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His Bundle Pacing: Short Review of Literature and Technical Aspects

History of pacing has evolved from the primitive state of temporary transvenous pacing by a large fixed machine to leadless modern technology. The pacing site has also been changed from traditional right ventricular apex to various other sites. The concept behind such experiment was due to several complications in the long term from traditional Right Ventricular Apical Pacing (RVAP). The His Bundle pacing results in conduction and contraction similar to and more often called physiological pacing. This mini-review describes the short history of the evolution of the concept of His Bundle pacing and its technical aspects of successful implantation.
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Early Spondyloarthritis Presenting as Premenopausal Osteoporosis and Multiple Vertebral Fractures: A Case Report

We report a 30-year-old woman who presented during pregnancy with mechanical type backache due to non-traumatic multiple vertebral fractures. In-depth the assessment revealed multiple risk factors for osteoporosis, including adolescent steroid use for asthma, prolonged breastfeeding, and vitamin D deficiency. She also had persistently elevated inflammatory markers with radiological evidence of early inflammatory Sacro-ileitis. The rheumatoid factor and HLA B27 were negative. She was successfully managed with NSAIDS, zoledronic acid, and calcium supplementation. This is an example of early inflammatory arthritis in the background of multiple risk factors causing osteoporosis severe enough to cause fragility fractures. This signifies the importance of screening for multiple risk factors in pre-menopausal osteoporosis even in the presence of one or two identified risk factors.
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Evaluation of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Nano-Fertilizers on Yield, Yield Components and Fiber Properties of Egyptian Cotton (Gossypium Barbadense L.)

Field experiments were carried out in Agricultural and Experimental Research Station in years 2016 and 2017 to evaluate NPK nano- fertilizers application, times, methods and rates on yield and fi ber properties of Egyptian cotton (Giza, 90). Th e experiment was laid out in a split-split-plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications.
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Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Rainfall and Rainy Days over the Goa State

Planning for water resources development in a basin or over a region requires careful assessment of the available water resources and reasonable needs of the basin/region in foreseeable future for various purposes such as drinking water, irrigation, hydro-power, navigation, etc. There are several ongoing river water disputes between different states of India, especially in the peninsular region due to decrease in rainfall during the past 15 years or so. The sharing of water of the Mondovi River is a cause of dispute between the Governments of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Goa states. An attempt has therefore, been made to study the characteristics of rainfall distribution over the Goa state using daily and monthly rainfall data. The study mostly comprises of spatial distribution of rainfall, seasonal and annual rainfall trend, relationship between rainfall and rainy days, mean daily rainfall intensity (MDI) and yearly variation of rainfall as well. The results of this study would form basis for various studies in administrating fresh water sources, projecting the investments to prevent the urban areas from the flood and proper planning of the agricultural activities in the State.
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The Incidence and Durability of Compensatory Hypertrophy in Pediatric Patients with Solitary Kidneys

To evaluate the incidence and durability of compensatory hypertrophy with solitary kidneys in the setting of those with multicystic dysplastic kidney or Wilms tumor status post nephrectomy. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) and Wilms tumor (WT). MCDK patients were verified by sonographic findings prenatally. WT patients entered our study at time of nephrectomy. We compared the natural history of hypertrophy between the two cohorts via renal length measurement. We performed linear regression to predict creatinine clearance from renal length after adjusting for age and cohort status (MCDK v. WT).
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Novel Multi-Functional Dental Cement for Enamel Remineralization and AntiCariogenic Bacteria Activity

This experimental study evaluated the release of fluoride and several minerals related to remineralization from novel functional cement, apatite ionomer cement (AIC), and its anti-bacterial properties compared with glass ionomer cement (GIC) and surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer filler containing composite resin (giomer). Conventional GIC (Fuji III, GC Co., Tokyo, Japan) was used as the control and fundamental materials. In the AIC powder, 28% wt of GIC powder was replaced with spherical-shaped hydroxyapatite powder. The giomer, BeautiSealant (Shofu Co., Kyoto, Japan), was used as a positive control. Each specimen was immersed in deionized water and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (for Al, Si, P, Ca and Sr) and a fluoride-selective electrode. Antibacterial activity against Streptococccus mutans was evaluated using the adenosine-5’-triphosphate luminescence method. Concentrations of released ions from AIC specimens were significantly higher than those from GIC and giomer specimens. Regarding antibacterial activity, luminescence intensity of the AIC group was significantly lower than that of the control and giomer groups. It was concluded that AIC could be a most suitable material for pit and fissure sealant for enamel remineralization and anti-cariogenic and -bacterial activity.
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Dysautonomia after Spinal Cord Injury: A Clinical Case

