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Availability and Knowledge of Iodized Salt at Household Level and Associated Factors at Debre Tabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia

IDDs are among the major public health problems of the world. Nearly two billion individuals worldwide and about 350 million Africans are at risk of iodine deficiency and face many risks from its deficiency and complications. Poor knowledge related to iodine diet and iodized salt utilization were some of the factors. Poor Educational status, Occupation and Sources of Information were frequently cited factors related to Knowledge on iodized salt consumption. Iodized salt is an effective and cheap method to prevent and control iodine deficiency in the community.
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Rehabilitation Providers’ Perspective on Recovery Following Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation: A Qualitative Study

Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation involves a lengthy recovery process. Rehabilitation providers have an opportunity to positively influence outcomes. To explore and describe the experiences of rehabilitation providers’ experiences during the rehabilitation process following autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and to determine what strategies they employ to improve outcomes, encourage rehabilitation adherence, and establish positive therapist-patient relationships.
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Predictive Value of ERCC1 Expression on Treatment Response to Cisplatin-Based Regimens in Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis

We aimed to determine whether the excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) expression predicts response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). This was a retrospective study, in which hospital files of 31 patients (29 males, 2 females; mean age, 62.26±7.71 years) were reviewed. All patients were treated with etoposide+cisplatin. The lung biopsy and mediastinal lymph node samples were applied anti-human monoclonal antibodies against ERCC1: immunohistochemical staining was considered positive if 25-100% of the cells showed nuclear staining, and negative if less than 25% of the cells showed negative or slight staining. Response to treatment was evaluated as regression (complete or partial response), progressive disease, or stable disease. Of the patients, 18 (58.1%) had limited-stage, and 13 (41.9%) had extensive-stage SCLC. Median follow-up duration was 15 months (range: 1-60 months). ERCC1 staining was positive in 9 of 31 patients (29.0%). In 12 patients (38.7%), tumor regression (complete or partial response) was obtained after chemotherapy. Tumor regression rate was higher in ERCC1 positive patients than those with negative ERCC1 expression (66.7% vs. 27.3%, p=0.036). In conclusion, high expression of ERCC1 was associated with higher response rate to cisplatin-based regimens in patients with SCLC.
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Hydroxyapatite Deposition Disease- Spontaneous Resolution of Significant Post Treatment Deposit

Calcific deposits are commonly seen on imaging done for other reasons. However, it can also present with periarthritis and adhesive capsulitis leading to severe disabling pain. Many theories have been proposed to explain the etiology and it is considered idiopathic by some. The management is also debatable, Barbotage being the most popular. In the majority of the cases it disappears spontaneously, requiring intervention like Barbotage and surgery only in a few cases. We present a case of a 45 year old female patient who had these calcific deposits in an unusual location of her right shoulder. These disappeared partially on conservative treatment. Subsequently, she developed severe pain in her right shoulder with restriction of all her movements. The pain was severe enough to interfere with her sleep. As a result she underwent barbotage. During the procedure an attempt was made to aspirate the calcific deposit in its entirety. This was not possible due to clogging of needle several times. There was complete resolution of pain following the procedure. However, post- procedure Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a significant residual calcification which completely resolved 02 months after therapy with no recurrence.
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Splenic Abscesses as a Complication of Urinary Tract Infection: Case Report and Literature Review

Granular cell tumor, also known as Abrikossoff tumor, is a rare lesion that arises from the nervous system. Most of these tumors are benign and only 1-2% are malignant. Although they can be found in any part of the human body, 45-65% appears in the head and neck region, mainly in the oral cavity. Here, we report 2 cases of granular cell tumor of the tongue, diagnosed by excisional biopsy. Until the present moment, both patients remain with no recurrence.
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Evaluation of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Nano-Fertilizers on Yield, Yield Components and Fiber Properties of Egyptian Cotton (Gossypium Barbadense L.)

