb Ahmed

Associate Professor
Department of Basic Medical Sciences
King Saudi Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences
Saudi Arabia

Simone Maurea

Associate Professor
Diagnostic Imaging
University Federico
Italy

RAMTEKE KULDEEP HEMRAJ

Associate Professor
Department of pharmaceutics
Modern College of Pharmacy
India

Ashraf Naeem

Associate professor
Department of Anatomy & Embryology
Zagazig University
Egypt
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