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Obesity and its Correlates among Junior High School Children in the Accra Metropolis

The prevalence of obesity is on the increase worldwide due to changes in diet and physical activity patterns. Childhood obesity is now a major public health challenge in advanced economies. Obesity in childhood tends to persist into adulthood and to predispose to non-communicable diseases. There is little data on childhood obesity and its correlates and determinants in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out using simple random sampling technique to select 260 junior high school children aged 11-15 years from six basic schools (n=768) from three different socioeconomic (low, middle, high) areas of Accra, the capital city of Ghana.
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Relationship between Weight Pre-Pregnancy and Weight Gain during Pregnancy with Preterm Birth

Worldwide alarming increase of obesity prevalence has led the WHO to take into consideration as one of the most serious global health problems of the 21st century. 40% of women worldwide are overweight. The leading causes of obesity prevalence in women more often becaouse during pregnancy and before pregnancy they gain excess weight. The rapid increase of obesity prevalence especially among women in the World cause women begin pregnancy overweight or obese and this can cause problems about pregnancy and birth.
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Effects of Mutual Interaction between Constituent Elements on Phase Formation of High Entropy Alloys

High entropy alloys (HEAs) are alloys that contains multiple elements, often five or more principal elements in equiatomic or near equiatomic ratio with or without minor elements. As felt from the name, high mixing entropy is the sole parameter to decide the solid solution alloy formation in HEAs but, the mutual interaction between elements are key parameters to predict the phase formation in HEAs as proposed by some researchers. In this review the guideline for alloy design in HEAs for the formation of solid solution phases are proposed on basis of atomic size difference (δ), mixing entropy (ΔSmix), mixing enthalpy (ΔHmix), valence electron concentration (VEC) and electronegativity difference (Δχ).
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Evaluation of Apolipoprotein E Fragmentation as a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease

Recent studies have supported a role for the proteolytic cleavage of apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) as a potential mechanism for the enhanced dementia risk associated with Alzheimer’s disease. To determine whether APOE4 fragmentation is correlated with AD, ELISA assays were performed with cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples utilizing an antibody that specifically detects a 17 kDa amino-terminal fragment (p17) of APOE (nApoECF antibody). In CSF samples, levels of APOE fragmentation were minimal in both neuropathological normals (NPNs) and AD cases and there were no significant differences between the two cohorts across APOE genotypes.
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Atypical Granulomatous Lesion of Gingiva: A Case Report on Rare Manifestation of Tuberculosis in Oral Cavity

Primary tuberculosis lesion in oral cavity is a rare clinical entity. We report a case of gingival tuberculosis manifested as chronic ulceration with pus discharge.
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Effect of Chlorhexidine Application on Dentin Bond Strength Durability of Two Etch-and-Rinse Adhesive versus a Universal Bond System

Application of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP) inhibitors such as chlorhexidine (CHX) is capable of reducing bond strength loss over time by preventing collagen fibrils degradation.
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Comparison of Various Security Features of Genuine, Scanned and Photocopied Indian Currency Note of the Denomination 2000

A banknote is a type of a negotiable instrument known as a promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand. The Indian Rupee is the official currency of the Republic of India. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. In this modern epoch, circulation of counterfeit currency has greatly augmented as the most common unlawful activity.
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Usefulness of a Pressure Wire for the Diagnosis of Vasospastic Angina during a Spasm Provocation Test

Spasm provocation tests (SPTs) using a pressure wire and compared the results with those from patients who underwent the same test without a pressure wire.
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Primary Osteosarcoma of the Nasal Fossa: An Exceptional Presentation

Sarcomas of the head and neck are very rare accounting for approximately 1% of all head and neck neoplasms. Primary osteosarcomas of the nasal cavity are less than 0.5% of the osteosarcomas occur in this location. Because of the rarity of this presentation, we report a case of a 54 year old male with primary osteosarcoma arising de novo from the nasal cavity, presented with left epistaxis and bilateral nasal obstruction.
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DNA Polymerase as Therapeutic Intervention for Treating Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