Field experiments were carried out in Agricultural and Experimental Research Station in years 2016 and 2017 to evaluate NPK nanofertilizers application, times, methods and rates on yield and fiber properties of Egyptian cotton (Giza, 90). The experiment was laid out in a split-split-plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications.
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Effect of Planting Space on Carotenoid Content and Carotenoid Profile of Two Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties

In this study, the effect of planting spacing (20, 30 and 40 cm) on the carotenoid contents and carotenoid profile of orange flesh sweet potato (OFSP) was evaluated. The carotenoid profiles of two sweet potato species, planted at different spacing distances were compared.
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The Efficiency and Specificity of Matrix Gel Method from the Forensic Point of View, in Determination of ABO Blood Grouping and Rhesus Factor

In today’s crime investigation world determination of ABO blood grouping is still a very vital and effective precess in the field of forensic crime scenes. This investigation involves the identification of blood group, on the clothes (Accuse, Victim, injured, Complainer) collected from the scene of crime, and its cross comparision with the blood sample send by medical officer. Hence for this purpose total of 200 cases were included in the study having the samples of blood of accuse, victim, injured, complainer consisting of male and female... The determination of ABO/Rh factor was performed by conventional tube method and matrix gel card. The comparison of both techniques shows a very comparative result. As the red blood cells are sensitized with antibody will get agglutinate in the presence of anti human reagent in the matrix gel card and this will be trapped in the gel column this helps for easy analysis of blood group. However spin tube method is an operator-dependent assay, and is more susceptible to handling errors, the results are not more objective. The matrix gel card method requires Small sample volumes, and gives standardized performance with technical ease, and is with ready automation, and increased biosafety; all these factors have made this technology advantageous. In both techniques the reaction strength for ABO grouping and Rh factor is mainly govern by agglutination reaction intensity between red blood cells and anti-human reagent.
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Pharmacokinetics of a 1,000 mg Disintegrating Aspirin Tablet Formulation

Migraine is a global disorder and considerably affecting people`s quality of life. Treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-containing medicinal products among whom acetylsalicylic acid-containing Aspirin® has been proven effectively to relief migraine headache. Early treatment is recommended for patients with migraine attacks.
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Stimulation of IL-16 Release by Cells Exposed to HIV Virion Proteins

The pathogenesis and immune response to a chronic viral infection is multifaceted especially for HIV infection. The effect of HIV on the systemic immunoenvironment of the infected individual is profound and triggered by multiple stimuli. While replication competent viral infection induces a large spectrum of immune responses, such as cytokine release, we focused on what happens when cells are exposed to replication incompetent virions and their components.
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Occurrences of Dairy Calf Mortality and Morbidity and the Associated Risk Factors in Sululta and its Environs, Central Ethiopia

Calf morbidity and mortality are important causes of economic losses on dairy farms worldwide. A cross-sectional study and clinical observation was conducted from November 2016 to April 2017 with the objective of determining calf morbidity and mortality and to investigate the potential risk factors for mortality and morbidity in Sululta and its environs. A total of 312 respondents engaged in market oriented small holder dairying were interviewed using a structured questionnaire survey about their farm and calf management practices and major calf health problems encountered and diseases that causes mortality. The overall magnitude of morbidity and mortality of calves were 31.0% and 58.37%, respectively. The major calf diseases found were diarrhea (69.34%), pneumonia (16.54%), liver fluke (2.4%), bloat (2.0%), joint ill (2.4%) and other cases (8.04%). Risk factors such as weaning age, breed and awareness of colostrums, feeding of calf and overall farm management were included. In this study 80.3% of calf mortality occurs under age 3 month and 19.42% is above 3 month. Based on laboratory examination, Salmonella and E.coli were detected from diarrheic calves. Salmonella found at rate of 2/29 (3.6%) and E.coli found at only genus level. In conclusion, the magnitude of calf morbidity and mortality found in this study were much higher than economically tolerable level and could greatly affect the productivity of the dairy farms through mainly decreasing the availability of replacement stock and production of milk. It is therefore, suggested that implementation of improved calf and farm management practices and proper environmental protection in the study areas would significantly reduce calf mortality and morbidity.
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Cattle Ticks and Tick Borne Haemoparasite Species Identification and Associated Risk Factors in Two Districts of West Arsi Zone, Ethiopia