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High Glucose Modulates Responsiveness to Estrogens of Human Derived Female Cultured Osteoblasts and in Osteoblastic Cell Lines

Human female- derived osteoblast- like cells in culture (hObs) and the cell lines (SaOS2 and hFOB) express mRNAs involved in bone biology and physiology such as estrogen receptor α (ERα) and α (ERα), vitamin D receptor (VDR), 1α, 25 (OH) vitamin D3 hydroxylase (1OHase) and 12 and 15 lipoxygenases (12LO and 15LO). These mRNAs are modulated by estrogenic compounds. Since the skeletal protective effects of estrogens are not discernible in diabetic women, we tested the estrogenic modulations of these parameters in cells grown in growth medium containing high glucose (HG; 9.0g/L; 44mM) compared to normal glucose (NG; 4.5g/L; 22mM). HG significantly increased DNA synthesis (DNA) and creatine kinase specific activity (CK). Stimulations of DNA but not of CK by estradiol-17β (E2), by 4, 4’, 4’’-[4-propyl-(1H)-pyrazol-1, 3, 5- triyl] tris-phenol (PPT; ERa specific agonist), or by 2, 3-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN; ER β specific agonist), were modulated by HG. HG Itself up regulated the expression of mRNA of 12LO and 15LO and to less extent ERβ and VDR, but had no effect on ERα and 1OHase mRNA expression. The different hormonal treatments modulated the expressions of VDR, 1OHase, 12LO and 15LO mRNAs which were reduced in HG, whereas the induction of their products 1α, 25 dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (1,25D) and 12- and 15- hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12 and 15 HETE) were only slightly affected by HG. The exact mechanism of HG effects on bone cell responses and its relationship to human bone physiology is not yet clear.
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Clinical and Paraclinical Profile of Patients in First Nephrology Consultation at the Aristide Le Dantec University Hospital Center (ALD-UHC) About 542 Cases

Late recourse to nephrology consultation remains a topical issue which concerns both developed and developing countries such that a majority of the patients are seen to be at an advanced stage of chronic kidney diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical and paraclinical profile of patients referred for primary nephrological consultation.
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Preliminary Investigation of the Interaction of Misoprostol and Phenylbutazone on Bone Response to Injury in Horses

Phenylbutazone (PBZ) is commonly used in equine patients for treatment of orthopedic injuries. Phenylbutazone may adversely affect bone healing because of suppression of prostaglandin production. We hypothesized that administration of the prostaglandin analog misoprostol would enhance bone healing and mitigate the untoward effects of PBZ on bone response to injury in horses. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the administration of misoprostol would enhance bone healing and whether concurrent administration of PBZ and misoprostol would mitigate the untoward effects of phenylbutazone. Twenty horses were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n=5 per group): Group 1 (untreated control), Group 2 (phenylbutazone alone), Group 3 (misoprostol, alone), or Group 4 (concurrent treatment with phenylbutazone and misoprostol). A 4.5-mm diameter uni-cortical bone defect was created in one metacarpal III bone of all horses. Fluorochromic bone labels were administered intravenously on Days 0, 7, and 14. Computed tomographic osteoabsorptiometry and histomorphometric analyses were performed on the harvested metacarpal bones. Phenylbutazone treatment caused a decrease in endosteal new bone formation. Administration of misoprostol appeared to mitigate the magnitude of the PBZ effect on new bone formation (endosteal in-growth, p<0.06). Bone specific alkaline phosphatase serum activity decreased throughout the 14-day period of stall confinement. Mineral apposition rates increased in all groups during the period from 7 to 14 days after bone injury. Further research is needed to determine if this effect is significant. The administration of misoprostol may be beneficial to lessen the undesired impact of phenylbutazone on bone healing in horses.
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Effect of Planting Space on Carotenoid Content and Carotenoid Profile of Two Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties

In this study, the effect of planting spacing (20, 30 and 40 cm) on the carotenoid contents and carotenoid profile of orange flesh sweet potato (OFSP) was evaluated. The carotenoid profiles of two sweet potato species, planted at different spacing distances were compared. Lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, 13-cis-β-carotene, trans-β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene and total beta carotene were all determined.
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Surveillance of Phytophthora Spp Disease on Pineapple at Specific District of Ethiopia

One of the tropical fruits with high economic value is pineapple. Smooth cayenne (smooth leaf) and Red Spanish (Rough leaf) are the two cultivars of pineapple grown in the world. They grow in the soil and resemble epiphytes in that their roots are intolerant of poor soil aeration.
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The Efficiency and Specificity of Matrix Gel Method from the Forensic Point of View, in Determination of ABO Blood Grouping and Rhesus Factor

In today’s crime investigation world determination of ABO blood grouping is still a very vital and effective precess in the field of forensic crime scenes. This investigation involves the identification of blood group, on the clothes (Accuse, Victim, injured, Complainer) collected from the scene of crime, and its cross comparision with the blood sample send by medical officer. Hence for this purpose total of 200 cases were included in the study having the samples of blood of accuse, victim, injured, complainer consisting of male and female... The determination of ABO/Rh factor was performed by conventional tube method and matrix gel card. The comparison of both techniques shows a very comparative result. As the red blood cells are sensitized with antibody will get agglutinate in the presence of anti human reagent in the matrix gel card and this will be trapped in the gel column this helps for easy analysis of blood group. However spin tube method is an operator-dependent assay, and is more susceptible to handling errors, the results are not more objective. The matrix gel card method requires Small sample volumes, and gives standardized performance with technical ease, and is with ready automation, and increased biosafety; all these factors have made this technology advantageous. In both techniques the reaction strength for ABO grouping and Rh factor is mainly govern by agglutination reaction intensity between red blood cells and anti-human reagent.
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An Insight into the Role of Spliceosomal Mutations in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

The identification of altered splicing signatures in Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) could likely provide key markers for diagnosis, prognostication and development of novel therapeutics. This review presents an insight into role of spliceosomal gene mutations in the pathogenesis of MDS, emphasizing on their clinical and prognostic significance. We also discuss emerging studies delineating the functional consequences of these mutations and pointing towards the emergence of a new leukemogenic pathway involving spliceosomal dysfunction.
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Displaced Fracture of the Proximal Humerus Causing Axillary Artery Injury and Brachial Plexus Palsy

Proximal humeral fractures account for approximately 5% of fractures seen in the emergency department. Despite this relatively high incidence only 15% of these fractures are displaced with an even smaller proportion being severely displaced enough to cause an axillary artery injury. We report a case of an elderly female patient who slipped and fell at home. She presented to our unit complaining of left shoulder pain and an inability to feel or move the involved limb. Imaging studies confirmed the presence of a severely displaced fracture of the proximal humerus and occlusion of the axillary artery. She was taken for open reduction and internal fixation of the proximal humerus followed by immediate axillary artery endovascular stenting.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Editorial Board Members Related to SP

Abdolreza Esmaeilzadeh

Assistant Professor
Department of Immunology
Cancer Gene Therapy Research Center
Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
Iran

Jiye Fang

Associate Professor
Department of Chemistry
New York State University,Binghamton
United States

Zuhair Muhi-eldeen

Professor
Department of Medicinal chemistry
Petra University
Jordan

QINGRONG HUANG

Professor
Department of Food Science
Rutgers University
United States

Mohamed Eddouks

Professor
Faculty of Sciences and Techniques Errachidia
Moulay Ismail University
Morocco

Douglas Wilson

Professor
School Medicine Pharmacy and Health
Durham University
UK

Tao Liu

Children's Cancer Institute
University of New South Wales
Australia

Rashmi Bansal

Professor
Department of Neuroscience
University of Connecticut Health Center
United States

Yu-Hsuan Joni Shao

Associate professor
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics
Taipei Medical University
Taiwan

Lili Chen

Associate Professor
Department of Radiation Oncology
Fox Chase Cancer Center
United States
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