In recent years, increasing evidence has pointed to the potential role of fibrinolysis in the pathogenesis of MS. Based on hypotheses describing the aggressive autoimmune responses observed in MS patients, a result of impaired between (t-PA and PA1-1) which are a key molecules in both fibrinolysis and extracellular proteolysis. The present study was done to investigate the therapeutic potential of polymerase enzyme in modulating the changes occurred between levels of Tissue- type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) in patients with multiple sclerosis. A pilot study was carried out on a total of twenty-one patients (17 females, 4 males; aged 22-46 years) with demyelination suggestive of MS and clinically silent T2 brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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Processes in Experiences with Uncertainty: How to Approach?

Design of the paper is on the line of combining different knowledge in one space and separating the communicative aspects. The goal of the article is to present a multilevel spacetime model to combine uncertainties to the form of information that gives new possibilities for social interaction and personal growth and development. The study limited itself with studies in three fields-mathematics (AI, number enneagram structures), sociology and world development (interactions visualized with graphs).
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Production and Quality Evaluation of Instant Sorrel (Zobo) Drink Produced by Infusion, Dehydration and Size Reduction Methods

Instant sorrel drink (IZD) was developed by processing purple sorrel calyx into powdery form by the method of infusion, and dehydration and size reduction. Another purple sorrel calyx was processed into liquid zobo drink (LZD); and both the IZD and LZD were subjected to sensory evaluation using the total number of thirty five (35) panels of judges and data was subjected to t-test and preference test analytical tools; and found that IZD was also acceptable by the sensory panelists because the T-tabulated is 2.064, while T-calculated is -14.37 with standard deviations of 0.32 (P≥0.05) between the means; hence, there was no significance difference between the reconstituted IZD and the LZD, because T-calculated is not greater than the T-tabulated.
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Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor: Case Report

Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor (AOT) is a benign tumor, most common in the maxilla, characterized by slow, progressive, painless growth of firm consistency, the size of which usually does not reach large proportions.
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Metabolic Syndrome in Indigenous Amerindian Women in Suriname; Less on Waist and More on Weight?

The indigenous Amerindian populations living in the southern interior part of Suriname have to date largely maintained their traditional hunter-gatherer life-style. In this study we compared the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MeTS) and its component risk factors between indigenous Amerindian women of the interior of Suriname, with indigenous Amerindian women living in the coastal-rural areas who have a more urbanized lifestyle. We focused on women since the Suriname Health study showed that Indigenous women had the second highest MeTS prevalence nationwide.
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Detection of Anti-Trypanosoma Cruzi Antibodies among Donors at A Blood Bank from Southern Mexico, Using an Iron Superoxide Dismutase Excreted (Fe-Sode) as Antigen

Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease in humans, is a widely spread protozoan in Latin America. Chronically infected people are asymptomatic during an indeterminate stage but can represent a significant risk of transmission due to blood donations and organ transplants. Blood transfusion is recognized as the second most important path for transmitting of Chagas disease
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to m

EHAB SAMIR AZIZ FARAG

Associate Professor
Department of General Anesthesiology
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine
United States

ANURADHA KHANNA

Professor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Institute of Medical Sciences
Banaras Hindu University India

Tamer Atif Mohamed Dawod

Associate Professor
Faculty of Medicine
Mansoura University
Egypt

Hao Shen

Associate Professor
Department of Microbiology
United States

Shahrel Azmin Suandi

School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Malaysia

MICHAEL CHARLES MORRIS

Associate Professor
Solid Organ Transplantation
University of Nebraska Medical Center
United States

Michael Zhuo Wang

Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
The University of Kansas
United States

Xinyong Liu

Professor
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Shandong University
China

Maythem M Saeed

Adjunct Professor
Department of Radiology
School of Medicine
University of California
United States

Lin Feng

Associate Professor
Bioinformatics Research Centre
Nanyang Technological University
Singapore
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