Different tick species and tick-borne diseases of cattle are present in Ethiopia and they induce huge production loss in livestock industry by creating serious animal health problems. The present study was conducted from November 2017 to April 2018 in Arsi Negele and Asasa districts of West Arsi Zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study design and purposive sampling technique were employed to select 384 study animals so as to identify ticks species and tick-haemoparasite species and also to identify risk factors that affect the prevalence and association of tick born diseases. Tick and haemoparasite identification were carried out by using drect stereomicroscopic and direct thin blood examination. The study identified two tick genera and four tick species. The tick species encountered were Rhipicephalus decoloratus (51.6%) Ambylomma variegatum (46.1%) Ambylomma gemma (20.1%) and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.2%). Out of all 384 cattle examined for the presence of tick-born haemoparasites 11.4% (n=44) of them were positive. From this 6.2%, 3.6 %, 1.3% and 0.8% of them were positive for Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale, respectively. Two cattle (0.5%) were found positive for both Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. The highest prevalence of total tick born haemoparasites (57.1%) was occurred in A. Variegatum, A. gemma and R. decoloratus mixed infestations. In conclusion ticks and tick born haemoparasitic infections were common problems in the study area. Thus, awareness creation for farmers about the impacts of ticks and tick born diseases on livestock production and productivity and also applying appropriate and timely strategic tick control methods by veterinary service providers were advisable.
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Epidemiological Profile of Congenital Cardiopathy Neonatal Revelation in Tehran

Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital disorder in newborns represents a major cause of perinatal death. The prevalence of these malformations is still unrecognized in Tunisia because of the lack of a national register. The aim of this study was describe the epidemiological and clinical aspects of the heart diseases with neonatal diagnosis in Tunisia.
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Immunohistochemical Localization of LH Receptors in Canine Splenic Hemangiosarcoma

Gonad removal has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of canine hemangiosarcoma. With gonad removal, there is a loss of negative feedback to the anterior pituitary, resulting in persistently elevated concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH). LH receptors can be found in gonadal and extragonadal tissues, including the bladder and skin. The aim of this study was to investigate if LH receptors were expressed in canine splenic hemangiosarcoma. Splenic tumor samples submitted to the Oregon State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory from referring veterinarians were with routine immunohistochemical methods. In addition, survival time following hemangiosarcoma diagnosis was obtained from the referring veterinarians. Five of the eight splenic hemangiosarcomas (62.5 %) were positive for LH receptor expression. LH receptor cellular localization in splenic hemangiosarcoma was cytoplasmic and granular, similar to the positive control canine skin sections (Figure 1C). There was no positive staining in the negative controls. LH receptor is expressed in a proportion of HSAs but further study need to be done to assess the significance of this finding.
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Adynamic Donor Ureter: A Case Report with Review of the Literature

We report a unique case of a male recipient who received a zero mismatch kidney with mild anatomical anomalies from his sister. This right kidney was malrotated, had an extra renal pelvis with moderately dilated ureter up to the iliac artery bifurcation. Immediate graft function was achieved on reperfusion, and the recipient was discharged on day 7 with a serum creatinine (SC) of 1.8mg/dl. The DJ stent was removed after 6 weeks, with a rapid increase in SC to 3.5mg/dl, and ultrasound showed mild hydronephrosis with delayed excretion on nuclear imaging. Mechanical obstruction was excluded by retrograde pyelography, and a 5F DJ stent was placed across the ureterovesical anastomosis with an immediate decrease in SC. The case is presented in detail and discussed in the light of the current literature.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Editorial Board Members Related to SP

Carmen Cabrera Viique

Professor
Department of Nutrition
University of Granada
Spain

SALEH A. NASER

Professor of Medicine and Graduate Coordinator
Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences
University of Central Florida
United States

Mirosław Kwiatkowski

AGH University of Science and Technology
Faculty of Energy and Fuels
Poland

ALI H. MOKDAD

Professor of Global Health
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME)
University of Washington
United States

Wen-Quan Zou

Associate Professor
Departments of Pathology and Neurology
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
United States

Rathnayake Mudiyanselage Dharmadasa

Senior Deputy Director
Industrial Technology Institute
Sriparakum Mawatha
Sri Lanka

Yinghao Wu

Assistant Professor
Department of Systems & Computational Biology
Yeshiva University
United States

Carmelo Romeo

Pediatric Surgeon
Department of Pediatric, Gynecological, Microbiological and Biomedical Sceinces
University of Messina
Italy

Zhonghua Sun

Associate Professor
Department of Imaging and Applied Physics
Curtin University
Australia

Mandie Jane Foster

Research Scholar
Edith Cowan University
School of Nursing and Midwifery
Australia
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